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Psychology of Adjustment Exam 3 Study guide

by: Christopher Williams

Psychology of Adjustment Exam 3 Study guide PSYCH 100

Marketplace > Ithaca College > Psychlogy > PSYCH 100 > Psychology of Adjustment Exam 3 Study guide
Christopher Williams
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About this Document

Notes covered between (10/22) and 1(1/12)
Psychology of Adjustment
Cris Haltom
Study Guide
Intro to Psychology
50 ?




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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Christopher Williams on Tuesday May 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 100 at Ithaca College taught by Cris Haltom in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Adjustment in Psychlogy at Ithaca College.


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Date Created: 05/31/16
Exam 3 Study Guide, October 2015 Notes: Psychology of Adjustment (10/27- 11/12) ---------------------------------------------------------------------- (Continue) Chapter 8, part 1 Communication (11/3/15) Interpersonal Communication: •An interactional process in which one person sends a message to another Self Concept=>Passion and The Basis of Messages Sent and Received: Family/Friendly Relationship- (Psychology or Sociology) Safety (Law Enforcement, Law) Self-Mastery (Motivational Speaking, Motivational Psychology, Meditation) Intellectual Competence (Academia, Comp Lit, Philosophy, English, Language) Romantic/Marriage Relationship (Marriage Counseling) Physical Health/Prowess/Fitness (Medicine, Sports, Fitness Industry, Physical Education) Serving Others (Religion, Monk, Nun, Social programs, Advocate for the less fortunate) Elements of non-verbal Communication(the transmission of meaning from one person to another through means or symbols other than words) •Personal Space (proxemics) •Facial Expression •Eye Contact •Body Language •Touch •Paralanguage( intonation, pitch and speed of speaking, hesitation noises, gesture, and facial expression.) More about non-verbal communication: - Conveys emotions and feelings without words - Use facial expressions as well as body language, eye contact - Ambiguous: Sometimes body language can be difficult to interpret. - Verbal messages may contradict with body languages. -Different non-verbal signs Elements of non-verbal communication: Personal space- an area of space surrounding a person that is felt to ‘belong’ to that person. Facial Expression- conveying basic emotions that is widely recognized. Eye contact- “The most meaningful aspect” Touch- can have a variety of meanings, especially in status and power. Body language- (Kinesics= body movements) - An “open” posture= relaxed state - A “closed” posture = defensiveness or tension Paralanguage- All vocal cues other than the content of the verbal message itself. interpersonal communication- (One person sends a message to another) –involves at least two people –a process involving a series of actions –not “one-way”, but bi-directional –SIX components of the communication process ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Chapter 8 part 2- Communication (10/29) Positive interpersonal climate: 1.Empathy 2.No judgment 3.Honesty 4.Approaching others as equals 5.Expressing opinions tentatively Communication negatives(Listener barriers): defensiveness: excessive concern with protecting oneself from being hurt motivational distortion: hear what you want to hear, not what was said self-preoccupied: self-serving, don’t listen Interpersonal Conflict: Negatives: -Seen as bad by most people - Even avoiding conflict can be seen as counter-productive Positive: 1. Can bring problems to the surface, 2. Clear away divergent views 3. Get rid of underlying tension 5 styles of interpersonal conflict: -Competing/forcing -Collaborating -Compromising -Avoiding/Withdrawing -Accommodating Communication through effective listening: -Uses selective attention -Responds to communication Communication through non-traditional means: •Communicating with nature •Communicating with non-human beings •Communicating with others from a distance -prayer -telepathy (sensory channels for transmitting information) ---------------------------- Chapter 9 part 1: Friendship and Love (11/3) Romantic attraction: Pheromones (scent)- changes in odors that affect the subconscious and changes the behavior in another individual. Other relationships other than romantic: •Distant Relationships •Acquaintances • Close Relationships (Initial attraction) • Family Relationships Initial attraction is closely related to: Proximity – we are more likely to become involved with people within the same space. Familiarity – the mere exposure effect states that positive feelings toward a person are increased the more often we see them. 3.Physical attractiveness -Facial features - Expressive traits (smiling; friendliness) - Grooming qualities Media and the views on men and women: Comparing body images in the media can negatively affect the individual to make alterations to their bodies -Most models weigh an average of 23% less than a typical woman. Twenty years ago, this difference was a mere 8%. •Male media image suggest an ideal level of muscularity that is almost impossible for men to achieve •More discomfort with their own bodies •Less satisfaction with their own agility and coordination •Less satisfaction with upper body strength ------------------------------------ Chapter 9 part 2: Friendship and Love (11/5) Henry Harlow’s: Monkey love experiments:  In the 1950’s there were 2 experiments based on baby rhesus monkeys  Monkeys show different behaviors based on mothers of different appearances (1 of cloth and one of steel wire) John Bowlby (Instinct theory of attachment)- The tie of separation between mother and child that can involve deprivation and separation. From infants, attachment is present during the first 2-2.5 years of life Attachment and bonding: (Most if not all infants)- -Seek out attachment figures for comfort -Requires physical contact and needs security (4 elements of attachment) 1. Safe Haven- offspring can return to parent if feel threatened. 2. Secure Base- The parent can allow the offspring to have boundaries when exploring the world 3. Proximity Maintenance- The offspring can allow itself to stay near the parent, providing protection. 4. Separation Distress- Whenever separated from the the parent, the offspring will become upset and distressed (Mary Ainsworth et al (1978)) “Strange Situation”: The quality of attachment is varied by -Exploration -Behavior among strangers -Behavior once the mother leaves the room -The reunion behavior, or the behavior after the mother re-enters the room. 3 forms of attachment to the caregiver: (Secure attachments): Child can become distressed once the mother leaves (Insecure-ambivalent attachment): Child cannot be easily comforted when the mother returns (Insecure-avoidant):Child has minimal interaction with their mother. A relationship in a college environment: (Polyamorous)- having intimate relationships with more than one partner. Close relationships: important, interdependent and long-lasting How these relationships are formed: Reciprocal liking: refers to liking those who show that they like you Similarity: people who are drawn to similar qualities. ----------------------------- Chapter 10: Marriage and Intimate Relationships Marriage – “the legally and socially sanctioned union of sexually intimate adults Most marriages can include: –Economic interdependence –Common residence –Sexual fidelity –Shared responsibility for children Can also: Provide emotional & social support that can buffer negative effects Some marriages can involve abusive and intimate relationships Co-habitation effect on marriage: -Varying levels of commitment that would lead to separation and divorce -In adulthood, (endogamy) the practice of marriage within similar backgrounds, has decreased over the years. -About gay/lesbian relationships: 1. Myth- the couple rarely gets involved in long-term relationships. *As of 2004, committed relationships are among 40-60% gay males and 45-80% of lesbians 2) Myth- gays and lesbians are not as involved within family ties Hormones and the brain: -The intake of testosterone, estrogen and progesterone •(Growth of sex-related social behavior: leads to development of sexual salience of sensory stimuli, sexual motivation, and expression of copulatory behaviors in specific social contexts => coupling) -------------------------------- Chapter 11: Gender and Behavior (11/12) * Genotypes- gene characteristics that are inward and have no observable characteristics *Phenotypes- Does have observable characteristics such as appearances upon birth (Form, Color, Morphology, Eye color. form, color, morphology, eye color) -phenotypes involve the testes and ovaries  Human body for different genders can include different appendages enlarged as well as facial hair Gender Identity:A person’s individual experience with gender. =//= (sex) - how people gender/experience themselves Sexual orientation: (Bisexual)- the cross between homosexual and heterosexual (Cis-gendered)- the merge between sex and gender identity (Transexual)- only for people who do not wish to have a medical transition.


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