Week 4: Rules, Rituals and Stories
Week 4: Rules, Rituals and Stories COMM 2010
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Mason on Tuesday May 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 2010 at Clemson University taught by Marilyn Pugh in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Communications Studies in Communication at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 05/31/16
Week 4: Rules, Rituals and Stories Chapter 4 verbal communication: the use of language o Symbolically Verbal communication involves the use of language, which is made up of symbols o Relationally Verbal communication influences relationships, and relationships influence verbal communication. Whenever you communicate verbally, a particular relationship is presumed with another person, the members of a group, or an audience. Relationships influence the meanings that are given to words and the words that are actually used. Relationships are transacted in part through shared meanings and patterns of communication. o Culturally Verbal communication influences culture, and culture influences verbal communication. Whenever you communicate verbally, cultural assumptions are presumed involving appropriateness and meanings within a given society or group. Cultures influence the meanings that are given to words and the words that are actually used. Styles of talk have unique meaning systems, values, and styles. o Frames Frames used to understand communication can involve relationships, cultures, settings, and other factors influencing communication. These frames can be recognized and established through the form of language. They can also be adjusted during the course of a conversation. Frames assist people in making sense of communication by drawing attention to how they should be communicating, how they might expect others to communicate, and how they should assign meanings to symbols being used. o Presentational The selection of words when speaking is meaningful and provides information about the perspective and worldview of the person sending a message. When people tell stories and provide accounts, verbal communication’s presentational nature is particularly recognizable. o Functions Influencing others through Facework and Politeness Its use in the development and maintenance of relationships Provides information about the worldview of others. It also creates meanings, realities, relationships, identities, and cultures. polysemy: the fact that multiple meanings can be associated with a given word or symbol rather than just one unambiguous meaning denotative meaning: the identification of something by pointing it out (“that is a cat”) connotative meaning: the overtones, implications, or additional meanings associated with a word or an object God terms: powerfully evocative terms that are viewed positively in a society (contrast with Devil terms) ex: freedom Devil terms: powerfully evocative terms viewed negatively in a society (contrast with God terms) ex: al-Qaeda conversational hypertext: coded messages within conversation that an informed listener will effortlessly understand restricted code: a way of speaking that emphasizes authority and adopts certain community/cultural orientations as indisputable facts (contrast with elaborated code) elaborated code: speech that emphasizes the reasoning behind a command; uses speech and language more as a way for people to differentiate the uniqueness of their own personalities and ideas and to express their own individuality, purposes, attitudes, and beliefs than as a way to reinforce collectivity or commonality of outlook (contrast withrestricted code) Cultural styles of talk o feminine talk: that which is characterized as nurturing, harmonious, and compromising (contrast with masculine talk) o masculine talk : that which is characterized as tough, aggressive, and competitive (contrast with feminine talk) o high-context talk: that which is characterized as relying on the context in which it takes place, with words used sparingly and the relationship shared by interactants being extremely important (contrast with low- context talk) o low-context talk: that which is characterized as straightforward, with the message speaking for itself and relationship separated from the message as much as possible (contrast withhigh-context talk) o collectivist talk: that which is characterized as stressing group benefit and harmony rather than personal needs and advancement (contrast with individualist talk) o individualist talk: that which is characterized as stressing individual needs and achievement (contrast with collectivist talk) high code: a formal, grammatical, and very correct—often “official”—way of talking low code: an informal and often ungrammatical way of talking accommodation: when people change their accent, their rate of speech, and even the words they use to indicate a relational connection with the person to whom they are talking convergence: a person moves toward the style of talk used by the other speaker (contrast with divergence) divergence: a person moves away from another’s style of speech to make a relational point, such as establishing dislike or superiority (contrast with convergence) langue: the formal grammatical structure of language (contrast with parole) parole: how people actually use language: where they often speak using informal and ungrammatical language structure that carries meaning to us all the same (contrast withlangue) narrative: any organized story, report, or talk that has a plot, an argument, or a theme and in which speakers both relate facts and arrange the story in a way that provides an account, an explanation, or a conclusion accounts: forms of communication that go beyond the facts and offer justifications, excuses, exonerations, explanations, or accusations pentad: five components of narratives that explain the motivation of symbolic action o 1: Act- what happened o 2: Scene- what was there o 3: Agent- who performed the act o 4: Agency- how the act was accomplished o 5: Purpose- why the act took place facework: the management of people’s dignity or self-respect, known as “face” positive face wants: the need to be seen and accepted as a worthwhile and reasonable person (contrast with negative face wants) negative face wants: the desire not to be imposed upon or treated as inferior (contrast with positive face wants) Three things to consider about the size of a face threat: o 1: The relationship shared by the interactants o 2: the power difference of the interactants o 3: the size of the imposition instrumental function of talk: when what is said brings about a goal that you have in mind for the relationship, and talk is the means or instrument by which it is accomplished (e.g., asking someone on a date or to come with you to a party) indexical function of talk: demonstrates or indicates the nature of the relationship between speakers essential function of talk: a function of talk that makes the relationship real and talks it into being, often by using coupling references or making assumptions that the relationship exists Chapter 6 (Pages 110-117) Listening Listening in education o Listening is the key to academic success o It is a critical component for student-teacher relationships Listening and career o The most success and achievement from both organizational and personal career standpoints can be connected in large measure to effective listening Listening and religion o listening in this area includes intrapersonal listening when engaged in meditation and prayer. o Interpersonal listening occurs in such instances as listening to sermons or music and studying sacred and holy texts Listening and health care o The extent to which both patients and providers listen effectively has a tremendous impact on whether correct diagnoses are established and on whether patients accurately follow provider instructions. Listening and relationships o Listening also plays a fundamental role in relationship development and maintenance Listening Objectives: hearing: the passive physiological act of receiving sound that takes place when sound waves hit a person’s eardrums listening: the active process of receiving, attending to, interpreting, and responding to symbolic activity receiving: the initial step in the listening process where hearing and listening connect attending: the second step in the listening process when stimuli are perceived and focused on interpreting: the third step in the listening process when meaning is assigned to sounds and symbolic activity responding: final step in the listening process that entails reacting to the message of another person reflecting (paraphrasing): summarizing what another person has said to convey understanding of the message engaged listening: making a personal relational connection with the source of a message that results from the source and the receiver actively working together to create shared meaning and understanding relational listening: recognizing, understanding, and addressing the interconnection of relationships and communication during the listening process
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