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UO / Journalism / J 101 / What are the types of verbs?

What are the types of verbs?

What are the types of verbs?

Description

School: University of Oregon
Department: Journalism
Course: Grammar for Communicators
Professor: Jasheway-bryant l
Term: Spring 2016
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: J101 Final Study Guide
Description: Here is a study guide that has an overview of all the main topics from the class. Good Luck on the final!
Uploaded: 05/31/2016
13 Pages 55 Views 2 Unlocks
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Final Study Guide


What are the types of verbs?



Test is on Monday (6/6) at 10:15am in Straub 156

1. Subject/Sentence Structure

○ Subject: the person or thing doing an action or being described

● The subject is always a noun or a pronoun

○ Verb: the action or word linking the subject to the description (engine of a sentence)

○ Object: the person or thing an action is done to

● The object is always a noun or pronoun too, but it can never​be the subject ○ Things to remember/tricks:

● Sentence= subject + verb + complete thought

● If you are having trouble identifying the noun in the sentence find the verb and ask and see what is being done to it or what it is describing

■ Example: The animal is running towards the mountains.


What is subordinating conjunctions?



We also discuss several other topics like Describes the arrangement of electrons.

✓ What is running? ­ the animal is, so the animal is the

subject.

2. Verbs

○ Types of verbs:

● Action verbs:

■ Indicate the subject is doing something

■ This includes transitive and intransitive verbs

● Linking verbs:

■ Describe the condition of the subject

■ This includes all “to be” verbs: am, is are, was, were, and been

○ Helping verbs:

● Additional verbs that help provide a slightly different meaning or indicate the time that something has taken place.

● They always appear before the verb that they are helping

● Examples:

■ Am, are, is, was, were

■ be, been, being


What are the four simple rules of punctuation?



■ Can, shall, will

■ Could, should, would

■ Do, does, did

■ Had, has, have

■ May, might, must

○ Tenses:

● Verbs can help show time by their tense

● Present, Past, and Past Participle

● Difference between “lay” and “lie”

Tense →

Present

Past

Past Participle

Lay: to put

something

down

lay

laid

Had laid

Lie: to go

horizontal

lay

lain

Had lain

If you want to learn more check out What are the four fundamental units to physics?

■ Quick trick: replace the verb with place and placed to determine

tense

○ Verb imposters:

● Gerunds: words ending in “ing” that are really nouns: usually the subject or the object in a sentence

● Infinitives: combination of “to” and a verb: always a noun, adjective, or adverb

3. Subject­Verb Agreement

○ Basic rule to remember: singular subjects take singular verbs and plural subjects take plural verbs

○ Singular nouns that end in “s”

● Some nouns that end in “s” and seem to be plural are actually singular: aerobics, checkers, news, gymnastics, mathematics, measles, physics.

○ Plural nouns that do not end in “s”

● Some nouns that are plural that don’t end in “s”: men, women, children, etc.

■ These are generally easier to catch

● These are harder: ones ending in “a”

■ Criteria (plural)­Criterion (singular)

■ Curricula (plural)­Curriculum (singular)

■ Media (plural)­Medium (singular) We also discuss several other topics like What are the elements of audience-centered public speaking?

■ Symposia (plural)­Symposium (singular)

■ Sometimes data is used as both singular and plural.

○ Subjects that can be singular or plural depending on how it’s used

● Indefinite pronouns:

■ ALWAYS single: anyone, everyone, much, no one, someone, each ■ ALWAYS plural: both, few, many, several

■ Depends on use: all, any, most, none, some

✓ the word is singular when what it is referring to is singular

and plural when it is referring to something that is plural.

● The number vs. a number

■ The number is singular

■ A number is plural

4. Personal Pronouns

○ Pronouns can be…

● A subject: She is the lead caller for the fundraiser.

● An object: My little brother stood next to him to help with the We also discuss several other topics like What are bronsted-lowry acids + bases?

presentation.

● Possessive: His baseball cap was too tight for his head.

Nominative (subject)

Objective

Possessive

I

me

my/mine

you

you

your/yours

she

her

her/hers

he

him

his

it

it

its

we

us

our/ours

they

them

their/theirs

who

whom

whose

We also discuss several other topics like How do you calculate production function in mpl?

*There are never​any apostrophes in possessive pronouns

○ Rules to remember:

● Avoid starting a sentence with an objective pronoun.

● Don’t put a pair of objective pronouns or an objective pronoun paired with a noun at the beginning of a sentence.

■ If you’re starting a sentence, it doesn’t matter how many pronouns you have­chances are the objective choice would be wrong.

● Never join a nominative pronoun (subject) with an objective pronoun (object) with a conjunction (and, or, nor, but). If you want to learn more check out How do you calculate grams to moles?

● The pronoun in a prepositional phrase are always either objective or possessive; they cannot be nominative.

● The pronouns in a nonessential phrase are always either objective or possessive; they cannot be nominative.

● When there are two possible possessive pronoun choices shown in the pronoun list, use the first one when a noun follows immediately after the pronoun. Use the second choice if there is no noun.

● The pronoun that comes immediately before a gerund must be possessive, not objective.

○ We or Us?

● To make sure to pick the correct one, simply remove the noun and the right choice will be very apparent.

○ Who vs Whom

● Who is nominative: if the word in question has its own verb

● Whom is objective: if the word in question doesn’t have its own verb ○ Reflexive pronouns

● Used when a pronoun is doing something to itself or to emphasize another noun or pronoun in a sentence.

■ Myself, yourself, yourselves, itself, himself, herself, themselves,

ourselves.

■ Cannot be substitutes for objective pronouns.

5. Adjectives and Adverbs

○ Adjectives

● Adds something extra to a sentence

● Includes gerunds and infinitives

● 2 types:

■ Descriptive­provides more info

■ Limiting­makes it clear what the writer means in regards to which one

○ Adverbs

● Work with verbs, adjectives and other adverbs

● Answers some basic questions:

■ How: The child wore his uniform reluctantly.

■ When: The child wore the shirt for his class picture yesterday.

■ Where: The child lives upstairs from me in my apartment

complex.

■ To what extent: The child was quite angry about the whole ordeal. ✓ Conjunctive adverbs:

i. Link together two independent clauses

○ Good and well:

● Example: It was all good.

■ Was is a linking verb so good is an adjective

● Example: She did well on the test.

■ Did is an action verb

○ Less/amount and fewer/number:

● If you can count it, use fewer/number (does it end in a “s”, people, etc.) ● If you can’t count it, use less/amount

○ Almost never end a sentence with a nominative pronoun.

● Here’s the exception: when comparing two things

■ Example: He is a better writer than I (am).

■ Example: I like pizza more than he (does).

● You can add the verb to the end to determine the right pronoun to use. 6. Clauses, Phrases, Conjunctions, and Fragments

○ Clauses:

● A clause​has a subject and verb. It comes in two types:

■ Independent can stand alone, but doesn’t have to

✓ Contains a complete thought

✓ It can be apart of a longer sentence that may include one or

more independent clauses

✓ You NEED an independent clause to have a sentence.

■ Dependent cannot stand alone.

✓ Don’t have a complete thought

○ Subordinating Conjunctions

● The word at the beginning of a dependent clause that makes it dependent and not independent.

● Common subordinating conjunctions:

■ After, although, as, as if, because, before

■ Even if, even though, if, if only, now that, once

■ Since, so that, than, that, thought, unless

■ Until, when, whenever, where, wherever, while

● Sometimes relative pronouns are used instead of a subordinating

conjunction

○ Coordinating Conjunctions

● Join sentence parts of equal importance (independent clauses)

● FANBOYS= For And Nor But Or Yet So

○ Phrases

● If part of a sentence doesn’t have a subject and verb, then it is either a phrase or a fragment.

● A phrase contains words that work together to provide a more complete picture that what one word alone could paint.

● Types of phrases:

■ Noun phrases: a noun and everything that modifies it

■ Verb phrases: a verb and everything that modifies it

■ Prepositional phrases: a preposition and its objects

■ Verbal phrases: a gerund, infinitive, or participle and its objects

● Remember: phrases never contain the subject of the sentence and they should not stand alone as sentences.

○ Fragments

● Try to avoid using fragments unless you are quoting dialogue.

○ Interjections

● The one major exception to the rule that to stand alone as a complete sentence requires a subject, verb, and complete thought.

7. Sentences

○ Redundancy

● When you repeat words, phrases, or thoughts.

● The best way to avoid poor sentence construction is to avoid

procrastination. Having time to edit is the key to success.

○ Comma Splice or Run­On Sentences

● It is grammatically incorrect to use a comma alone to separate two independent clauses.

○ Passive Voice

● A type of sentence construction that relies heavily on helping verbs and places the object of the sentence before the verb; it is considered a weak sentence majority of the time.

○ Dead Constructions

● Defined as sentences that begin with “there is/was” or “it is/was” when “there” and “it” don’t add any info to the sentences

● They make identifying the subject of the sentence hard.

○ Misplaced or Dangling Modifiers

● When you separate adjectives and adverbs from the word they are meant to modify

○ Parallel Sentence Structure

● Balance is important in sentence structure

● Try to keep tenses the same throughout and keep verbs and nouns in check.

8. Punctuation

○ Periods:

● 4 simple rules:

■ If a sentence ends with something that already has a period, don’t use another period to end the sentence

■ Choose one sentence­ending punctuation mark only.

■ When using quotation marks, the period ALWAYS goes inside ■ If a quote is NOT at the end of a sentence, don’t use a period to end it; instead use a comma

○ Question Marks

● Direct vs. Indirect Questions

■ Direct questions usually begin with who, what, when, where, why, or how.

■ Indirect questions: just try to see if there is a direct question or if it’s a statement that happens to include words like “asked” or

“wondered”

● Questions in Quotation Marks

■ If what is quoted is a question, put the question mark inside the last quotation mark.

■ If what is quoted is not a question, put it outside the last quotation mark.

○ Exclamation Marks

● 2 simple things to remember:

■ Use them sparingly

■ Never use more than one at a time or pair them with other

sentence­ending punctuation marks

○ Ellipses

● Latin for omission­ so only use when there is something missing ● Used commonly when you leave out a part of a long quote or when quoting someone who trailed off or was interrupted.

○ Commas

● Commonly used to:

■ Separate dependent and independent clauses

■ Separate independent clauses with with coordinating conjunctions ■ Separate items in a list

■ Set off long introductory phrases

■ Help avoid confusing word placement

● Rules to remember:

■ Don’t use just a comma to separate independent clauses (comma splice)

■ Never separate subjects and their verbs

✓ If a noun has more than one verb, there should not be a

comma between it and its verb(s)

■ Know where to put commas with quotation marks

✓ Commas ALWAYS go inside the quotation marks

✓ When introducing a quote (an independent clause), you

need to precede it with a comma and capitalize the first

letter of the quote.

✓ When introducing only a partial quote, you do NOT

precede it with a comma, nor do you capitalize the first

letter.

■ Don’t omit a comma after long introductory phrases

✓ A comma is almost always needed after a long introductory

phrase, one with more than just a few words.

■ Oxford Commas

✓ The comma between the next­to­last and last items in a list

✓ Use your judgement on whether to include it or not

■ Appositives

✓ Appositive: a word or group of words that further identifies

or defines a noun

✓ If the appositive is essential to the noun, don’t use commas.

✓ If the appositive is NOT essential to the noun, use commas.

○ Semicolons

● Joins independent clauses and separates items that have internal commas ● Joining independent clauses.

● Separating items in a list:

■ When the items themselves have commas, use semicolons to

separate them

● When using conjunctive adverbs use a semicolon before the adverb and a comma afterwards

○ Colons

● Is used to introduce something, including an independent clause, a long list, or a quote with more than one sentence

○ Hyphens/Dashes

● When you aren’t sure if a word is hyphenated look it up in the dictionary. ■ Remember that when adding a prefix to a word, you use a hyphen.

● Dashes are used to separate nonessential information from a sentence. ○ Parenthesis

● Always use in pairs

● Parenthesis often interrupt the flow of a sentence so use them sparingly ○ Quotation Marks

● Only use when you are quoting someone, or are showing speech

9. Apostrophes

○ Contractions

● It’s (it is) going to be a long day.

● Shouldn’t (should not) you take an umbrella?

● It wasn’t (was not) the best of times; it wasn’t the worst of times. ● We’ve (we have) come a long way since the invention of the first computer.

○ Possession

● The rain started making its presence known at noon.

● Jolene’s guitar is the one painted purple.

● Taking care of the environment is everyone’s responsibility.

● Greece’s economic issues nearly led to a recession in Europe. ○ As a general rule if there isn’t another word after an apostrophe s reevaluate the use of that apostrophe s

○ General Rules:

● Never use an apostrophe to make a noun plural

■ Plural words that drive people nuts (these are correct)

✓ No­nos or noes

✓ Yes­ yesses

✓ ID­ IDs

✓ DVD­ DVDs

✓ iPod­ iPods

✓ A­ A’s (this is an exception to the rule)

○ If it’s confusing to not have an apostrophe or if it’s

a single letter you can use an apostrophe

● Make nouns plural first, then possessive

● The show possession for a singular word that ends in an s or s sound, use the apostrophe and another s.

● Gray Area

■ Some singular nouns, especially proper nouns, especially where there are other ­s and ­z sounds involved, look and sound odd and klunky when you add another s, so try to rewrite the sentence

● If a noun or pronoun comes immediately before the thing it possesses, use an apostrophe s. If the word “belong” or something meaning “belong” appears in the sentence, don’t use apostrophe s.

● Contractions require an apostrophe and it goes where the letter (or number) has been removed

● Limit your use of ‘s to make a noun contractions, especially when what follows the noun is a gerund.

● An apostrophe following a personal pronoun signifies contraction not possession.

● Possessive personal pronoun

● They NEVER take an apostrophe s

10. Word Choice

○ Poser Words, Slang, Lingo

● Try to avoid using words that you may use while talking or texting, but won’t look good in a professional piece (i.e. slang, lingo, etc.)

● Avoid “poser words”

■ Examples:

✓ Alot­ a lot

✓ Alls­ all

✓ Anyways­ anyway

✓ Conversate­ converse

✓ Coulda, could of­ could have

✓ Gonna­ going to

✓ Gotta­ have to

✓ Ginormous­ Enormous

✓ Irregardless­regardless

✓ Nother­ another

✓ Orientate­ orient

✓ Self­depreciating­ self­deprecating

✓ Supposably­ supposedly

✓ Wanna­ want to

○ Words that don’t mean what you think they do

● Commonly misused words:

■ Alright­ this is an interjection

■ Anxious­ actually means frightened and not eager or excited

■ Bring vs. take­ if something is moved toward the object, use bring and if it is moved away, choose take

■ Chronic­ means long­term

■ Constant­ occurs continuously over a period of time

■ Engulfed­ means to swallow up in or as in a gulf

■ Enormity­ means evil, not big

■ Irony­ the incongruity between what is expected and what actually happens

■ Peruse­ skimming something

■ Since­ since refers to the passage of time

■ Whether­ use when there are two or more alternatives

○ Texting­related word problems

● Avoid using & unless it is part of a business name. Spell out the word and every time.

● Don’t substitute @ for at, about or approximately. Spell those words out completely.

● Don’t use numeric substitutions for words. It’s to and for not 2 and 4. It’s great, not Gr8.

● One word sentences may work in texting, but they are almost always wrong in formal writing. Make sure your sentences include a subject, a verb, and a complete thought.

● Completely spell out words all the time. That includes using all the vowels.

● Completely spell out the names of states. Do not use the postal abbreviations.

● When referring to the President of the United States or any other significant governmental figures, include their titles.

● Include apostrophes in contractions. Im, dont and theres are all incorrect. ● Capitalize the first words of sentences (including those in quotation marks inside other sentences).

● Capitalize proper nouns (names, place names, brands, companies, etc.) ● Do not capitalize most other words. Don’t randomly capitalize nouns because you’re not sure whether they’re proper or not. When you’re not sure, check a dictionary

● In formal writing, avoid using all caps for emphasis, choose bold face or underlining instead.

○ Choosing Words Wisely (general rules)

● Use “fresh” words that aren’t overused

● Use metaphors, similes, personification, and analogies

● Use powerful action verbs

● Use words that create a mental picture for the reader

● Use words with layers of meaning

● Limit clichés and slang

● Be concise

● Use words correctly

● Avoid redundancy

○ Words and phrases to avoid

● Awesome

● Awfully (as an adverb, e.g. “awfully pretty”)

● Being as I

● Cool

● Fun

● Interesting

● Kinda

● Have got

● Pretty (as an adverb, e.g. “pretty awful”)

● “Up” added to verbs such as call, meet, and think

11. Sensitivity and Style

○ Avoid use of language that is:

● Sexist

● Racist

● Ableist

● Ageist

● Classist

● Homophobic

● Prejudiced against people you don’t consider attractive

● Demeaning to any group

○ Always pay attention to how you describe people

○ Unless there’s a similar word for both genders avoid using words like “cougar” ○ Respect everyone’s gender identity

● Use gender neutral nouns/phrases

○ Unless there is a reason to do so, don’t include gender, race, age, or sexual orientation

○ Don’t assume sexual orientation

12. AP Style

○ Numbers:

● Use figures for numbers about 9; spell out numbers under 10

■ Exceptions:

✓ Use figures for ages, sums of money, time of day,

percentages, years, days of the month, temperature, and

proportion

✓ Using numbers for age

i. She is 23 years­old.

ii. She is a 23­year­old.

● Spell out numbers when they begin sentences

● DO NOT use Roman numerals except when part of a title or name ● Fractions standing alone are spelled out

● Use commas with four or more figures except in dates

○ Capitalization

● Titles preceding names

● Specific regions, but not point of the compass

● Holidays and special or historic events

● Names of religions and nouns to designate a Supreme Being ● Formal names of schools and departments

○ Miscellaneous

● Spell out words completely

● DO NOT use a comma between a person’s name and Jr. or Sr. ● Use quotation marks with titles of books, poems, plays, films, songs, and articles. DO NOT use them with newspapers or magazines

● Use apostrophes to form the plural of single letters, but not figures or multiple letters

● Use a hyphen to distinguish the meaning of different words spelled the same way

● Put a space on either side of an em dash

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