General Biology III Final Exam Study Guide
General Biology III Final Exam Study Guide BIO 193
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Wryan Mitchell on Wednesday June 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 193 at DePaul University taught by Dr. John Dean, Dr. Jason Bystriansky in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see General Biology III in Biology at DePaul University.
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Date Created: 06/01/16
General Biology III Final Exam Study Guide 1. Phylum: Annelida a. The Segmented Worms (about 16,500) b. Oligocheates, the Polycheates, and the Hirudineans c. Body development: coelomates, triploblastic, bilateral symmetry d. Have chitonous bristles called chaetae that prevents them from slipping out of a fixed position e. Body plan: prostomium, metameres (metemerism), pygidium f. Have circular and longitudinal muscles groups g. Locomotion due to peristalsis when muscles move in a synchronized manner h. Oligocheates: “oligo”: few have very few chaetae, feeds on dead matter, e.x. Earthworms i. Polycheates: “poly”: many have many chaetae, food is collected on their gills making them filter feeders j. Hirudinae: these are the leeches, no chaeta, are bloodsucking parasites, releases anesthetic and an anticoagulant, hirudin, when attached to a host k. Reproduction, they typically reproduce asexually including fragmentation i. They also perform sexual reproduction, mostly external, but some do internal l. Go through a larval phase before forming into adults 2. Phylum: Nematoda a. The Round Worms (about 25,000 species) b. Includes Ecdysozoans (animals that go through ecdysis the process of molting the exoskeleton so that the organism can grow) c. Live in aquatic and moist environments d. Unlike other animals: their bodies are not segmented, they have an alimentary canal (a digestive tube with separate mouth and anus), and they don’t have a circulatory system, and are pseudocoelomates with a triploblastic body structure e. Reproduction: typically sexual, internal reproduction f. Most are parasites that use humans as their primary host g. Pinworms: common in children, treatment: PinX 3. Phylum: Arthropoda a. Includes trilobites, crustaceans, insects, spiders, etc. b. Found in many different environments c. Four subphyla: Myriapods (millipedes, centipedes), Cheliceriformes (spiders), Hexapods (insects), and Crustaceans (crabs, lobsters, shrimp) d. Body structure: triploblastic, bilateral symmetry, segmented bodies, jointed appendages, covered in an exoskeleton goes through ecdysis e. Benefits of exoskeleton: protects the organism from predators, lowers chance of drying out f. Body segments are fused by tagmatization comes from the word “tagmata”, which is each fused part of the head (head has 5 fused segments) g. Jointed appendages have different functions (movement, feeding, etc.) h. Respiratory system: many of these species have gills, species that live on land have a respiratory system that have tubes that bring air straight to the cells i. Sensory systems: have complex sensory organs (eyes, antennae, sensory hairs, etc.) j. Behavior: exhibits innate and learned behaviors k. Go through metamorphosis (from larval stage to adult stage) l. Myriapoda i. Terrestrial species ii. Have a pair antennae and three pairs appendages used for feeding iii. Millipedes have 2 pairs of legs at each body segment, herbivores iv. Centipedes have 1 pair of legs at each body segment, carnivores m. Cheliceriformes i. Named after the word “chelicerae” term used for their feeding appendages ii. Most are carnivores, some are parasites iii. Mostly terrestrial, but there are some marine species n. Crustaceans i. Mostly aquatic, but some are terrestrial ii. Have 2 pair of antennae, have specialized body parts for feeding and locomotion o. Insects i. Live in many different environment, excluding marine ii. These organism have wings, which is an addition to their cuticle iii. Reproduction: mostly sexual internal reproduction, sperm can be inserted in the vagina, can be external fertilization where the male drops the sperm and the female picks it up iv. Undergo metamorphosis 4. Phylum: Echinodermata a. Includes starfish, sea stars, sea urchins, etc. b. Mouth is formed second, anus is formed first c. Body structure: coelomates, triploblastic, bilateral symmetry in larval stage, radial symmetry in adult stage d. Starfish have a water system that aids in feeding, locomotion, and gas exchange i. Each arm has different functions e. Reproduction i. Perform external, sexual reproduction where egg and sperm is released in the water, there is larval stage 5. Phylum: Chordata a. Chordates show four characteristics: the notochord, a dorsal hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, and a muscular postanal tail at some point in their lives b. The Notochord i. Flexible structure ii. In jawed organisms, it’s replaced by the vertebrae c. Dorsal hollow nerve cord i. Develops from the ectoderm ii. A single tubelike nerve cord iii. It can develop into the central nervous system in some organisms d. Pharyngeal slits i. Slitlike openings from the inside to the outside of the body ii. In aquatic organisms, the form the gills iii. In tetrapods, they form components of the throat and ear space e. Muscular postanal tail i. Allows the aquatic organisms to move ii. Many chordates lose this structure 6. Phylum: Chordata Cephalochordata a. The Lancelets b. First to show the four characteristics and maintains them throughout their life c. Stay burrowed in sand with its head poking out d. Filter feeders filters water by passing it through the pharyngeal slits to collect food particles e. Live in marine environment 7. Phylum: Chordata Urochordata a. The tunicates, ascidians, and sea squirts b. Lives in marine environment c. Most of the four characteristics are not seen, but are still considered chordates because they show those characteristics at an earlier stage 8. Phylum: Chordata Craniates: Myxini (The Hagfishes) a. Chordates that have a head and a neural crest i. The neural crest can lead to the development of teeth, bones and cartilage of the skull, dermis, some neurons, sensory cells for the eyes b. Maintains the notochord when they become adults c. Have an open circulatory system d. Doesn’t have jaws or vertebrae e. Has slime glands that can be useful for escaping predator and moving into the bodies of dead organisms for food 9. Phylum: Chordata Vertebrates: Petromyzontida a. The Lampreys b. Has a cartilaginous skeleton that covers the notochord and nerve cord c. Adults don’t have jaws, instead they have an oral disk with specialized teeth that attaches to food and sucks out its blood d. Young lamprey lives in sand like the Lancelets i. Goes through metamorphosis after it moves out of the sand e. As larvae, they filter feed f. When attached to food, they don’t receive oxygen (gets oxygen through the mouth) g. Removes toxins with its cloaca h. Has a closed circulatory system i. Osmoregulators: change their bodies’ saline concentration not according to their environment 10. Phylum: Chordata Gnathostomes: Chondrichthyes a. The sharks, rays, and ratfishes b. Jawed vertebrates i. Jaws used for grabbing and grinding up food c. Evolved from the pharyngeal slits d. Have gills which acts the main organs for gas exchange e. No swim bladder f. Cartilaginous skeleton helps to maintain buoyancy because it less dense than bone g. With their lateral line, they can sense pressure changes in water h. With the Ampullae of Lorenzini, they can sense electrical fields i. Osmoregulators and osmoconformers (changes their salinity concentration to their environment’s salinity concentration) i. Keeps urea in their blood ii. Sharks are osmoconformers and ionoregulators (change the type of ions that are in their blood not based on the ions found in the environment) j. Reproduction: sexual reproduction, males use their claspers to place sperm inside of the female 11. Phylum: Chordata Osteichthyans: Actinopterygii (the bony fishes) a. Have a bony skeleton (why they’re called bony fishes) b. Have gills c. Group also includes tetrapods d. Rayfinned fishes i. Have flexible rays that gives the fins support ii. Skin has bony scales e. Has swim bladder f. Has gills for gas exchange g. Reproduction: get together in groups, males release sperm, females releast eggs external fertilization 12. Phylum: Chordata Lobefins: Actinistia & Dipnoi a. The coelacanth, lungfish, and some tetrapod b. Coelacanth were believed to be extinct, but were rediscovered in 1938 c. Dipnoi (lungfish) i. Have a lung allowing them to breath on land ii. During the dry season, they burrow themselves and a cocoon is formed, they don’t eat, they just breathe 13. Phylum: Chordata Tetrapods: Amphibia a. Important adaptations: have four limbs and feet, neck, ribs, no gills, and ears b. Tiktaalik a nickname for the term “fishapod” an organism with both fish and tetrapod component a. Gills, scales, lungs, and fins b. Ribs and a neck c. Fins that resemble a tetrapod limb
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