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CDFR 3306 Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Victoria Baumann

CDFR 3306 Exam 2 Study Guide CDFR 3306

Marketplace > East Carolina University > Child Development > CDFR 3306 > CDFR 3306 Exam 2 Study Guide
Victoria Baumann
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COMPLETED Covering chapters 5-7, 10
Guiding Children's Behavior
Dr. Hedge
Study Guide
child development
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Victoria Baumann on Monday May 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CDFR 3306 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Hedge in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Guiding Children's Behavior in Child Development at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 05/30/16
Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 5: Planning Programs that Prevent Discipline Problems What is active involvement? Active hands-on learning, offering actual experiences with real things, engages children productively and therefore minimizes behavior problems  Promotes reasoning as well as academic and social problem-solving abilities  Making learning more memorable and meaningful Leaving the group, talking out of turn, interrupting, and potentially having conflicts with other children are ways in which children show adults that the lesson is not meeting their needs Recognition of objects and memory is enhanced though multisensory exposure, so when children are actively engaged, they are not only more likely to understand but also much more likely to retain what they learn What is Project Approach, parts to Project Approach? An integrated curriculum gives a context for learning, and therefore makes learning more meaningful, as is recommended by the curricular guidelines  Linked to motivation and engagement  effective took for preventing discipline problems relating to a lack of interest, off-task behaviors, or under- or over- challenging expectations Themes and project work are approached to integrating the curriculum. They offer teachers an alternative to organizing a curriculum focused on disconnected pieces of information and isolated drills in basic skills Themes and project work  Offer teachers an alternative to organizing a curriculum focused on disconnected pieces of information and isolated drills in basic skills  Teach-selected themes – offers possibilities for a variety of teacher-selected activities related to the topic Theme approach may not be compelling to the children as a project that emerges from their own interests  Projects are guided by children’s interest in real-world phenomena that they are trying to understand, and therefore tend to have immediate applicability to children’s lives (Helm & Katz, 2011) Integrated curriculum allows children to practice skills in multiple subjects; reading, writing, math, as they explore topics on interests Correlated curriculum – activities that involve a topic but don’t help the children learn about the topic  Children might get misinformation from correlated curriculum (ex. rocks p. 113) Understand the concept of physical, social, and logico mathematical knowledge Types of knowledge: refer to the ways in which children acquire understanding  Children learn physical knowledge by doing; social knowledge by being told or shown; and logical-mathematical knowledge through reasoning Piaget (1970) empirical or physical knowledge is derived from our engagement with objects in the world  Learning through the senses  Involves the observation of changes cause by the way one object acts on another – only acquired through the direct action on objects Social Knowledge (cultural knowledge): it is the knowledge shared among members of a group and differs based on the group’s language, norms, and customs  Passed from person to person  Is arbitrary and can vary from one culture to another Logico-mathematical knowledge: our ability to reason about the relationship between objects and actions and the rules or theories we generate about both  Provides the framework for classifying – and therefore making sense of – any information  Physical knowledge and social knowledge are used in the construction of logico- mathematical knowledge, and vice versa Teachers must ensure opportunities for experimentation and reflection (thinking to make sense of experiences) with content related to all types of knowledge Be sure to understand what is DAP and DIP Developmentally inappropriate practices  stressful child Children in programs that are developmentally appropriate demonstrate higher levels of social skills than children in other kinds of programs  Children in a classroom where the teacher used developmentally inappropriate guidance strategies shows a decrease in positive social behaviors  Children in a classroom where the teacher used developmentally appropriate guidance shows an increase in positive social behaviors Poor social conditions, isolation, or social “defeat” are correlated with fewer brain cells The National Associated for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) and the National Association for Early Childhood Specialists in State Departments of Education (NAECS/SDE)  Provide curriculum guidelines for preschool and primary-grade children The Association of Childhood Education International (ACEI)  Provides guidelines on the role of motivation in children’s learning and effective teaching practices that promote motivation and interest in learning PLAY should be child-initiated, child-directed, and teach supported Curriculum for DAP a. Covers emotional, social, intellectual, physical b. Based on observing and evaluation of each child c. Learning is an interactive process with adults, children, and materials d. Activities should be Concrete, Real, and Relevant e. Programs provide for the needs of unusual skills and interests (projects) f. Variety of activities and materials to challenge child g. Opportunities to choose from a variety of activities, materials, and equipment with time to explore through active involvement h. Balance of rest and active movement throughout the day i. Multi-cultural and nonsexist experiences, materials, and equipment Qualities of a DAP teacher a. Respond quickly to children’s needs, desires, and messages and adapt to each child’s differing styles and abilities b. Provide many varied opportunities for children to communicate c. Facilitate a child’s successful completion of tasks by providing support, focused attention, physical proximity and verbal encouragement. Children learn by trial and error. d. Alert to signs of stress and know appropriate stress reducing activities e. Facilitate self-esteem by respecting accepting and comforting child, regardless of behavior f. Facilitate development of self-control in children g. Allow of increasing independence as child acquires skills Relations between Home and School a. Parents share in any decisions made about child b. Teachers share knowledge with parents c. Teachers share development information about child’s progress Evaluation of children a. Decisions made on more than one evaluation b. Evaluation used to identify specific needs and risks c. Evaluation used only on normative information. Not only age-matches, but also gender, culture, and socio grouped d. Each child should be placed according to developmental age Review from the book Models of violence and Working with families to combat media violence Violence in television, music, video games, and movies can make children more aggressive, fearful, disrespectful, and insensitive to the effects of violence  Significant influence – how much child spends watching tv or playing video games  Children who watch violence often bring it into their play Create class guidelines about violence and safety in the classroom  When violent play arises, teachers have a great opportunity to help children learn from what they have seen  When children imitate their favorite superheroes, we can use these opportunities to discuss fantasy versus reality, the impact of violence, and support positive images of being helpful and feeling powerful – encourage children to develop their own nonviolent plots for superhero play  Your openness to discuss violence may allow you to help a child who is tormented by fear or who is in real danger Teachers are urged to encourage parents to talk to their children about the content of advertising and media, and to provide families with educational alternatives  Children need to know that, contrary to what they may be seeing on TV, most people don’t carry weapons – they avoid violence and talk about their disagreements instead of forcing their opinions on others  It to the responsibility of adults to help children think about and analyze the positive and negative social interactions they are sure to encounter in real life and television Exposing very young children to any kind of screen media is apparently harmful to their general development  The problem is that focus on media takes away from time spent in actual play and interaction with adults – the real way that young children learn  Programs for infants and toddlers should not offer any screen time, and for children over two, a half hour per week maximum  Childcare and preschool programs for infants and toddlers should offer toys that encourage children’s physical and mental activity rather than those that perform for the child Resources are available to help children and families use discretion in choosing positive media images and to facilitate discussion about the effects of media  Workshops and newsletters for parents are great ways to communicate these messages  TRUCE – handouts to send home  Teachers can encourage the use of open-ended toys that allow children to use their imaginations, instead of toys that represent specific characters connected with violent media and unhealthy advertising Slides on violence  Your thoughts on Media Influences - Your thoughts on how media influences today’s children?  Media – TV, Video, Video Games, Internet - Media is a significant influence because in today’s world children are watching more television than ever before. ­ Latest Research (Huesmann,Moise-Titus,Podolski &Eron, 2003) ­ Children's viewing of violent TV shows ­ Their identification with aggressive same-sex TV characters ­ Their perceptions that TV violence is realistic ­ Linked to later aggression as young adults, for both males and females  Other Research Findings - Heavy TV viewers ­ are less imaginative ­ are more likely to have attention problems and low academic performance  Why does this happen? - Violence is often rewarded and seldom has negative consequences. Perpetrators go unpunished in 73 percent of all violent scenes on television. ­ Violence is considered to be the best way to resolve conflicts Children view an estimated 10,000 to 15, 000 acts of violence every year 60% of programs are violent 26% of all violent acts involve guns Children learn that it is ok to resolve conflicts in this manner Strasburger and Donnerstein (1999) On an average a child sees 8,000 murders and 100,000 other violent acts by the end of elementary school - Violence is everywhere. Child’s father dies and child replies "Who killed him?". (Her question was based on her perception, drawn from television, that violence was the normal cause of death). (Personal Communication)  Continued - Violence is justified. Much of the violence on television is committed by the "hero" of the show. Power Rangers, like countless war movies, teaches that violence by "good guys" is not only justified but heroic - Violence is funny Laugh tracks in shows like The Three Stooges often follow actions like whacking someone over the head.  Reaction - Some children may not become violent/ aggressive when they watch TV or movie violence, but they may be affected in other ways. victim effect--increasing fearfulness bystander effect--leading to callousness, accepting violence as normal appetite effect--building a desire to watch more violence (?)  Some interesting FACTS - Children spend twice as much time watching TV than they do in school (Rich, 1999) ­ Children spend more than 38 hours per week using some kind of media outside of school (70% of child-care centers use TV during a typical day)  3 hours of television per day (2-7years)  6 hours 43 minutes (8 years and above) (Hesse and Lane, 2003)  1 hour of computer games  48 minutes of recorded music  44 minutes reading  39 minutes radio  Continued Violence is also sometimes approved by the family, teachers, or community because we do not acknowledge it. Ignoring the problem is just as bad as supporting it.  Facts  65% of older children and youth and 32% of younger children have a television in their bedrooms  50% of the adults seem reluctant to get involved in their children’s media experiences or have established rules of media watching (Kaiser, 1999)  How can we help?  Protect children from exposure to media violence as much as possible Be aware of what they are watching  Get TV sets, video game systems, and computers out of children’s bedrooms. So that you have better control over what they are watching  How can we help?  Talk with children about your concerns about media violence. Communication is important so they can understand what is reality and what is not  TALK ABOUT IT Discuss each others reactions (both positive and negative) to what you saw. - What did you think about that show/game? - Did you like it when ______________happened? Why do you think it happened? - I didn’t like it when ______. I wish they didn’t have to hurt each other. What do you think?  TALK ABOUT IT Help them sort out fantasy from reality - What was pretend and what was real? How could you tell - Help clarify confusion by saying things such as, “In real life things don’t work that way - I wonder how they made _________ happen on that show.”  TALK ABOUT IT Talk about the violence and other mean-spirited behavior that children see on the screen. - What do you think about how _______solved their problem? - If you had a problem like that what could you do / say? - Can you think of a way to solve that problem where no one gets hurt?  Some Proactive Measures  Promote creative and imaginative play which children control, instead of play that looks like they are imitating what they see on the screen  Provide play materials that can be used in many ways over a long period of time, such as blocks, play dough, dress-ups, and props for dramatic play  Choose toys carefully. - (no guns for children)  Limit the number of highly realistic toys and other products (such as lunch boxes, tee shirts and breakfast cereals) that are linked to TV programs  Avoid toys that are linked to movies, TV programs, and video games that are rated for older children or adults.  What can teachers do?  Creating class rules about violence and safety is important (No guns please)  When children imitate their super heroes teachers can discuss the difference between reality and fantasy  Teachers’/Children can create their own plots of superhero (e.g. classroom superhero act)  Take this opportunity to discuss what is true heroism and how our actions can affect others  Create Media Literacy  Media Literacy  Allows children and provides children with the ability to analyze media content  Students ability to analyze the effect of media on audience and the society  Students’ ability to produce their own media  Few examples on Media Literacy  Integrating Media Literacy in Language and Arts (Prek-K)  Children’s Book was used “Mouse TV”  Follow up activity - What are some activities one can engage in when there is no TV (small group discussion) - Role play on how to resolve quarrels over remote control - Write a book on one week without TV  School-Wide  School’s can develop policies and educate parents about the problems created by media violence and how to deal with them  Schools can develop curriculum that incorporates healthy play, media literacy, and conflict  Schools can implement resolution and violence prevention programs.  Continued  Promote school-wide activities which help create a community of aware parents and teachers -Sponsor school events such as a TV Turn-Off Week or a violent toy trade-in -Create media resource library to help parents use media wisely -Have the PTA organize workshops and guest speaker events for parents on this topic -Sponsor school-wide activities to involve children in alternative activities such as after school clubs.(?)  Study Dr. Leonard D. Eron followed a group of young people for 22 years and found that those who watched more television at age eight were more likely, at age 30, to have committed more serious crimes, to be more aggressive when drinking, and to punish their children more harshly than others.  Continued  Brandon Centerwall epidemiologist at the University of Washington surveyed young male felons imprisoned for committing violent crimes and found that between 1/3 and 1/4 of those surveyed reported having consciously imitated crime techniques they saw on television.  Conclusion Media Violence does have an impact on the behavior of children and youth and it is up to everyone to take action to combat this problem Ignoring this problem is just as bad as supporting it What are Conflicts? Conflicts are disagreements that arise between individual in course of their interactions  Conflict can be challenging sometimes, because they arouse a lot of emotions within a person  However, the same conflicts or conflicting situations can be effective and constructive when they are resolved successfully Conflicts are an integral part of a child’s life and thus an integral part of teacher’s life and a classroom environment  Reasons – children are egocentric, they have poor perspective taking skills, children can’t identify their own emotions and others emotions Pitfalls to Communication Reflective Listening  Many people find it difficulty and very hard to avoid trying to give advice (why do you think that happened, why did they say something like that)  One may initially find it difficult and awkward Criticizing and Lecturing If you want them to listen, avoid talking to them in ways that turn off listening  People don’t like to hear someone tell them how badly they behave  No one wanted to be called derogatory names  Most people get irritated at being told how they should be acting Gordon (2000) “sending put-down messages” – children tune out such messages because that are so harmful to self-esteem Giving Orders When you tell people everything they need to do in a situation, you also tell them that you don’t think they are capable of figuring it out for themselves (Gordon, 2000) calls this communication approach “solution messages”  Impacts self-esteem and short-circuits growth toward autonomy  Children learn not to trust their own solutions – unhealthy dependence Inauthentic Communication Frustration  resentment builds up  nonverbal communication is negative (indicating your true feelings) damaged relationships  The invulnerable adult model gets in the way of authentic relationships with children, because the adults cannot reveal their true selves  Authentic relationships between adults and children, like those between peers, encourage cooperation and empathy Understand and review the ulterior messages we are giving children Gordon – “I message”  Appropriate when the problem is yours: what is happening is upsetting to you personally  Unlike “you message,” they don’t blame or condemn another person, and they don’t contain put-downs  Avoid “solution message” – don’t tell someone what to do  They focus on your needs instead of the other person’s actions – more willing to lists and generated little defensiveness “I message” works when the person you are speaking to actually cares about how you feel Complete “I message” 1. A description of the unacceptable behavior 2. Your feeling 3. The concrete effect of the behavior on you 4. It stops after saying those three things ***…ruin it by telling the child what he or she should be doing differently or by adding on a judgmental or disparaging comment about the child*** Understand the different aspects of effective communication Passive listening  One way to show you are listening is to stop talking yourself  Quiet attention to a child’s words with only minimal comments can be very effective  Words such as “Is that so,” “how interesting,” or a simple “hmmm” is also very helpful to children  These words communicate to children that you are listening, you are being respectful and accepting towards them Reflective/Active Listening  You are actively listening when you are restating or validating the concerns and feelings of the other person  Reflective listening is more appropriate when the problem belongs to the individual and by engaging in this type of listening you are ensuring accuracy of communication by reflecting back to the speech what you as a listen have heard or observed Steps of reflective listening  Stop talking – listen to the problem from the child’s perspective  Don’t rush to pass judgment – find out what the child is thinking/feeling  Restate what you hear – in your own words until the child confirms that your understood correctly  Validate the child’s concerns and feelings – show that you care Understand the different steps of conflict resolution in their appropriate order 1. Process curriculum – composed of a specific curriculum to teach the conflict- resolution process separate from the rest of the classroom curriculum. The teacher intervenes firmly and not as a moral authority 2. Mediation program – consists of teaching the conflict-resolution process to specific individuals, children or adults, who then act as neutral, 3 party facilitators of the process when students have a dispute. The teacher is the mediator in charge 3. Peaceable classroom – conflict resolution is integrated into the whole school curriculum, and conflict resolution skills are integrated into the classroom’s core curriculum. The teacher supports personal expression of all the children involved 4. Peaceable school – the teachers, staff, parents, and students are all taught the conflict-resolution process and it is used system wide. The teacher need not mediate perfectly for children to lean social-problem solving skills 4 R’s Program: Reading, Writing, Respect, and Resolution Requires support from school and parents Gordon (2000) Galinsky (2010) Kreidler (1999)  Identify the problem  Identify the dilemma, ABCD  Generate solutions problem, or issue  Ask – what’s the  Evaluate solutions  Determine the goal problem  Decide on the best  Come up with solutions  Brainstorm solutions solution  Consider how each  Choose the best one  Implement the plan solution would work  Do it  Evaluate the plan  Select a solution to try  Evaluate the outcome Understand what is Punishment Punishment is intended to hurt or humiliate a person in response to undesirable behavior in help of changing the behavior  Punishment is illogical. This sheer characteristic makes it undesirable  Punishment does not stop undesirable behavior, but it does not provide or give insight into what is appropriate (telling what not to do instead of telling what to do)  Punishment creates counterproductive feelings that are demonstrated in numerous ways later in life Distinction between punishment and consequences Negative consequences Punishment  Children are accepted though not their  Imply that children themselves are rejected behavior  Are not instructive – they merely inform  Are instructive – teach children what to do children that an infraction has occurred, do  Are thoughtfully imposed not teach how to correct it  Communicate – children have power to  These are arbitrary change their behavior  Communicate personal power  Applied as matter of fact  Applied with obvious resentment, anger  Imply that behavior is due to a and indifference situation/development  Imply that misbehavior is due to “badness  Applied in a direct proportion of the of the child” magnitude of the transgression  Are severe and exceed the magnitude of  Require adults and children to reason the infraction  Assume adults must use coercion to together and correct problem situations correct problem behaviors Ill effects of punishment on children Anger and Aggression Anger is a common reaction to punishment Children who are punished try to get even and want to assert power in some way or another They are learnt a powerful role model – how to hurt others and give punishment (use these tactics indiscriminately in all situations) Damaged relationships  Punishment created feelings of hostility and resentment towards a person who is administering it  Children feel they are less valued and thus no more are they eager to listen, learn or understand. Some withdraw from the situation completely (children don’t want to be around people who hurt them) Damage to self-esteem  Self-esteem “understanding of self-worth and self-understanding” comes from significant people around us  Children might enter into a situation of learned helplessness and a mode of self-fulfilling prophecy Fear For some children punishment instills fear Punishment makes a situations unpredictable for the child (I can be hit anytime for anything)  Sometimes child’s initiative and exploration might be sacrificed in want of safety and security


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