PY3150 Final PSY3150
ITT Technical Institute
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bdavi on Wednesday June 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY3150 at ITT Technical Institute taught by Robert Jones in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see psychology in Nursing and Health Sciences at ITT Technical Institute.
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Date Created: 06/01/16
Final Study Guide PSY3150 Robert Jones Study Guide PAGE 4 Modern psychology is the scientific study of behavioral and mental processes. The term’s roots mean mind and word. Empirical evidence or information acquired by observation, measurement and the scientific method is important in psychological studies as well as critical thinking or the process of objective evaluating, comparing, and analyzing information. Pseudopsychology is often confused with psychology, and includes common beliefs, folk wisdom, superstitions, psychic powers, and horoscopes. Pseudopsychology gives the appearance of science. Psychologists have four basic goals when conducting research, describe, explain, predict, change behavior and mental processes. PAGE 13 The cycle of scientific knowledge is constantly evolving. There are 6 steps. 1. Question and literature review or reading what has previously been published, 2. Testable hypothesis where the psychologist creates a prediction of how one factor or variable is related to another. 3. Research design, the scientist has to choose the best research design. 4. Data Collection and analysis, statistical analysis of the data is performed and analyses performed to see if findings were significant or not. 5. Publication, psychologist writes up Final Study Guide the study and submits it to a peer reviewed scientific journal. 6. Theory development, after one or more studies on a topic the researcher may propose a new theory or theory revision to explain the results. PAGE 44 The brain and spinal cord- central nervous system. Peripheral nervous system- nerves and neurons outside the brain and spinal cord. Neuroplasticity is the brains ability to reorganize and change the structure and function through the lifespan. Neurogenesis is the division and differentiation of cells to produce neurons. The brain is capable of rewiring allowing us to learn new things and to remodel he brain in situations such as a stroke. PAGES 64-69 Any trigger that causes stress is called a stressor and can be caused by either internal, external, or environmental stimuli. Positive or beneficial stress is called eustress. Unpleasant or objectionable stress is called distress. Absence of stress or stimulation would eventually lead to death. Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe any life change could cause stress and created the social readjustment rating scale. Approach-approach forced choice between two options with equally desirable outcomes. Avoidance-avoidance, forced choice between two options both with undesirable characteristics. Approach- Avoidance one option desirable, one option undesirable. Persistent hassles can lead to a burnout, overtime people in stressful professions become emotionally drained. General adaptation syndrome occurs in three phases, alarm, resistance and exhaustion. Final Study Guide PAGES 88-89 Sensation is the mind’s window to the outside world, perception is how the brain gives meaning to sensory information. Receptors cells are located in the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, skin, and internal body tissues. During transduction receptors convert stimulus into neural impulses. Sensory reduction is the filtering and analyzing of incoming sensations before sending a neural message to the cortex. PAGES 89-92 Transduction is when receptors receive signals from a stimulus and convert them to signals or impulses that are sent to the brain. That information is the interpreted and distinguished by the route the information was received and the part of the brain that received the signal. Sensations that are filtered before impulses are sent to the brain is called sensory reduction. This process is so the brain isn’t overwhelmed by sensations. Sensory adaptation is when constant stimulus causes a decrease in signals sent to the brain, causing decreased sensation. Ronald Melzack and Patrick Wall created the gate control theory. They theorized certain gates had to be opened in the spinal cord for the signal to be received by the brain. PAGES 116-121 William James was the first American psychologist. He attributed consciousness to a stream that’s always changing but stays the same. Alternate state of consciousness is the mental states found during sleep, dreaming, psychoactive drug use, and hypnosis. Final Study Guide Circadian rhythms are the biological clock of the body and the changes within the body that happen within a 24 hour span. PAGES 120-123 Sleep deprivation causes a disruption in our circadian rhythms causing stress on the body. There are five stages of sleep including pre-sleep, and stages 1-4. During stages 2-4 your brain waves slow down and then you enter rem sleep. Throughout the night you can go through four or five sleep cycles. Every cycle of sleep lasts about 90 minutes. PAGES 175-176 Memory is the process where information is processed, organized, and stored. Information is encoded or processed, then stored, and if retained we are able to retrieve the information from memory storage. There are three types of storage, sensory memory storage, short term memory storage and long term memory storage. The first holds sensory information and doesn’t last but up to 4 seconds for auditory information and about ½ second for visual information. Short term memory is temporary and lasts up to 30 seconds, only being able to hold about 5-9 items at a time. Long term memory receives and stores information and is mostly permanent and unlimited in capacity. PAGES 230-232 Developmental Psychology studies the age related changes in behavior and mental processes from conception to death. Psychology’s three most important debates are Final Study Guide nature vs nurture, stages vs continuity, and stability vs change. In nature vs nurture, nurturists believe development happens by learning through personal observation and experience. Naturists believe behavior and mental processes are genetically predetermined. Stage theorists believe development happens at different rates while continuity theorists believe developments happens at a uniform pace. Stability vs change is the beliefs that either you are born with your personality and it sticks with you, or over time you develop your personality and that it can change over time. PAGES 256-260 John Bowlbey theorized that newborns are born with certain behaviors such as crying and smiling. Other behaviors such as crawling and walking depended on caregivers. Harry Harlow and Konrad Lorenz studied attachment. There are four types of attachment secure, anxious/ambivalent, anxious/avoidant, and disorganized/disoriented. PAGES 260-263 There are four different parenting styles, permissive neglective, permissive indulgent, authoritarian, and authoritative. Permissive neglective is where parents do not make demands, there is little structure, and little support or interest is shown. Permissive indulgent is when parents set some limits and demands, and are involved and emotionally connected. Authoritarian are parents who are demanding and controlling and not very supportive or emotionally connected. Authoritative is when parents set firm limits, are involved emotionally, and are supportive. Lawrence Kohlberg believed people progressed through six stages of moral development. Preconventional where judgment is Final Study Guide self centered, conventional where judgment is other centered, and postconventional. Where judgment depends on individual standards and beliefs. PAGES 284-288 Motivation can be broken down to three categories, biological, physiological, and biophysical. Instincts are behavioral patterns that are unlearned, and always expressed in the same way by the same species. Drive reduction theory is when biological needs are unmet thus driving an individual to meet the needs to lower stress. Optimal arousal theory is when an individual is motivated to achieve and maintain a level of arousal that maximizes performance. Incentive theory is when a stimuli drives people toward a goal and away from undesirable stimuli. Motivation is directly related to how we interpret or think about our own and others actions. PAGES 314-315 Personality is the patterns of thoughts, feelings and actions someone displays. Freud’s psychoanalytic theory is that there is three levels of consciousness. The conscious, preconscious, and unconscious. Freud also believed the personality was made of three parts. Id made of biological instincts, ego responsible for planning, reasoning, and problem solving; and superego a set of ethical rules for behavior. PAGES 376-381 Psychotherapy is techniques used to improve psychological functioning and adjustment to life. Psychoanalysis focuses on a persons mind where repressed memories or conflicts Final Study Guide are brought to consciousness. Free association is when you let your mind wander and relax and information is brought to consciousness. Manifest content is the surface description; latent content is the hidden or underlying meaning. Psychodynamic therapy is a more direct form of therapy that focuses more on current conflicts and conscious processes. Humanistic therapy works at personal growth by restructuring . Cognitive therapy focuses on changing faulty thought processes and beliefs. PAGE 384 Behavioral therapy are techniques based on learning principles that are used to change maladaptive behavior. There are three types of learning principles; operant conditioning, classical conditioning, and observational learning. Systematic desensitization is used to treat phobias. It entails being relaxed, and facing the object or item feared, or visualizing the fear while remaining relaxed. Study Questions Final Study Guide 1. A scientist will read previously published scientific journals during which step in the scientific method? A) Research design B) Theory development C) Question and literature review D) Publication 2. The brain’s ability to reorganize and change structure throughout the lifespan is called A) Neurogenesis B) Reticular formation C) localization of function D) Neuroplasticity 3. What can lead to increased absences from work, a decrease in productivity, and an increased risk for physical problems? A) Chronic Stress B) Burnout C) Distress D) Frustration 4. When a continuous stimulus is present for prolonged amounts of time, receptors in the sensory system get tired and sensations start to fade. This is known as A) Sensory overload B) sensory adaptation C) Absolute Threshold D) Transduction 5. Which of the following statements about short term memory is true? A) Holds sensory information B) Capacity is 5-9 items C) Relatively permanent duration D) Has a large capacity 6. What are the four parenting styles? 1) Permissive Neglective 2) permissive indulgent 3) Authoritarian 4) Authoritative 7. In what parenting style would the parents set few limits and demands, but are also highly involved and emotionally connected? Permissive-indulgent 8. During the strange situation experiment, the infant that becomes very upset when the mother leaves and shows mixed emotions when she returns is displaying what attachment style? Anxious/ambivalent Final Study Guide 9. Name four of the six major theories of motivation. 1) Instinct 2) Drive Reduction 3) Optimal arousal 4) Incentive 5) Cognitive 6) Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs 10. According to Freud, the part of the psyche responsible for planning, problem solving and reasoning is called. Ego
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