Final Exam Study Guide (Readings Only)
Final Exam Study Guide (Readings Only) SOC 152A
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Noah Sayres on Thursday June 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 152A at University of California Santa Barbara taught by John Baldwin and Janice Baldwin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Sociology of Human Sexuality in Sociology at University of California Santa Barbara.
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Date Created: 06/02/16
Human Sex Final Exam Study Guide Half of all questions will be post midterm3, half will be cumulative. Anything you’ve been tested on before (exact wording of previous question) will not be seen again. There’s gonna be a box question, an anatomy question, an STI question, and a birth control question. (Focus studying on these areas) Slides only cover readings not lectures!!! (Review Lectures) Two box questions: one before midterm 3 and one after midterm 3 ABORTIONS: Roe Vs. Wade 1973 Supreme Court that states could not enact an outright ban on abortions before the age of fetal viability. The abortion debate Often portrayed as being divided between two opposing camps (pro choice and pro life) Not black in white, many beliefs fall in between the two extremes. ProLife Elective abortion is always wrong Should be a criminal offense ProChoice Women should be allowed to make all abortion decisions for themselves Should there be conditions such as a mandatory 24 hr waiting period? Should there be a ban on late term abortions? CHAPTER 17: SEX AS A COMMODITY Prostitution: The practice of engaging in sex for pay Historically prostitution viewed as a necessary evil “The oldest profession” Only way in which unattached W could support themselves Development of “red light districts” in late 19th century. Prostitution is on the decline High proportion of male and/or transgendered prostitutes in some cities Illegal everywhere in U.S., except parts of Nevada (previously Rhode Island.) There Is A Hierarchy Of Prostitution Streetwalking: Most visible and familiar part of the industry Lowest rank and charge lowest prices Lifetime of social degradation Majority of female prostitutes are mothers Male prostitutes tend to be independent workers whereas women work for pimps Pimps are men who manages prostitutes in exchange for a portion of earnings (much less common in recent years) Working Out of A Fixed Commercial Location I.E A massage parlor or strip joint Hand Genital Contact “massages” are most common Brothels are uncommon but exist in rural Nevada Escort Service Offstreet prostitution not tied to a specific service location Also known as “Call Girl” prostitutes who are relatively upscale in terms of clientele and price clients sometimes want the “girlfriend experience”) Premier Escorts are prostitutes that are wellpresented and can be taken to dinners or shows Often work for madams who have access to affluent society Gigilos are Male escorts paid for by women Uncommon in US Good Pay Main Motive for Prostitution Some prostitutes have special needs that require a high income (E.G. Transgenders and prostitutes addicted to drugs) Men use prostitutes for many reasons such as: Difficulty finding unpaid sex partners Avoid hassles involved with regular dating Issues with frequency and variety of sex with spouse or partner Prostitutes Rights Movement: Works for decriminalization Elimination of laws that outlaw prostitution COYOTE Mission to improve the image and working conditions for prostitutes Legalization with regulation: prostates would be allowed to work in prescribed locations and under defined conditions (i.e the Nevada method) The debate on prostitution is a worldwide problem. Conditions are worse in developing countries Juvenile and coerced prostitution are global problems. Demand comes from local M, but also overseas travelers. Transnational trafficking of Women is an international problem. They are mainly transported for prostitution. Phone Sex Erotic Telephone Conversation Often Carried Out For Pay Advantages Such as: Easier and safer for operators Convenient and cheaper for customer Pornography: Pornography: depictions of people or behaviors that are intended to be sexually arousing $13,000,000,000/year industry in US Erotica Sexually themed works deemed to have literary or artistic merit (Pornography has battled censorship) Obscenesexually offensive or threatening to public morality No artistic merit There is some pornography for Women Usually more softcore and romantic in nature Conflicting Perspectives about porn Radical feminist perspective: Pornography promotes physical or sexual violence, or other forms of harm against women Liberal Perspective: Downplays any harmful effects Protected by first amendment. Value or Harm of Pornography Research has not resolved the question of pornography’s effects Most men are not rendered more likely to harm women by exposure to any and of of pornography Some suggest that sex crimes become fewer when pornography consumption is legal Underage porn is widely condemned, but is common in some countries Illegal in US (simulated underage pornography (pg. 545 in textbook) Japan: World leader in production of underage pornography Sex Is Part of The Mass Media: TV glorifies adultery and promiscuity while portraying marital sex as dull and nonexistent Sexual references on TV not necessarily harmful (e.g. familiarizing with homosexuality may decrease antigay discrimination) May be an educational opportunity Sexuality Across The Lifespan Most young men and women have only a few sex partners Secondary abstinence (period of celibacy after period of sex) Actively choosing not to have sex after having had sex at some previous time. Cohabitation: Live in sexual relationship between two persons who are not married to each other. The majority of young people will enter into a cohabiting relationship Most likely to cohabit (younger people, nonreligious people, people whose parents are separated when they were children) Typically short lived Marriages preceded by cohabitation end quicker than those that are not “Cohabitation effect” Live in relationships tend to last a certain time So if some of that time is spent in cohabitation the marriage will be that much shorter Cohabitation has different meanings About 40% of chanting couples have children May be viewed as an experimental marriage Breaking up is less public embarrassment Even some conservative cultures around the world have sanctioned impermanent sexual relationships (e.g Mut’aShi’ite contract of temporary marriage) Marriage Takes Diverse Forms Social and personal functions of formalized sexual unions (marriage) Creating an environment favorable for having children Identifying men’s responsibilities Bringing the couple’s extended families together Intended to stabilize their union Polygamy: Marriage to more than one spouse at at time Permitted in many societies Connected to the idea that women are men’s property Polyandrymarriage of one women to more than one man. (very uncommon) Polyamory People who openly and intentionally participate in nonmonogamous relationships Some engaged in groups marriage, 3 or more people living together in am marriage like relationship (can be open or closed: no sex with outsiders) The institution of marriage is evolving Marriage: Western institution of marriage has evolved Companionate marriage Marriage seen as an emotional and practical partnership Companionate marriage makes the availability of divorce a necessity Prenuptial/Postnuptial agreements more common. In general: Married people are significantly happier than unmarried people Marriage is becoming a minority status People are marrying later and splitting up sooner % that are currently married is steadily falling Most Married Couples Are Satisfied With Their Sex Lives Woman’s physical satisfaction is much greater in long term relationships than in short term relationships. Emotional satisfaction is higher in marriage. Frequency of sex declines during marriagebut many say, SATISFACTION INCREASES!!! Increasing familiarity with partner and dimming of passionate love Biggest decline follows the birth of a child. Woman’s marital satisfaction declines during middle age On the whole, wives are less satisfied with their marriages than their husbands Many Factors Bring relationships to an End Four Major Factors: 1. Passage of time 2. Age At Marriage 3. Ethnicity 4. Education Level Overall Divorce rate is 45% Divorce rate for people with college degrees is less than half what it is for those without Dissimilarity between husbands and wives shortens marriages Virgins have longer marriages. Divorced Men and Women can suffer physical, psychological, and economic damage. Children may experience a heightened risk of Depression Behavior Problems Low academic performance Substance Abuse criminality early sexual activity Marital disruption can also have positive consequences Escape from an unhappy, possibly abusive relationship Potential for forming a better one Stepchildren may be disadvantaged Twice as likely to suffer from behavioral problems and child abuse Still, majority of stepchildren do well in school and don’t have emotional or behavioral problems. Later marriages are less durable So, experience gained from the 1st marriage doesn’t seem to stabilize later one. Menopause: Final Cessation menstrual periods Perimenopause (the phase prior to menopause that is marked by irregular menstrual cycles) Menopause may be caused by the depletion of oocytes Climactericwoman’s transition to infertility the culminates in menopause. Decreased Hormone Levels Affect some woman’s sexual responses In vaginal lubrication, a thinning of fate vaginal walls May lead to painful coitus/vaginal inflammation Lowered estrogen levels Hot flashes/hot flushes, night sweats, headaches. Osteoporosisloss of bone density Woman typically experience some decrease in sexual desire at menopause Probably results mainly from combined effects Other facts include Relationship issues General health Attitudes towards sex and aging Psychological effects Hormone therapy can reduce menopausal symptoms Postmenopausal hormone therapy is controversial Due to possible illeffects, has been restricted to the short term relief of menopausal symptoms and lowest possible dose. Lifestyle choices may be more valuable. Men’s fertility Declines Gradually With Age Gradual reduction in fertility and sexual functioning, likelihood of ED, decreased sexual desire and frequency of sex. May be referred to as male menopause (or andropause) but misleading since these changes are NOT a total cessation but rather a gradual process. The Sex Lives Of Old People have generally been ignored Traditional Assumption That older people are Asexual Younger people’s negative discomfort may result from lack of empathy Most people continues to have sexual feelings into old age Aging is accompanied by physiological changes in sexual response (read. pg. 361 for specific changes) Medical conditions, drugs, and social factors can impair the sexuality of old people Arthritis, heart disease, osteoporosis, diabetes, obesity Prescription drugs can interfere with sexual performance Two biggest factors: Health status and their sense of how sexually responsive their partners are. People generally become happier with age!!. Coping strategies may require flexibility Women may form sexual relationships with young men May focus more on oral sex Some old people remain sexual active Plenty of old women and men masturbate The more people engage in sexual behaviors earlier in life the more likely they will engage in them later Opportunities for sexual expression by burning home residents could be improved. Old people who engage in frequent sex live longer!! Beginning of Adolescence May correspond to puberty (menarche, first ejaculation Testosterone level Strong predictor of when P will begin to engage in partnered sex Many cultures have puberty rites Puberty is often marked by special comingofage ceremonies Breast Ironing, bar mitzvah, bat mitzvah, quinceanera Examples of puberty rites (p 324324) There are social influences on teen sexual behavior Adolescents are likely to initiate sexual activity early if Their community has a low avg. income, few college graduates, a high crime rate, or high unemployment Having a significantly older boyfriend or girlfriend Television Girls are being prematurely sexualized by exposure. The sexual behavior of American teens has increased and diversified since the 1940’s have caused teenage sexual changes Oral contraceptives, legalization of abortion In recent years sexual activity in US has been levelingoff or slight decrease in adolescents. Noncoital sex is popular among teens Oral sex is common More commonly teens have first oral sex shortly after first vaginal sex Thus, oral sex is usually an addition, rather than replacement of coitus Ethnic Differences Far more, African American adolescents engage in coitus, but less likely to have engaged in noncoital behaviors Far less Asian American and Pacific Islander adolescents have ever engaged in coitus. Teen relationships Traditional social patterns have been modified Nowadays, sexual relationships have a more affectionate and recreational function Changing balance of sexual power. Is dating outdated? Serial monogamy Youth has a series of exclusive relationships with girlfriends an/or boyfriends Casual sex seems to be becoming more common Chapter 7: Moral judgements about sex depend on its context The more affectionate, intimate, or committed the relationship the more likely people are to consider sexual acts morally acceptable Demographic factors affect sexual attitudes Sex, age, education, region, race/ethnicity, religion (read on pg. 192193) Americans’ Attitudes have Changed Over Time Decline in % who think sex before marriage is ALWAYS WRONG Decline in % who think homosexual sex is wrong Increase in % who think extramarital sex (affairs) are wrong. Casual Sex has more appeal to men then to women Men are more likely to consider one night stands morally acceptable Hooking upthe new norm? Many young women are becoming much more open to engaging in casual, uncommitted, sexual intimacy with acquaintances (hooking up) Casual sex is more accepted Negotiating Sex Involves Flirting Woman often take the first step in the interaction At some point man takes a more controlling role Dating relationships are often short lived Dating relationships usually involve some degree of physical intimacy; sexual exclusivity may be expected Serial monogamy. 1st dates may follow a script Traditional script demands men take leading/active role Women takes the reactive role Dating relationships may evolve rapidly Tendency to idealize a partner (minimization of the importance of their partner’s shortcomings) Communication is a key factor in the success of relationships Many couples are reluctant to communicate about sexual issues Stems from a tradition of silence about sexual matters Gender barrier may compound communication problems Cultural factors inhibit communication in certain groups Dealing with Conflict Gotten studied relationship conflict Found anger is not necessarily bad as long as there is open communication 5 positive statements for every 1 negative Behavioral couples therapy: focuses on improving communication (POSITIVE COMMUNICATION)
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