Organic Chemistry I: Biological Emphasis - Test 1/Unit 1 - Study Guide
Organic Chemistry I: Biological Emphasis - Test 1/Unit 1 - Study Guide CHEM 3053-160
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elizabeth McKitrick on Thursday May 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 3053-160 at University of Oklahoma taught by Mr. J Garrett in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 119 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry: Biological Emphasis I in Chemistry at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 05/26/16
Organic Chemistry I: Biological Emphasis Unit 1 Test Study Guide Chapter 1 1.) Molecules with the same chemical formula, but different structures are called what? 2.) What kind of bond forms when 2 atoms share a pair of electrons? 3.) What says that each element can form a predictable number of bonds based on its valence? 4.) What is the formula to determine formal charge? 5.) What is the measure of the ability of an atom to attract electrons? 6.) What bond will form if the electronegativity difference between two atoms is between 0 and .5? 7.) What bond will form if the electronegativity difference between two atoms is between .5 and 1.7? 8.) What bond will form if the electronegativity difference between two atoms is 1.7 or greater? 9.) What is the electronegativity for an atom of the following elements? Li Be B C N O F Na Mg Al Si P S Cl 10.) How many bonds will each of the following elements usually form, and what is the name for that number of bonds? C N O H (or any halogen) 11.) Name the halogens. 12.) What says that the lowest energy orbitals should be filled first? 13.) What says that each orbital can only hold 2 electrons and that they must have opposite spin? 14.) What is the name for orbitals that have the same energy levels, and which ones have we learned so far? 15.) What says that degenerate orbitals should each get one electron before they start getting pairs? 15.) What is it called when orbitals degenerate in order to equalize their energy levels? 16.) What kinds of bond is a “single bond”? 17.) What kind of bond(s) does a “double bond” have? 18.) What kind of bond(s) does a “triple bond” have? 19.) What is the bond length and energy of each of the bonds (single, double, and triple)? 20.) How is the steric number calculated? 21.) Complete the following table. Steric number 4 3 2 Hybridization 3 2 sp sp sp Bond angle 0 lone pairs 1 lone geometry pair 2 lone pairs 22.) What is mu (μ) and how is it calculated? (Define all symbols in the formula) 23.) What are the 3 types of intermolecular forces? 24.) What is the most important rule of solubility? Chapter 2 1.) List the 5 ways a molecule can be written or drawn along with the major differences of each. 2.) Which of the two types of bonds, sigma (σ) and pi (π), can be rotated and which cannot? 3.) Draw a bond line structure for each of the following functional groups: 1-alkane 2-Alkyl Halide 3-Alkene 4-Alkyne 5-Alcohol 6-Epoxide 7-Ether 8-Thiol 9-Sulfide 10-Aromatic or Arene 11-Keytone 12-Aldehyde 13-Imine 14-Carboxylic Acid 15-Acyl Halide 16-Anhydride 17-Ester 18-Amide 19-Ethylacetate 20-Dimethylformide (DMF) 21-Amine 4.) What is the simplest carboxylic acid and what “R” group makes this molecule? 5.) What “R” group makes acetic acid when connected to carboxylic acid? 6.) Would the following atoms prefer to be positive, negative, or neutral when in a molecule? Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen 7.) What is it called when a charge is spread out across part of a molecule? Is this more or less stable than a “stationary” charge? 8.) What are the 3 main rules when drawing resonance structures? 9.) What 5 patterns in molecules commonly make resonance structures? (Draw an example of each) Chapter 3 1.) Bronsted-Lowry acid or base? Proton donor- Proton acceptor- 2.) What is used to describe how easily (or not) a molecule is willing to give up a proton? 3.) What constant is used to measure the strength of an acid? What is its range? 4.) How do we go from the previous constant to pKa? What is the range of pKa? 5.) Do strong acids/weak bases have a higher or lower pKa? What about weak acids/strong bases? 6.) Write the pKa and draw a bond line structure of each of the following molecules: Phenols: Sulfuric Acid: Acetic Acid: Dikeytones: Ethanol: Ammonia: (or any primary alcohol) (or an amine) Hydrochloric Acid: Alkanes: Tertiary Alcohols: Alkynes: Keytones: Ammonium ions: Acetone: Hydronium ion: (or any protonated keytone) Alkens: Water (or the hydroxide ion) 7.) Will a reaction favor the side with a weaker or stronger acid? 8.) What are the 4 main factors that determine stability? (And what is the mnemonic used to remember them?) 9.) What is the term that describes how closely an orbital holds its electron density? 10.) What is it called when a solvent creates competition with a reactant to either accept or donate a proton? 11.) What is the oppositely charged species that always accompanies a charged species? Are they always written into a chemical reaction? 12.) Lewis Acid or Base? Electron pair donor- Electron pair acceptor- Chapter 4 1.) What is the longest carbon chain in a complex molecule called? 2.) What are any groups connected to this chain called? 3.) Name the numeral prefixes for numbers 1-10 used for parent chains and substituents. 4.) What suffix ending is used when naming an alkane parent chain? What about for an alkane substituent? 5.) What suffix is used when naming a carbon ring? 6.) What 4 steps should be taken when naming a complex molecule? 7.) What 3 steps should be taken when naming a bicyclic compound? 8.) What is the term used to describe different isomers with the same molecular formula, but different structures due to the rotation of a central sigma bond? 9.) What is the name for the angle between the back and front “R” groups in a Newman projection? 10.) What are the two main conformations of ethanol? What are the dihedral angles for each? What is the energy for each? Which one is more stable and therefore, more common? 11.) Name and describe each of the 4 main conformations of butane. What are their energies? Which one is the most stable? 12.) What term describes the “bulkiness” of a certain molecule or conformation? 13.) What term describes the difference in potential energy of different conformations of a molecule? 14.) How many carbons are there in a cyclopropane carbon ring? How many conformations does it have? Is it stable? Why or why not? 15.) What is used to describe when a carbon ring is not planar in order to reduce torsional strain? Which molecule has more of this factor, cyclobutane or cyclopentane? 16.) What bond angle would a planar cyclohexane have? What is its actual bond angle? 17.) What are the 4 main conformations of cyclohexane? Draw a bond line structure for each. What is the energy of each? Which is the most stable? 18.) In cyclohexane, are axial positions vertical or horizontal? What about equatorial? Which position is more stable? 19.) In cyclohexane, should more, larger “R” groups lie in the equatorial or axial positions in order to stabilize the molecule? 20.) Draw a bond line structure for each of the following substituents: 1-propyl 2-isopropyl (or 1methylethyl) 3-butyl 4-secbutyl 5-isobutyl 6- tertiary butyl (or tertbutyl or tbutyl) 7-isopentyl 8-neopentyl
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