PSC 1 Midterm 4 Study Guide
PSC 1 Midterm 4 Study Guide PSC 1
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayla Dillard on Friday May 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSC 1 at University of California - Davis taught by Dr. Simonton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 103 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of California - Davis.
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Date Created: 05/27/16
5/16/16 Biological Psychology The Brain • cerebrospinal fluid—fluid the brain floats in inside the skull • protects the brain • brain has two hemispheres that are symmetrical • you use 100% of the brain almost all the time—no right brain or left brain personalities The Neuron • cells that communicate info within the nervous system • cell body—regulates neural function and contains the nucleus • dendrites receive info from outside the neuron • axons send signals from the neuron to neighboring cells synapses are connection points between neurons • Action potentials • resting potential—default voltage of a neuron without stimulation • action potential—electrical signal sent out from a neuron along its axon • refractory period—short period of time after a neuron fires before it can fire again Synaptic Cleft • synapse or synaptic cleft is the gap between one neuron’s axon and the next neurons dendrite • neurotransmitters are released into the synapse following an action potential • neurotransmitters then bind to receptors on the post-synaptic membrane Neurotransmitters • glutamate—very common excitatory neurotransmitter • increases the firing of post-synaptic neurons • GABA—an inhibitory neurotransmitter • decreases the firing of post-synaptic neurons • anadamide—appetite and pain (activated by THC, active ingredient in marijuana) • endorphins—neuropeptide that reduces pain (activated by opioid drugs like heroine and codeine) • monoamine neurotransmitters: • serotonin—mood, aggression, sleep • norepinephrine—arousal, mood, hunger • dopamine—involved in goal-directed behavior and reward • dopamine and reward: • all animals including humans can be trained to repeat an action if it is consistently followed by an increase in dopamine levels • prolonged use of stimulant drugs reduces the number of dopamine receptors in the brain • agonist—activates a receptor • antagonist—blocks a receptor Glial Cells—the “Glue” • astrocytes—star shaped cells that connect directly to neurons • help create the blood-brain barrier that separates the spine and brain from the blood stream • oligodendrocytes—attach to axons creating a myelin sheath which speeds up action potentials Neural Development • neural plasticity—the ability of a nervous system to change its structure in response to external stimuli • Neurogenesis—neurons divide and migrate to different brain regions • synaptogenesis—neurons generate synapses and axons to connect with one another pruning—the brain prunes (destroys) excess synapses and neurons that are not useful or • functional • myelination—important connections are myelinated to speed up neural transmissions 5/17/16 Central Nervous System • cerebral cortex—outer folds, important in higher cognition • frontal lobe—abstract reasoning, planning and inhibition • parietal lobe—upper rear pat of the cortex, processes locations of objects, attention and movement in space • occipital lobe—back of brain, processes visual info • temporal lobe—important in memory, language, and identifying objects • limbic system—“old” brain • basal ganglia—movement, planning Measuring BrainActivity • fMRI 5/18/16 Sensation and Perception • sensation—detection and transmission of sensory info as its coming into the brain • perception—how our mind organizes sensory info to build a model of the world • distal stimulus—object in the world that we are trying to perceive • proximal stimulus—sensory signal available to the observer • transduction—how the stimulus every transformed by sensory receptors into neural impulses How do we measure perception? • psychophysics—studying the link between external stimuli and internal psychological experiences • absolute threshold—lowest intensity stimulus that can be reliably detected 50% of the time • just noticeable difference (JND)—smallest change required before you can detect a difference between two stimuli Weber’s Law • the JND for a stimulus is not constant SensoryAdaptation adaptation—a reduction in sensory response to a continuous, unchanging stimulus • • ex: adapting to constant hum of air conditioning Visual Perception • need to know all the parts of the eye! • visible light—electromagnetic energy with a wavelength of 400-700nm • additive color mixing—(think cellphones) combining red, gree, and blue light can produce all the colors we can perceive • subtractive color mixing—(think printers) pigments absorb different wavelengths of light, reflecting back the perceived color Visual Transduction • retina—thin membrane at the back of the eye that contains photoreceptors (rods and cones) • rods—more numerous, show lower acuity, no color, critical for vision in dim light • cones—fewer, responsible fro color vision and high acuity vision in the fovea (middle of the retina?) • Ishihara test can test for colorblindness (one type of cone is missing or has the wrong color sensitivity, much more common in males than females) • myopia—nearsighted • hyperopia—farsighted • accommodation—ciliary muscles change the shape of the lens to focus near/far objects onto the retina Visual Impairments • blight sight—reports a complete absence of vision (cortical blindness), but can still correctly guess the presence of color or motion • prosopagnosia—normal visual acuity but is unable to recognize face, even friends and loved ones • visual agnosia—normal visual acuity but cannot recognize common objects by sight 5/19/16 Auditory Perception • sound—mechanical vibration traveling through a medium like water or air (not in space) • frequency—number of “pulses” per second, determines pitch • amplitude—amount of displacement, determines loudness (measured in decibels) Auditory Impairments • tinnitus—persistent tones or ringing in the ears, can be debilitating • conductive hearing loss—mechanical issue that obstructs hearing (ex. ear wax) • sensorineural hearing loss—damage to the auditory nerve or cells in the cochlea (can sometimes be corrected with cochlear implant) Touch • free nerve endings—heat, cold, itch, pain • mechanoreceptors—sensitive to mechanical changes in the skin surface • merkel disk—pressure • messier corpuscle—flutter • ruffini ending—stretch • pacinian corpuscle—vibrator Touch Sensitivity • two-point touch threshold—most sensitive on lips and fingertips, least sensitive on lower back Pain • unpleasant or distressing sensation caused by an intense or potentially damaging stimulus • nociceptive pain—firing of pain receptors n the skin • pathological pain—typically chronic pain, can be very difficult to treat • endogenous opiods—naturally produced chemicals that can block pain, mimicked by opiate drugs like oxytocin or heroin • endorphins—naturally produced chemicals that can block pain, mimicked by opiate drugs like oxycontin or heroine Proprioception • “6th sense” • touch fingers together with eyes closed • receptors: muscle spindle and golgi tendon Touch Disorders • Christina the “disembodied woman” would collapse after closing her eyes • Phantom Limb syndrome—loss of limb results in “phantom sensations” of itching or pain (mirror therapy can help reduce symptoms • congenital insensitivity to pain—cannot experience pain, usually die before age 3 The Vestibular Sense • semicircular canals—provide info about rotation of our head in space • hair cells detect the movement of fluid • vertigo—improper feedback from vestibular senses (10% of population) • motion sickness—mismatch between visual and vestibule input Taste • taste buds carry receptors for dissolved ions in solution (2,000-5,000 buds, 100 receptors each) • sweet, salty, sour, bitter, umami (found in meaty foods, fermented foods, tomatoes and parmesan) supertasters—people with a different genetic makeup have different numbers of taste • receptors and are more or less sensitive, particularly to bitter tastes • miracle fruit—changes the shape of taste receptors so sour tastes sweet 5/23/16 Taste • smell combined with taste create flavor of food Smell • sense of smell is triggered when odorants enter the sinuses and make contact with receptors in the olfactory epithelium, which sends signals to the olfactory bulb in the brain • lock and key model—each odorant must fit into a particular receptor Pheromones—behaviorally relevant chemical odorants the animals use to communicate detected with the vomeronasal organ • • humans can distinguish the smells of their direct family members (not partners or step siblings though) • women have more sensitive sense of smell than men McGurk effect—when visual information changes what we hear • “watch these videos because they may come up on the test” Language and Cognition Theories of Decision making • normative theories—focus on how people should rationally make decisions in order to reach optimal outcomes • descriptive theories—focus on how people actually make decisions Fast and Frugal Decisions • heuristics—quick and easy, mental shortcuts for solving a problem • ‘thin slicing”—when experts can make accurate judgements based on little info • availability heuristic—when we estimate how likely something is based on how easy it is to retrieve examples from memory Cognitive Biases Cognitive Bias—systematic deviation from rational decision making that leads to an error • • Base Rate Fallacy—tendency to ignore “base rate” info when making decisions • Anchoring Effect—relying too heavily on the first piece of info available, even when it’s irrelevant • Decoy Effect—(Paris vs Rome example) 5/24/16 Language http://www.radiolab.org/story/91725-words/ Building Blocks of Language • phonemes—the “sounds” of language • morphemes—smallest units of meaning • words (cat), suffixes (-ing), prefixes (re-) • semantics—meaning of words and sentences • arbitrary mapping between words and meanings • syntax—grammatical rules for combining words and phrases • different sets of rules across language • prosody—tone and pitch of speech sarcasm, emphasis, emotion • Acquiring language • B.F. Skinner said children learn language through operant conditioning • Noam Chomsky said language leaning ability is innate, language is productive, poverty of the stimulus, language acquisition device • speech segmentation problem—before we’ve learned a language there’s no easy way to determine when one word ends and the other begins • statistical learning—young babies gradually learn the transitional probabilities between phonemes, to find the gaps between words • children make overgeneralization errors, where they over-apply a grammatical rule to exception words (“he throwed it”) Language in the Brain • semantic violations • the pizza was way to hot to eat/marry • N400—a brain response triggered when we process a meaningful word • large for anomalous words, small to predictable words 5/25/16 • syntactic violations • P600—a brain component triggered after detecting a syntactic error • word order violations (we liked his about song the truck) • agreement violations (the boy kick the ball) • aphasia—language disorder that results in defeats in language comprehension or production • Broca’s aphasia—speaking difficulties • Wernicke’s aphasia—comprehension difficulties Language and Thought • Sapir-Whorf hyposthesis—the structure of a language greatly influences the thoughts and behaviors of a group of people • “Left of the blue wall” experiment: • after being spun aroud, rats and 3-4 year old children can’t find the cookie that they saw to the left of the blue wall • adults and 5-6 year old children can, but not when they are prevented from using language during the task using verbal shadowing • Nicaraguan Sign Language • pidgin—simplified language shared between people with very different language backgrounds—little to no formalized syntax creole—stable, natural language which develops from a pidgin, addition of syntax by a • new generation of speakers learning from a young age • Bilingualism • generally people process their two languages in the same regions of the brain, but additional activity is recruited for a weaker, L2 language 5/26/16 Consciousness Mystery of Sleep • adaptive theory—nighttime is dangerous, so we evolved to stay quiet and hidden at night to stay safe • energy conservation theory—reduces calories burned • restorative theory—the brain glyphatic system allows CSF (Cerebral Spinal Fluid) to rush between neurons and flush out toxins • memory consolidation theory—the mind replays previous events and “practices” for upcoming events to strengthen memories • patterns of EEG brain waves shift across sleep stages; 4 stages repeat in sleep cycles Sleep Problems • sleep debt—after an all-nighter, you need more sleep the next night (not consistent with adaptive theory) • insomnia—chronic trouble falling or staying asleep, psychotherapy as effective as sleeping pills • narcolepsy—intense daytime sleepiness, often with cataplexy (sudden loss of muscle tone) • sleep apnea—breathing is obstructed during the night (wake 100+ times), causing poor sleep and restricted oxygen—> cognitive health problems Psychoactive Substances • anxioltics—anxiety inhibits • stimulants—increased CNS activity, reduced need for food and sleep • depressants—decreased CNS activity, sleepiness, impaired concentration • opiates—euphoria and analgesia • hallucinogens—distorted sense of time, hallucinations Contraindications • drug interactions—potentially harmful interactions between two drugs taken at the same time (additive or synergistic) • respiratory depression—deadly • tolerance—diminishing effect of a drug over time • dependance—result of neural adaptation to a drug • withdrawal symptoms—negative symptoms that occur after stopping use • substance abuse disorders have genetic origins and run in families • “drug addiction is a brain disease…”
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