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Final Exam Study Guide (Readings Only)

by: Noah Sayres

Final Exam Study Guide (Readings Only) SOC 152A

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Noah Sayres

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About this Document

This Guide Covers What's On The Final. Includes all book material as well as information about what areas to prioritize on when you're studying.
Sociology of Human Sexuality
John Baldwin and Janice Baldwin
Study Guide
sociology, Human, sexuality
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Noah Sayres on Thursday June 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 152A at University of California Santa Barbara taught by John Baldwin and Janice Baldwin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Sociology of Human Sexuality in Sociology at University of California Santa Barbara.


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Date Created: 06/02/16
Human Sex Final Exam Study Guide Half of all questions will be post midterm­3, half will be cumulative. Anything you’ve been tested on before (exact wording of previous question) will not be seen  again.  There’s gonna be a box question, an anatomy question, an STI question, and a birth control  question. (Focus studying on these areas)  Slides only cover readings not lectures!!! (Review Lectures)  Two box questions: one before midterm 3 and one after midterm 3 ABORTIONS:  Roe Vs. Wade 1973 Supreme Court that states could not enact an outright ban on abortions before the age of  fetal viability.  The abortion debate ­Often portrayed as being divided between two opposing camps (pro choice and pro life)  ­Not black in white, many beliefs fall in between the two extremes.  Pro­Life Elective abortion is always wrong Should be a criminal offense Pro­Choice Women should be allowed to make all abortion decisions for themselves Should there be conditions such as a mandatory 24 hr waiting period? Should there be a ban on late term abortions?  CHAPTER 17: SEX AS A COMMODITY Prostitution: The practice of engaging in sex for pay Historically prostitution viewed as a necessary evil “The oldest profession” Only way in which unattached W could support themselves Development of “red light districts” in late 19th century.  Prostitution is on the decline High proportion of male and/or transgendered prostitutes in some cities Illegal everywhere in U.S., except parts of Nevada (previously Rhode Island.)  There Is A Hierarchy Of Prostitution Streetwalking: ­Most visible and familiar part of the industry ­Lowest rank and charge lowest prices ­Lifetime of social degradation ­Majority of female prostitutes are mothers ­Male prostitutes tend to be independent workers whereas women work for pimps ­Pimps are men who manages prostitutes in exchange for a portion of earnings (much less  common in recent years)  Working Out of A Fixed Commercial Location ­I.E A massage parlor or strip joint ­Hand Genital Contact “massages” are most common ­Brothels are uncommon but exist in rural Nevada Escort Service ­Off­street prostitution not tied to a specific service location ­Also known as “Call Girl”  ­prostitutes who are relatively upscale in terms of clientele and price  ­clients sometimes want the “girlfriend experience”) Premier Escorts are prostitutes that are well­presented and can be taken to dinners or shows ­Often work for madams who have access to affluent society ­Gigilos are Male escorts paid for by women ­Uncommon in US Good Pay Main Motive for Prostitution ­Some prostitutes have special needs that require a high income  ­ (E.G. Transgenders and prostitutes addicted to drugs)  ­ Men use prostitutes for many reasons such as: ­ Difficulty finding unpaid sex partners ­ Avoid hassles involved with regular dating ­ Issues with frequency and variety of sex with spouse or partner Prostitutes Rights Movement: ­Works for decriminalization ­Elimination of laws that outlaw prostitution ­COYOTE ­Mission to improve the image and working conditions for prostitutes Legalization with regulation: prostates would be allowed to work in prescribed locations and  under defined conditions (i.e the Nevada method)  The debate on prostitution is a worldwide problem. ­Conditions are worse in developing countries Juvenile and coerced prostitution are global problems.  Demand comes from local M, but also overseas travelers. Transnational trafficking of Women is an international problem. They are mainly transported for prostitution.  Phone Sex ­Erotic Telephone Conversation Often Carried Out For Pay Advantages Such as: ­Easier and safer for operators ­Convenient and cheaper for customer Pornography: Pornography: depictions of people or behaviors that are intended to be sexually arousing ­$13,000,000,000/year industry in US ­Erotica ­Sexually themed works deemed to have literary or artistic merit  (Pornography has battled censorship) ­Obscene­sexually offensive or threatening to public morality ­No artistic merit There is some pornography for Women ­Usually more soft­core and romantic in nature Conflicting Perspectives about porn ­Radical feminist perspective: Pornography promotes physical or sexual violence, or other forms of harm against women Liberal Perspective:  ­Downplays any harmful effects ­Protected by first amendment.  Value or Harm of Pornography ­Research has not resolved the question of pornography’s effects ­Most men are not rendered more likely to harm women by exposure to any and of of  pornography ­Some suggest that sex crimes become fewer when pornography consumption is legal  Underage porn is widely condemned, but is common in some countries Illegal in US (simulated underage pornography (pg. 545 in textbook) Japan: World leader in production of underage pornography  Sex Is Part of The Mass Media: TV glorifies adultery and promiscuity while portraying marital sex as dull and non­existent ­Sexual references on TV not necessarily harmful (e.g. familiarizing with homosexuality may  decrease anti­gay discrimination)  ­May be an educational opportunity Sexuality Across The Lifespan Most young men and women have only a few sex partners ­Secondary abstinence (period of celibacy after period of sex) ­Actively choosing not to have sex after having had sex at some previous time.  Cohabitation: Live in sexual relationship between two persons who are not married to each other. The majority of young people will enter into a cohabiting relationship ­Most likely to cohabit (younger people, non­religious people, people whose parents are  separated when they were children) ­Typically short lived Marriages preceded by cohabitation end quicker than those that are not “Cohabitation effect” ­Live in relationships tend to last a certain time ­So if some of that time is spent in cohabitation the marriage will be that much shorter ­Cohabitation has different meanings ­About 40% of chanting couples have children ­May be viewed as an experimental marriage ­Breaking up is less public embarrassment ­Even some conservative cultures around the world have sanctioned impermanent sexual  relationships (e.g Mut’a­Shi’ite contract of temporary marriage)  Marriage Takes Diverse Forms ­Social and personal functions of formalized sexual unions (marriage) ­Creating an environment favorable for having children ­Identifying men’s responsibilities  ­Bringing the couple’s extended families together ­Intended to stabilize their union  Polygamy: ­Marriage to more than one spouse at at time ­Permitted in many societies ­Connected to the idea that women are men’s property ­Polyandry­marriage of one women to more than one man. (very uncommon)  Polyamory ­People who openly and intentionally participate in non­monogamous relationships  ­Some engaged in groups marriage, 3 or more people living together in am marriage like  relationship (can be open or closed: no sex with outsiders) The institution of marriage is evolving Marriage: ­Western institution of marriage has evolved ­Companionate marriage ­Marriage seen as an emotional and practical partnership Companionate marriage makes the availability of divorce a necessity ­Prenuptial/Postnuptial agreements more common.  In general: Married people are significantly happier than unmarried people  ­Marriage is becoming a minority status ­People are marrying later and splitting up sooner ­% that are currently married is steadily falling  Most Married Couples Are Satisfied With Their Sex Lives Woman’s physical satisfaction is much greater in long term relationships than in short term  relationships.  Emotional satisfaction is higher in marriage.  Frequency of sex declines during marriage­but many say, SATISFACTION INCREASES!!! ­Increasing familiarity with partner and dimming of passionate love ­Biggest decline follows the birth of a child.  Woman’s marital satisfaction declines during middle age ­On the whole, wives are less satisfied with their marriages than their husbands  Many Factors Bring relationships to an End Four Major Factors:  1. Passage of time 2. Age At Marriage 3. Ethnicity 4. Education Level Overall Divorce rate is 45% ­Divorce rate for people with college degrees is less than half what it is for those without Dissimilarity between husbands and wives shortens marriages  Virgins have longer marriages.  Divorced Men and Women can suffer physical, psychological, and economic damage. ­Children may experience a heightened risk of ­Depression ­Behavior Problems ­Low academic performance ­Substance Abuse ­criminality ­early sexual activity Marital disruption can also have positive consequences ­Escape from an unhappy, possibly abusive relationship ­Potential for forming a better one ­Stepchildren may be disadvantaged ­Twice as likely to suffer from behavioral problems and child abuse ­Still, majority of stepchildren do well in school and don’t have emotional or behavioral  problems.  Later marriages are less durable ­So, experience gained from the 1st marriage doesn’t seem to stabilize later one.  Menopause:  ­Final Cessation menstrual periods ­Perimenopause (the phase prior to menopause that is marked by irregular menstrual cycles) ­Menopause may be caused by the depletion of oocytes ­Climacteric­woman’s transition to infertility the culminates in menopause.  Decreased Hormone Levels Affect some woman’s sexual responses ­In vaginal lubrication, a thinning of fate vaginal walls ­May lead to painful coitus/vaginal inflammation ­Lowered estrogen levels ­Hot flashes/hot flushes, night sweats, headaches. ­Osteoporosis­loss of bone density  Woman typically experience some decrease in sexual desire at menopause ­Probably results mainly from combined effects ­Other facts include ­Relationship issues ­General health ­Attitudes towards sex and aging ­Psychological effects Hormone therapy can reduce menopausal symptoms  Post­menopausal hormone therapy is controversial ­Due to possible ill­effects, has been restricted to the short term relief of menopausal symptoms  and lowest possible dose. ­Lifestyle choices may be more valuable.  Men’s fertility Declines Gradually With Age ­Gradual reduction in fertility and sexual functioning, likelihood of ED, decreased sexual desire  and frequency of sex.  ­May be referred to as male menopause (or andropause) but misleading since these changes  are NOT a total cessation but rather a gradual process.  The Sex Lives Of Old People have generally been ignored Traditional Assumption That older people are Asexual ­Younger people’s negative discomfort may result from lack of empathy ­Most people continues to have sexual feelings into old age ­Aging is accompanied by physiological changes in sexual response (read. pg. 361 for specific  changes)  Medical conditions, drugs, and social factors can impair the sexuality of old people ­Arthritis, heart disease, osteoporosis, diabetes, obesity ­Prescription drugs can interfere with sexual performance ­Two biggest factors: Health status and their sense of how sexually responsive their partners  are. ­People generally become happier with age!!.  Coping strategies may require flexibility Women may form sexual relationships with young men ­May focus more on oral sex Some old people remain sexual active ­Plenty of old women and men masturbate ­The more people engage in sexual behaviors earlier in life the more likely they will engage in  them later ­Opportunities for sexual expression by burning home residents could be improved.  Old people who engage in frequent sex live longer!!  Beginning of Adolescence ­May correspond to puberty (menarche, first ejaculation ­Testosterone level ­Strong predictor of when P will begin to engage in partnered sex Many cultures have puberty rites ­Puberty is often marked by special coming­of­age ceremonies ­Breast Ironing, bar mitzvah, bat mitzvah, quinceanera ­Examples of puberty rites (p 324­324) There are social influences on teen sexual behavior  ­Adolescents are likely to initiate sexual activity early if ­Their community has a low avg. income, few college graduates, a high crime rate, or high  unemployment ­Having a significantly older boyfriend or girlfriend ­Television ­Girls are being prematurely sexualized by exposure.  The sexual behavior of American teens has increased and diversified since the 1940’s have  caused teenage sexual changes ­Oral contraceptives, legalization of abortion ­In recent years sexual activity in US has been leveling­off or slight decrease in adolescents.  Noncoital sex is popular among teens ­Oral sex is common ­More commonly teens have first oral sex shortly after first vaginal sex ­Thus, oral sex is usually an addition, rather than replacement of coitus Ethnic Differences ­Far more, African American adolescents engage in coitus, but less likely to have engaged in  non­coital behaviors ­Far less Asian American and Pacific Islander adolescents have ever engaged in coitus.  Teen relationships Traditional social patterns have been modified ­Nowadays, sexual relationships have a more affectionate and recreational function ­Changing balance of sexual power.  Is dating outdated? ­Serial monogamy ­Youth has a series of exclusive relationships with girlfriends an/or boyfriends ­Casual sex seems to be becoming more common Chapter 7: Moral judgements about sex depend on its context ­The more affectionate, intimate, or committed the relationship the more likely people are to  consider sexual acts morally acceptable ­Demographic factors affect sexual attitudes ­Sex, age, education, region, race/ethnicity, religion (read on pg. 192­193) Americans’ Attitudes have Changed Over Time ­Decline in % who think sex before marriage is ALWAYS WRONG ­Decline in % who think homosexual sex is wrong ­Increase in % who think extramarital sex (affairs) are wrong.  Casual Sex has more appeal to men then to women Men are more likely to consider one night stands morally acceptable Hooking up­the new norm? ­Many young women are becoming much more open to engaging in casual, uncommitted,  sexual intimacy with acquaintances (hooking up) ­Casual sex is more accepted  Negotiating Sex Involves Flirting   Woman often take the first step in the interaction At some point man takes a more controlling role  Dating relationships are often short lived ­Dating relationships usually involve some degree of physical intimacy; sexual exclusivity may  be expected ­Serial monogamy.  ­1st dates may follow a script ­Traditional script demands men take leading/active role ­Women takes the reactive role Dating relationships may evolve rapidly ­Tendency to idealize a partner (minimization of the importance of their partner’s shortcomings)  Communication is a key factor in the success of relationships ­Many couples are reluctant to communicate about sexual issues ­Stems from a tradition of silence about sexual matters ­Gender barrier may compound communication problems ­Cultural factors inhibit communication in certain groups Dealing with Conflict Gotten studied relationship conflict ­Found anger is not necessarily bad as long as there is open communication ­5 positive statements for every 1 negative ­Behavioral couples therapy: focuses on improving communication (POSITIVE  COMMUNICATION) 


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