JOUR 331 Quiz #3 Study Guide
JOUR 331 Quiz #3 Study Guide JOUR 331
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Notetaker on Thursday May 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to JOUR 331 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Ellen Curtis in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Contemporary Advertising in Journalism Core at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 05/26/16
JOUR 331-01 Ellen Curtis Quiz #3 Study Guide Media Basics What do we mean by media? o Media: the way messages are delivered to target audiences and, increasingly, back to companies, as well as among audience members themselves o Media make up the channel step in the communication model, conveying the message and connecting the source and receiver, that is, the company or brand and its customers Traditional mass media: a one-way process from the source to the receiver Interactive media: it’s interactive because it offers opportunities for dialogue and two-way conversation Interactive communication is a hallmark of IMC programs that aim to build brand relationships, which is why this expanded view of media is so important to IMC planners Media as the creative idea o The nature of creative ideas has changed with the development of new, more engaging media o The way the message is delivered demonstrates creativity in the use of media as much as it does in the design of the message Media Lingo o Media engagement The closeness of fit between the interest of viewers and the relevance of the media content o Measured media Measured media refers to the ability of media planners to analyze the cost of a media buy relative to the size of the medium’s audience o Niche media Niche media are communication channels through which messages are sent to niche segments – identifiable groups of people with a distinct common interest, such as El Nuevo Herald or Advertising Age o Addressable Media Addressable media includes the internet, mail, and the telephone because they are used to send brand messages to specific geographic and electronic addresses o Interactive media Allow conversations between companies and customers, as well as between and among customers Examples include the phone and online social media, forums and blogs o Paid Media The traditional measured media Examples: print and broadcast, where ad placements are bought by the company or organization These established media channels are distinctive in that the advertising spending on them, as well as the size of their audiences is tracked by media research services o Owned media Channels that are controlled by the organization and that carry branded content Websites, direct mail e-mail lists, Facebook sites, blogs, public relations publications, and catalogs, along with other forms o Earned media Channels where brand communication is spread by outsiders Examples: Publicity (hits and mentions in the news media) Word of mouth (email, texting, buzz, and viral communications, business-to-consumer-to consumer influence Social media (Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn) Interest sharing (You-Tube, Pinterest, Tumblr, Instagram, and social games) Media players o Media salespeople work for a specific vehicle with the objective of building the best possible argument to convince media planners to use the medium they represent o Media brokers are people (or companies) that sell space (in print) and time (in broadcast) for a variety of media o Media researchers compile audience measurement data, media costs, and availability data for the various media options being considered by the planners o Media planners develop the media plan, such as where to advertise geographically, when to advertise, and which type of media to use to reach specific types of audiences o Media buyers implement the media plan by contracting for specific amounts of time or space. They spend the media budget according to the plan developed by the media planner o Media buying companies are independent companies that specialize in doing media research, planning, and buying Media strategy fundamentals o The media planning The goal of media planning is to maximize impact while minimizing cost o Media mix The way various types of media are strategically combined to create a certain kind of impact o Target audiences A media plan matches the advertiser’s target audience with the audience of a particular medium o Media buying Decisions about which media to use are based on the profile of the audience that reads, views, listens, or visits a medium Media terms o Exposure: a rough estimate of the number of households watching a program or reading a publication Exposure does not equate to readership or viewership; just because the television is on does not mean anyone is paying attention to it o Circulation: refers to publications sold o Impressions: one person’s opportunity to be exposed one time to an ad in a specific vehicle Impressions can be added up as a measure of the size of the audience either for one medium or for a combination of vehicles in a media mix o Gross impressions Circulation x readers or viewers = impressions Impressions x #ads = gross impressions A magazine with 1 million circulations is read on average by 2.5 people per issue = 2.5 million impressions. If the ad ran in three consecutive issues, then the estimate of total gross impressions, would be 7.5 million (2.5 million impressions x 3) o Ratings Gross impression figures become very large and difficult to work with, so TV and radio industries use ratings (% of exposure) – the raw figure to a percentage of households A television show that has a rating of 20 that means 20%, or 1/5 of all the households with television were tuned in to that program. Planners describe this program as having 20 rating points. The Super Bowl rating Has a rating of 49 49% of households were watching the Super Bowl or 114.4 million people o Share Share of audience: the % of viewers based on the number of sets turned on The share figure is always larger than the rating because it is counting viewers not households The Super Bowl has a share of 73 73% of all viewers in households were watching or 114.4 million people o Reach: the % of the media audience exposed at least once to the advertiser’s message during a specific time frame o Frequency: the number of times a person is exposed to the advertisement o Reach and frequency sweet spot – a viewer has to hear or see something three times before it makes an impact o Media plan goal: to reach as many people in the target audience as often as the budget allows Most media plans state both reach and frequency objectives and the media mix is designed to accomplish both of those goals o Intrusiveness: the ability of a medium to grab attention by being disruptive or unexpected, is the primary strategy for countering clutter The more intrusive a medium, the more it can be personalized, but the more costly it is to use The most intrusive medium is personal selling because the sales representative’s presence demands attention The least intrusive media are print because users choose when and to what extent to use them Changing patters of media use o Media use trends Consumer control: consumers are much more in control of their own media and designing their own media landscapes, from video games to Twitter Media Driven Lives: A major change in media use is the increase in media-driven lives and media multi-tasking. Media Multitasking: People not only spend more time with media but also use more than one medium at a time Social Media: Traditionally most media involved a solitary experience –but this has truly been transformed by social media.) o Other media Product Placement: A brand appears in a television program, movie, or even in print as a prop. Advertainment or Branded Entertainment: The use of the media of entertainment to engage consumers with brands (influencer marketing) Search engine advertising: driven by the key words that consumers use in their search for information or entertainment Mobile advertising: Reach consumers with a promotional message when they are in a specific location. Media Planning How are media plans created? o Media planners are in the connection business o They connect brand messages with customers and other stakeholders o They identify and activate the points of contact where brand messages touch consumers and engage their interest Media planning research o Media engagement research Media costs are often the biggest element in the marketing communication budget If the right media aren’t in play, no matter how great the message, nobody sees or hears it Media sources Client information Market research Competitive advertising expenditures Media kits Media coverage area Consumer behavior reports Newspaper readership Audit Bureau of Circulations: an independent auditing group that represents advertisers, agencies, and publishers Simmons-Scarborough: provides a syndicated study that annually measures profiles in 70 of the nation’s largest cities Magazine readership Magazine rates are based on the guaranteed circulation that a publisher promises to provide Magazine circulation is the number of copies of an issue sold, not the readership of the publication Several companies verify the circulation of magazines, along with the demographic and psychographic characteristics of specific readers The radio audience The radio industry and independent research firms provide several measures for advertisers, including a station’s coverage A better measure is station or program ratings, which measure the percent of homes actually tuned in to the particular station The Arbitron Ratings Company estimates the size of radio audiences for more than 250 markets in the US The television audience A great number of advertisers consider television their primary medium Television viewers are sometimes irritated by the intrusiveness of advertising and will often switch channels or zip through commercials A. C. Nielsen is the research company that dominates the television measurement industry Exposure is television’s equivalent to circulation It measures households with sets turned on, or households using television An impression is one person’s opportunity to be exposed one time to an ad We add all of these impressions up and call them gross impressions Gross impression figures become very large and difficult to work with, which is why the television industry, similar to radio, uses ratings Share of audience refers to the percent of viewers based on the number of sets turned on during a specific broadcast period Independent rating firms (A. C. Nielsen) provide the most commonly used measure of national and local television audiences Outdoor viewership The outdoor advertiser is interested in the percentage of the population who, within a 24-hour period, is exposed one or more boards carrying the brand message. Traditionally outdoor boards have been purchased and measured in terms of showings, or estimates of the percentages of the population who had the opportunity to see the sign. Online audiences Media planners are interested in estimates of: o the number of visits to a website o how much time was spent on the site o New and repeat visitors Ad buying services and the sites themselves can provide more sophisticated analytics. Key steps in a media plan o The media plan: a written document that summarizes objectives and strategies that guide how media dollars will be spent o The goal – to find the most efficient and effective ways to deliver messages to a targeted audience o Media plans are designed to answer: Who (target audience) What for (objectives) Where (the media vehicles used) Where (geography) When (time frame) How big (media weight) At what cost (cost efficiency) Step 1: Define your target audience o The idea is to select media vehicles that: Are compatible with the creative executions Whose audiences best match those of the brand’s target audience o The tighter the focus on a target market, the easier it is to find appropriate media to deliver a relevant message Step 2: Communication and media objectives o Media objectives describe what a company wants to accomplish regarding the delivery of its brand messages and their impact on the target audience. o The reach objective Reach is the percent of different people exposed to the message. Targeted reach is the percentage of a vehicle’s audience that matches the brand’s target market. Wasted reach is the number of people in the vehicle’s audience who are neither customers nor prospects. o The frequency objective Frequency: the repetition of message exposure. Planners often use a frequency distribution model that shows the percentage of audience reached at each level of repetition. o Effective frequency Add frequency to reach until you get to the level where people respond. o Media waste When additional media weight ceases to increase the response, it produces waste. o Writing media objectives Objectives must be measureable with time frames. You can seldom reach 100 percent of your target audience. At times, frequency is more important than reach. Step 3: Media Strategies o Media strategy is the way media planners determine the most cost-effective way to reach the target audience and satisfy media objectives. o This involves decisions and tools that help identify the best way to deliver the brand message. o Regardless of the budget, the goal is to reach the right people at the right time with the right message. o Media mix selection: Most brands use a variety of targeted media vehicles, called a media mix, to reach current and potential customers. Using a media mix distributes the message more widely; media has different audience profiles. Ask yourself: What media will deliver what effects? Can I reinforce and extend those effects with a mix of media? o Scheduling strategies Aperture: refers to when consumers are most receptive to a brand message. The goal is to reach the right people at the right time with the right message o Timing strategies: When to advertise? Seasonality, holidays, days of the week, time of day. Lead time: time between thinking about purchase and purchasing. o Duration: How long? If the period is too short, the message may not have sufficient impact. If the period is too long, the ads may suffer from wearout. o Continuity: How often? Refers to how advertising is spread out over the campaign. A continuous strategy spreads ads evenly over campaign period. o Pulsing strategy Advertising is intensified (peaks) before an aperture and reduced to lower levels (valleys) until the aperture reopens; bursts of activity. o Flighting strategy Alternating periods of intense advertising activity (bursts) and no advertising (hiatus). Size and position strategies Based on advertising objectives Correct message size and length must be determined for each medium o Size and position strategies Based on advertising objectives Correct message size and length must be determined for each medium. o Media weighting Demographic market area How much to budget in each DMA or region and for each target group. Used with seasonality, geography, audience segments, or level of brand development by DMA Step 4: Media metrics and analysis o Media plans are driven by accountability o Media departments are no place for guessing. With millions – even tens of millions – of dollars at stake, clients want hard data showing what their budgets are being well spent. o GRPs (gross rating points) are found by multiplying each media vehicle’s rating by the number of insertions, then adding up the total of all vehicles. o TRPs (target rating points) adjusts the GRP calculation so it more accurately reflects the percentage of the target audience watching the program, thus reducing waste coverage Cost efficiency o Advertising decisions often come down to cold, hard cash o Planners use CPM, TCPM, and CPP to measure a target audience’s size against the cost of reaching that audience o CPM: cost per thousand An estimate of the cost to expose 1,000 audience members. CPM = cost of ad x 1,000/readership. o TCPM: Targeted cost per thousand An estimate of the cost to expose 1,000 target audience members TCPM = cost of ad x 1,000/readers in target audience o CPP: Cost per point Comparing media vehicles by relating the cost of the message to the audience rating. CPP = cost of ad/program or issue rating o Media optimization: A computer technique that enables marketers to determine the relative impact of a media mix on product sales, and to optimize efficiency Media planners must be careful not to overload and irritate consumers Media negotiation and buying o Media buying basics Media buying is a complicated process The American Association of Advertising Agencies lists 21 elements of a media buy The most important one is matching the media vehicle to the strategic needs of the message and the brand Key media buyer activities: Provide inside information to media planners Select media vehicles Negotiate costs Bargain for preferred positions Demand extra support offers Monitor performance Post-campaign evaluation Monitor billing and payment The physical characteristics of a magazine can affect its ability to deliver the desired message (V8 ad) Multichannel buying (and selling) A number of media services can be used to ease the task of multichannel media buying Newspaper buying is simplified through companies that place advertising in papers nationwide In the digital world, DoubleClick’s DART for Advertisers (DART) service helps manage display A cross-media buy can be simplified by media companies that manage multiple vehicles Media planning and buying trends The media landscape is dynamic and changing fast. It is hard to keep track of how the media business is practiced Unbundling Media Planning and Buying o Agency media departments have become separate, independent profit centers and can work for the agencies’ competition, and compete with agencies o Some media companies offer consolidated services, bringing some of the planning and buying functions back together Online media buying o Google and Facebook dominate media buying and selling o Ad exchanges: digital marketplaces that enable advertisers and publishers to buy and sell advertising space, often through real-time auctions. They’re most often used to sell display, video and mobile ad inventory o Programmatic advertising: placed using artificial intelligence (AI) and real-time bidding (RTB) for online display, social media advertising, mobile and video campaigns, and is expanding to traditional TV advertising marketplaces New forms of media research o Online media research (hits and clicks) don’t measure impact o Traditional media monitoring systems don’t address the new ways media is used and systems like TiVo and interactive TV o Viral media is equally difficult to measure o Most media research measures independent media, not the effectiveness of combined media Metrics Test, Measure, Monitor (circular flow) Offline Metrics o Positive post-campaign measures: Brand awareness Knowledge of what the brand offers Brand affinity Intent to purchase Recall Impressions o Single source data Test commercials are delivered to a select group of households within a market to compare changes in behavior to a control group of households o Memory tests Recall test Aided and unaided o Inquiry tests 800 number Email Coupon redemption Contest entry Web visit Online measurement o Impressions o Completion rate o Clicks o Likes o Visits o Followers o Time on site o Comments o Conversion rates o Shares o Cost per lead o RTs o Sentiment o Re-pins o Up-votes o Re-grams o Screenshots o
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