PSC 1 Final Study Guide
PSC 1 Final Study Guide PSC 1
Popular in General Psychology
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This 49 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayla Dillard on Thursday June 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSC 1 at University of California - Davis taught by Dr. Simonton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 121 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of California - Davis.
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Date Created: 06/02/16
3/29/16 Lecture 1 What is psychology? • “scientific study of mind, brain, and behavior” Primary areas of psychology • Biological • Cognitive Neuroscience • Cognitive • Social • Personality • Developmental • Abnormal Clinical • • Counseling • Cognitive development • Social development • Social cognition • Clinical neuroscience • Social neuroscience • Social, cognitive, and affective neuroscience (SCAN) Psychology is relevant to everyone and is a broad area of study Pseudoscientific claims • exaggerated claims • over reliance on anecdotes • psychobabble • “proof” instead of evidence—“proven weight loss…” • lack of peer review by experts—ex: public opinion polls Scientific Claims • news distorts many scientific discoveries when reporting them Two major themes: • Nature vs. Nurture • Are behaviors caused by genes and biology (nature) or by upbringing (nurture)? • in most cases, it depends on both • ex: drug abuse, alcoholics • Free Will vs. Determinism Debate • Are behaviors freely selected (free will), or caused by outside factors (determinism)? • likely caused by both • ex: hearing In n’Out ad on radio and craving it later Soft sciences focus on studying people • psychology, economics, political science • “people are hard to study because they are complex and interact differently” • “must be really creative to study intangible things like thoughts” Hard sciences focus on the natural world • physics, chemistry, biology 3/30/16 Lecture 2 Theory and Hypothesis • theory: set of related assumptions from which testable predictions can be made • broad and cohesive • cannot prove it to be true—more supporting evidence makes it more likely to be true • ex: peer influence—hyposthesis: they have the same TV/music preferences • hypothesis: specific, informed, testable prediction Scientific Method • used to examine research questions Measures used in research • self report • surveys • scale measure—used in personality research • Behavioral • behavioral observation • judgements • response time measures—typically done on the computer • eye tracking • Physiological • Cellular recording • Brain imaging • fMRI • EEG • Physiological arousal • heart rate, blood pressure, skin conductance—measuring the electrical activity on the skin, hormonal changes • Animal measures • used to better understand humans and animals • very common to use rats because their physiology is similar to humans Variables: the concepts being tested • independent: predicts/causes and outcome • dependent: outcome variable, influenced by the independent variable • ex: does playing violent video games lead to higher levels of aggression? • independent: playing the games • dependent: level of aggression Descriptive Research • used to describe psychological phenomenon methods: surveys, naturalistic observation, case studies • Correlational Research • tells us how one variable predicts another • ex: does self-esteem predict level of anxiety • positive correlation—variables both increase or both decrease • negative correlation—variables move in opposite directions • no correlation—variables are unrelated Correlation Coefficient • ranges from -1 to +1, the absolute value shows the magnitude • sign tells the direction • correlation does not equal causation • ex: time of year can influence both ice cream consumption and shark attacks…ice cream consumption does not directly cause more shark attacks 3/31/16 Lecture 3 Experimental Research Design Requirements • has independent and dependent variable • independent variable must be manipulated • ex: manipulating the number of hours of sleep: one group gets 8 hrs, the other gets 4 hrs • has (at least one) control group (8 hrs) and (at least one) experimental group (4 hrs) • requires random assignment to cancel pre-existing differences—not “random selection” Statistics • analysis and interpretation of quantitative data • Descriptive • central tendency (mean, median, mode) • mean and mode are better representations when there are outliers • variability (range, standard deviation) • higher standard deviation=higher variability and visa versa • can be shown with a histogram • bell curve and normal distribution • Inferential • used to infer whether a difference it true or due to chance • determines “statistical significance” • higher variability=less likely to be significant and visa versa • t-test: compares two group means • analysis of variance (ANOVA) • regression P-value • measure of statistical significance • ranges from 0-1 • less than/equal to 0.5—> significant • greater than 0.5—> not significant 4/4/16 Lecture 4 Social Psychology • scientific study of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors • Affect, Behavior, Cognition Social Influence • Group Conformity: adjusting beliefs, feelings, and behaviors to align with others in the group • Information social influence • influence from reliable information • private conformity—internal, personal beliefs changed • ex: interrogator asks a witness questions that are so convincing that the suspect becomes convinced that he actually did do it normative social influence • • influence based on social pressure • public conformity—external, change just to go with the group • ex: interrogator asks a witness questions for a long time and the suspect just admits that they did it after a while so that they can leave • Factors that influence conformity • number of people in a group • one person giving the correct response • one person giving the incorrect response • Obedience: engaging in a behavior that is commanded by an authority figure • can either be good (ex: obeying firefighter instructions) or bad (ex: becoming a Nazi) based on the outcome • Factors that decrease obedience • physical and psychological proximity to the learner • closer proximity increases personal responsibility • undermining authority • Bystander effect: presence of other people reduces the chance that any one person will help • Pluralistic ignorance • false belief that everyone else perceives a situation differently than you do but everyone feels the same way • ex: everyone in the group hates to drink and party but they all think that the rest of them do so they all go drink and party together • Kitty Genovese case: (she was stabbed to death) false belief: the situation wasn't an emergency (since nobody else was concerned) reality: it is an emergency influence on behavior: nobody helped • Diffusion of responsibility • the more people present in an emergency, the less each person feels responsible for helping • reducing the bystander effect: • point and direct “you call 911” “you get the life guard” • knowledge of the bystander effect Situational influences on helping • noticing the need to help • being in a happy mood • victim’s deservingness—people are more likely to help someone with a cane than a drunk person • time—more available time, the more likely they are to help 4/5/16 Lecture 5 • Deindividuation: tendency for people to engage in deviant behaviors when stripped of their typical identity • Is more likely to occur when: • you feel anonymous (ex: in costumes on Halloween, TPing houses) • you are adopting social roles (ex: in a group—mob riots) • you have low self-awareness (ex: headphones on and start singing out loud and not notice until you realize everyone is staring at you) demand characteristics: participants may act how they think the experimenters want them to act Social Perception • Social schema: mental structures that people use to organize their knowledge about the world • useful because they allow us to not become overwhelmed by all pieces of info • influence the info that we notice • influence the associations • Self-concept: knowledge about who we are and what we are like • comprised of multiple self-schemas • self-reference effect: perceiving that our own beliefs and viewpoints are the norm; overestimating the degree to which others share our beliefs • ex: talking about a favorite show with a friend that doesn't know about it and saying “What? How do you not know about this show, it’s so great” • Social Comparison Theory: evaluating our abilities and comparing ourselves to other people • upward: comparing us to people who are better than us on a trait or ability • can be motivating, but might make us feel worse about ourselves • downward: comparing us to people who are worse than us on a trait or ability • not motivating, makes us feel better about ourselves • Perceiving others—the halo effect: the tendency for one positive characteristic of a person to transfer to judgements of other positive characteristics • common occurrence is for people that are attractive (good people in movies are generally attractive while the bad people are generally unattractive) • Trait Impressions: some traits are weighted more heavily than others • central traits: have large influence on impressions of other people • peripheral: have small influence on impressions of other people • Inferring traits from facial features • we judge “baby-faced” adults differently then “mature-faced” adults 4/6/16 Lecture 6 Attributions: inferences we make about the causes of other people’s behaviors • dispositional—attribution made to an internal cause of behavior • more likely to make these for other people’s behavior • situational—attribution made to external cause of behavior • more likely to make these for our own behaviors Intergroup Bias • Social Categorization: classification of people into groups based on common attributes • benefits: function as schemas, aids impression formation, saves time and energy • costs: overestimate between-group differences, underestimate within-group differences, basis for stereotyping and prejudice • Affect • prejudice: negative feelings or attitudes toward people based on their group membership • has become socially unacceptable: used to be overt, blatant; now is subtle, covert • Behavior • discrimination: negative behavior directed against people because of their group membership • can be negative behavior directed against a certain group or preferential treatment for one group over another • blatant ex: writing hateful things toward a group on buildings • subtle ex: music auditions by gender • Cognition • stereotypes: cognitive beliefs that associate people with certain traits based on their group membership • culturally pervasive • observations from environment • expected social roles • subtyping • exceptions to stereotype (ex: working women (vs stay at home women)) • Positive stereotype (ex: women are kind and nurturing) consequences positive: conform to expectations • • negative: inaccurate impressions, can justify pre-existing social hierarchies • prejudice, discrimination, and stereotypes are independent, consequential, and bi-directional (one can lead to the other and visa versa) • In-groups and out-groups • out-group homogeneity: tendency to view outgrip members as highly similar and to view the members of our own in-group as more diverse • in-group bias: preference for in-group over out-group • reducing intergroup bias • motivation • contact hypothesis • Robbert’s Cave Study • tested how to reduce intergroup conflict between 5th grade boys • Stereotype Threat: apprehension that one’s behavior might confirm a stereotype while in a stereotype relevant situation • impairs performance in the stereotyped domain • ex: Steele andAronson, 1995 4/7/16 Lecture 7 Personality Psychology • personality: the unique and relatively enduring set of thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and motives that characterize an individual Major theoretical approaches • PsychoanalyticApproach • unconscious forces drive personality and behavior and they can express themselves in distorted forms • Frued’s (1856-1939) model of the mind • Id—seeks pleasure, impulsive • Ego—makes realistic attempt to satisfy id’s desires • Superego—sense of conscience and morality • unconscious defense mechanisms: used to protect against anxiety-provoking thoughts and feelings and against threats from the outside world • repression, reaction formation, projection, sublimation, etc. • Neo-Freudians similarities: unconscious processes, importance of early childhood experiences • • differences (from Freud): less emphasis on sexuality and more on social drives, more optimistic about personality chance • Behavioral and Social LearningApproach • personality shaped by learned behaviors • behavioral learning: adopting behaviors that have been associated with good outcomes • social learning: personality development also involves thought and cognition • social observation (bobo doll experiment) • watch video • HumanisticApproach • self-actualization (being the best person you can be) as core motive • free-will (people have complete control over their actions) • optimistic about human nature (people are inherently good) • approach came form the humanistic movement • Two prominent theorists: • Carl Rogers • achieve fulfillment by receiving unconditional positive regard • people need to feel completely accepted • Abraham Maslow • people can only achieve self-actualization after they have reached all of their needs from the hierarchy of needs (from bottom to top: physiological, safety and security, love and belonging, self-esteem, self-actualization) • BiologicalApproach • assumes that differences in personality are based in part on physiological differences • genes, central nervous system, neurotransmitters, hormones • Hans Eysenck model • genes—> arousal, sensitivity to stimulation—> personality, cognition, behavior • three dimensions of personality • neuroticism, extraversion, psychoticism • cortical arousal • introverts—higher baseline levels • extroverts—lower baseline levels • Twin studies: measuring the correlations of personality traits among twins • correlations between twins raised together and twins raised apart were very similar in the Minnesota Twin Study • Conclusions: • personality traits are at least partially heritable • much of the variability in personality is due to environmental factors • TraitApproach identifies major personality traits that are consistent across situations and stable across time • • comparative because the amount of traits in people can be compared between people • predict behaviors and important life outcomes • Big Five Model (O.C.E.A.N.) • openness to experience: how open people are to experience different things • conscientiousness: how reliable, organized, and dependable someone is • extraversion: outgoing • agreeableness: how well someone gets along with people • neuroticism: being sensitive to stress • traits are dimensional and change across lifespan • conscientiousness and agreeableness tend to increase 4/11/16 Lecture 8 Personality Tests • Projective test—designed to assess unconscious processes • respondents are presented with ambiguous images and are asked to interpret or tell a story about each image • Rorschach test • consists of 10 symmetrical inkblot images • interpretations are based on coding system involving content, location, and determinant (form/color/shading) • rare responses suggest possible psychological problems • ThematicApperception Test (TAT) • consists of 31 image depicting ambiguous interpersonal situations participants create a story to go along with the image and the themes they choose are • analyzed • Structured test—consists of multiple questions or statements, responses are fixed • Rational/theoretical method • researchers design a series of statements that tap into a certain trait • ex “I tend to get along with other people” to test agreeableness • NEO-PI-R • measure of the big five traits (openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism) • ex: “I pay attention to details” “I am the life of the party” “I have a vivd imagination” • very reliable test • MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) • categorical (either you have the trait or you don’t) • 16 personality types based on 4 categories (introversion/extroversion, sensing/ intuition, thinking/feeling, judging/perceiving) • not very reliable (answers may not be the same if you take it more than once) • Empirical method • researchers select a wide group of questions and give them to people in different criteria groups (a group with psychiatric disorders) • different than rational in that some of the questions seem unrelated to what they are actually trying to measure • MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) • used to assess symptoms of mental disorders • contains 10 basic scales, 8 which assess mental disorders • contains 3 validity scales to catch respondents who are trying to manipulate their responses • seems arbitrary “I sometimes tease animals” • limited generalizability because items were generated form a limited sample of people (midwestern, culture-specific, time period) • BLIS (Behavioral Life outcome Informant-report Self-report) • behavioral: direct observation of behavior • life outcome: use of archival records • informant-report: reports form friends, coworkers, relatives • self-report: direct reports using surveys, structured personality tests Exam 1 review—bring scantron, pencil, eraser • know patterns that resulted from studies (don’t need to know percentages and dates) understand what the studies are about (its helpful to know that names but not necessary) • 4/13/16 Lecture 9 Module 2 Motivation Affective processes: having to do with feelings • ex: motivation, emotion, stress, moods, dispositions, attitudes • Dysregulaton of affect: psychological disorders, psychological treatment • timing matters: ex: emotions happen faster than moods Three important underlying dimensions • valence-positive/negative evaluation • arousal—degree of (physiological) activation • motivational intensity—strength of impulse to act Motivation—wants or needs that propel us toward certain actions or goals • vary in strength (ex: food, money, social) • Sources of motivation • Needs • biological states of deficiency (water, food, oxygen) • psychological needs • Drives • states of tension that arise when we are deficient in some need • create an urge to release tension • Incentives • external object or event that motivates behavior • motivation by positive goals • ex: money, good grades • Evolutionary Basis • survival and reproduction • Internal Drives vs. External Incentives • Models of Motivated Behavior • Drive Reduction Model • homeostasis—working to maintain equilibrium • set point—ideal range of particular physiological system • ex: temp regulation • we are motivated to minimize negative feelings and seek pleasure from relief of tension • OptimalArousal Model • Yerkes-Dodson Law—moderate levels of arousal lead to optimal performance • under-arousal may lead to sensation seeking • we are motivated to be in situations that are neither too stimulating nor not stimulating enough (middle ground) • performance increases up to a point where arousal interferes with performance • Hierarchical Model • ordering of needs: primary=biological necessities, secondary=psychological needs and desires • model ranges from basic needs to complex psychological needs • can only focus on the higher ones once the lower ones are met • highest need is the need for self-actualization (Maslow) Motivation in Daily Life • motivation to eat • hunger feeling is derived from: • stomach contractions • glucose levels • the brain • hormones that stimulate appetite (grehlin) • hormones that surprise appetite • evolutionary perspective • most people crave sugar, salt, and fat • downside: we live in a society that has food that leads to obesity • individual differences • set-point • genetic contributions to obesity • sensitivity to cues (internal vs external) • situational influences • social and visual cues (portion size is much larger today than it used to be—we expect much larger portions) • unit bias (if given larger portions, people will still take the same number of portions which leads to eating more) • eating disorders • bulimia nervosa—patterns of binging and purging • anorexia nervosa—extreme fear of being overweight leading to severe restriction of food intake • influence of culture on beauty ideals Sexual Orientation • likely exists on a continuum, but can be difficult to identify or measure Motivation to achieve • achieving success depends on • motivation ot succeed • expectation of success • incentive value of achievement • extrinsic: come from outside of a person and usually involve rewards or praise • motivated by external goals • drawbacks: if reward is removed, motivation can disappear; rewards narrow our focus, rewards may alter personal enjoyment • intrinsic: come from w/in a person • motivated by internal goals • positive effects: happiness, creativity, sustainable 4/14/16 Lecture 10 Emotion What is an emotion? • difficult to define • “Brief acute change in conscious experience and physiology that occur in response to a meaningful situation in the person’s environment” • eliciting event: • internal/external • relevant to personal goals • coordinated changes in multiple systems • subjective experience • behavioral change and expression • peripheral physiology • perception and thought • timing • don’t typically last very long • rapid onset • intensity • dominate awareness and interrupt ongoing behavior Levels of affect • emotions can be contrasted with drives • compared to emotions… • moods are longer, lower intensity, diffuse • affective traits are enduring aspects of personality, predispositions toward emotional response • both moods and affective traits can make emotions more likely to occur Functions of emotions • intrapersonal functions • act quickly, prepare body for immediate action, influence thoughts, motivate future behaviors • interpersonal functions • social communication, elicit specific behaviors in people, provide incentives for desired social behavior Evolutionary approach • emotions promote adaptive survival behaviors, social signaling • search for “basic” emotions (happiness, anger, contempt, fear, disgust, sadness, surprise) Dimensional models of emotion • valence—contrasts states of pleasure with states of displeasure • arousal—contrasts states of low arousal with high arousal • approach vs avoidance • approach—promotes survival: ingestion, copulation, caregiving • avoid—activated by threat: withdraw, escape, attack Emotion “Families” • positive emotions • self-conscious emotions—related how we live up to expectations • develop with age, requires sense of reflection (shame, guilt, humiliation, embarrassment, pride) Causal models of emotion • How do emotions unfold? • common sense: perception of event—>feeling afraid—>bodily response • James-Lange: perception of event—>bodily response—>feeling afraid Facial feedback hypothesis • facial expressions generate emotional experience Schachter-Singer Two-Factor Theory • emotional state results from diffuse physiological arousal and cognition about the arousing situation • experiment—injected with adrenaline • perception of event—>bodily response (nonspecific)—>feeling afraid (after cognitive interpretation) Appraisal Theory • evaluation of the significance of an eliciting event, person, or object to one’s welfare (need not be conscious) 4/18/16 Emotion II Some ways to recognize emotions: Surprise: eyebrows raised, eyes widened, mouth open Anger: eyebrows down together, eyes glare, narrowing of the lips Disgust: nose wrinkling, upper lip raised Fear: eyebrows raised and pulled together, raised upper eyelids, tensed lower eyelids, lips slightly stretched horizontally back to ears Sadness: drooping upper eyelids, losing focus in eyes, slight pulling down of lip corners Contempt: lip corner tightened and raised on only one side of face Happiness: crow’s feet wrinkles, pushed up cheeks, movement from muscle that orbits the eye • false smiles can be used to mask emotions • Physiological Response • Autonomic nervous system prepares the body and organs for action • multiple brain regions participate in all emotions • amygdala—“bottom-up” processing • prefrontal cortex—“top-down” processing • emotion regulation can be automatic or controlled, conscious or unconscious • cognitive change—alter the emotional impact of a situation by reinterpreting the meaning, significance, or personal relevance of an event • people generally get happier from middle adulthood to old age 4/19/16 Stress, Coping, Health What is stress? • elicited when a situation overwhelms our perceived ability to meet the demands of a situation or event can cause tension, discomfort, and disrupts bodily homeostasis • Approaches to stress • can be stimulus, response, or both • stimulus • event that triggers a response • threaten a major goal • physical vs psychological • response • negative psychological response to stressors Physical vs social stressors • physical (ex: trying to keep your arm in cold water) • social evaluate stressor Stressors • any situation that creates major upheaval in a person’s life might lead to stress • can refer to a wide variety of phenomena • social readjustment scale (SRRS) • hassles scale (measure frequency and intensity of minor irritations which can build over time) Daily Hassles minor nuisances that strain our ability to cope • • a few examples… • concerns about weight • too many things to do • health of family member Stress as a transaction • stress is an interaction between person and environment • appraisal of coping ability • primary appraisal: quick assessment of the significance of an event, situation, or person • secondary appraisal: self-assessment of the resources available to cope with stress • emotional reactions to situations can escalate into stress when we cannot deal with the demands of a given situation Stress Response Stress Physiology • changes that co-ordinate and support behaviors to deal with threat • “fight-or-flight response” • co-ordinated action of multiple systems • enable us to respond quickly but can take a toll on our bodies if stress persists Neuroendocrine System • control of hormonal systems involved in emotions and stress • major structures • hypothalamus—links nervous system to endocrine system • pituitary gland—releases hormones that play a role in controlling the stress response • adrenal glands—release several important stress-related hormones Two key systems 1. adrenal-medullary system • sympathetic nervous system leads to release of hormone epinephrine (adrenaline) • rapid system that leads to “adrenaline rush” 2. hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis • release of hormones from pituitary which release trigger of cortisol (stress hormone) from adrenal glands • occurs over minutes rather than seconds Stress Response • GeneralAdaptation Syndrome 1.Alarm 2. Resistance 3. Exhaustion Coping with stress • problem-focused coping: aims to change the situation that is creating stress • ex: studying for an upcoming test, avoiding taking on more responsibilities than you can handle • emotion-focused coping: examine and reappraise the emotional response to the stressor • ex: relaxation, exercise • social support—seeking support and advice from others • develops social connectedness Individual Differences in Coping • hardiness—viewing change as a challenge rather than a threat • positive traits and emotions (ex: optimism) • flexible coping—ability to flexibly control emotions • rumination—over-focusing on our bad feeling and repeatedly analyzing the causes and effects Stress and Immune Function • the mind-body connection • emotional factors can lead to a worsening or increased likeliness of illness • immune function psychoneuroimmunology—study of how psychological factors relate to changes in the • immune system Health-Relevant Behavior • health psychology—integrates psychology with practice of medicine to promote healthy lifestyles and improved stress management • promoting a healthy lifestyle (non-smoking, non-drinking, diet and eating, exercise) Meditation for Stress Reduction and Health • meditation training—repeated practice of specific mental techniques with the goal of developing enduring psychological traits (or skills) over time • used to promote relaxation, mindfulness, etc 4/20/16 Psychological Disorders • Psychopathology, mental illness, mental disorders, psychological disorders, and abnormal psychology can be used interchangeably • differs from normal points in life in severity and duration • mental disorders… • impair daily life • are subjective to distress are statistically rare • • are disapproved by society Historical and Cultural Perspectives • what is “abnormal” and “normal”? Diagnosis and Classification • why? • targeting the problem and selecting treatment • medical and scientific communication • assessment—process of examining a person’s mental functions and psychological health • common misconceptions: psychiatric diagnosis • deprive individuals of their uniqueness • are unreliable • are invalid or unhelpful • lead to stigmatization Standardized Diagnosis • biopsychosocial approach—interplay of biological, psychological, and social influences • diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5)—includes diagnostic criteria, decision rules, and statistics on prevalence • challenges in practice of diagnosis: comorbidity, reliance on categorical model, spectrum of severity categorical approach—to determine whether the person has depression or not dimensional approach—to rank the person’s symptoms in terms of magnitude, degree, or severity Diathesis—Stress model • interaction of genes and environment • diatheses—underlying predisposition or vulnerability to develop a disorder • increases risk for developing the disorder, but stress may actually last longer • stress—situation that overwhelms our ability to cope Major Depressive Disorders • characterized by severe negative moods or lack of interest in normal pleasurable activities • prevalence • most likely to onset in people in their thirties • women are almost twice as likely yo experience depression • recurrent vs. concurrent depression • some people may have it more than once • most major episodes last 6 months to a year • common criteria or symptoms (over 2 weeks) • depressed mood most of the day • weight change sleeping a lot or not sleeping • • fatigue • recurrent thoughts of suicide and/or death Explaining Depressive Disorders • complex interactions of biological, situational, and cognitive factors • biological components, life events, and cognitive factors Depression, Reward, and Negative Feedback • Interpersonal Model • social support can protect against depression • Behavioral Model • people with depression experience lower rates of positive feedback or reinforcement during interactions in their day • Learned Helplessness • tendency to feel helpless in the face of events we can’t control Unipolar disorders—characterized by persistent feelings of sadness Bipolar disorders—characterized by radical fluctuations in mood, alternating periods of depression and mania • strong genetic heritability (60-85%) • long term consequences of manic episodes on life stability Anxiety-Related Disorders • anxiety is not bad—it is adaptive and helpful (in small-medium doses) • anxiety disorders—characters by excessive fear and anxiety in the absence of true danger • among the most prevalent of mental disorders GeneralizeAnxiety Disorder—marked by really excessive worrying Phobias: irrational fear of specific object or situation Orphidiophobia—fear of snakes Arachnophobia—fear of spiders SocialAnxiety Disorder—intense fear of being negatively evaluated by others Panic Disorder—panic attacks consist of sudden, overwhelming attacks of terror and worry lasting several minutes Agoraphobia—fear of being in situations in which escape may be difficult, impossible, or embarrassing in the event of a panic attack Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)—occurs after exposure to actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violation Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders (OCD)—involves frequent intrusive thoughts and compulsive actions • hoarding—urge to accumulate items, and compulsive acquisition of possessions • body dysmorphic disorder—preoccupation with small or imagined defects in appearance • Tourette’s Disorder—repetition of automatic behaviors (affects ~30% of individuals w/ OCD) 4/21/16 Psychological Disorders II Personality Disorders • generally develop late in childhood or adolescence and continue into adulthood • Borderline Personality Disorder • extreme instability in mood, identity, and impulse control • strong fear of abandonment • Psychopathic Personality • marked by superficial charm, dishonesty, lack of empathy, callousness, self- centeredness, risk taking 80% male • Dissociative Disorders • involve disruptions of identity, or memory, and of conscious awareness • Depersonalization—episodes of feeling of being “detaches” from yourself, as if in a movie or dream • Derealization—episodes of sense that the external world is strange or unreal • Dissociative amnesia—forgetting that an event happened or losing awareness of a substantial block of time • Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)—occurrence of two or more distance personality states in the same individual Schizophrenia • psychotic disorder involving alterations in thoughts, perceptions, or consciousness • leads to profound disturbances in language, emotion, and personal relationships • delusions—strongly held beliefs with no basis in reality • persecutory—belief that others are persecuting, spying on, or trying to harm one • referential—belief that objects, events, or other people have particular significance to one • grandiose—belief that one has great knowledge, power, or talent • identity—belief that one is someone else • guilt—belief that one has committed a terrible sin • control—belief that one’s thoughts and behaviors are being controlled y external factors hallucinations—sensory perceptions that occur in the absence of a real, external stimulus • • factors that influence schizophrenia • brain abnormalities, neurotransmitter differences, genetic influences, family support and environment 4/25/16 Psychological Treatments Psychotherapy: any psychological intervention designed to help people resolve emotional, behavioral, or interpersonal problems, with the goal of improving the quality of their lives • ~20% ofAmericans have received psychotherapy at some point in their lives • women, CaucasianAmericans, higher socioeconomic groups, highly educated, people with medical insurance tend to seek help more often People who provide treatment • clinical psychologists • scientist-practitioner model (Ph.D.) • practitioner-scholar model (Psy.D.) Psychiatrists • • medical doctor—can prescribe medicine • Counseling Psychologists • Clinical Social Workers • School Psychologists • Marriage and Family Therapists • Psychiatric Nurses Effective Therapists • little difference in effectiveness between experienced and novice therapists • professionals know how to operate within the system and choose more effective treatments Insight Therapies • aim to cultivate and expand self-awareness and self-knowledge • Psychoanalysis • developed by Sigmund Freud • goal is to decrease guilt and frustrations and to bring aspects of the unconscious to conscious awareness • treatment tends to be lengthy and expensive • six core techniques • free association—client says wha comes to mind • interpretation—therapist forms explanations • dream analysis—dreams reveal unconscious themes • resistance—client avoids what is really going on • transference—client projects feelings onto therapist • working through—helps client gain insight into their problems • Psychodynamic Therapy • focuses more on symptom relief • theoretical approach • issues: • research shows insight is not necessary to relieve distress • little evidence for “repression” or hurtful memories • HumanisticApproach • therapies emphasize development of human potential and the belief that human nature is basically positive • focused on the importance of taking responsibility for our lives and living in the present • person-centered therapy • developed by Carl Rogers • non-directive • therapist must be: • authentic and genuine express unconditional positive regard • • show emphatic understanding • goal is to increase awareness and heightened self-acceptance, moving towards self- actualization • Cognitive-BehavioralApproaches • BehavioralApproach • general principals of learning are applied to the learning of maladaptive as well as adaptive behaviors • focuses on specific problem behaviors and the variables that maintain them—less focused on underlying problems • goal is to change maladaptive behaviors by learning new, desirable ones • Exposure Therapies • clients are confronted with anxiety-provoking situations with the goal of reducing their fear • we can “unlearn our automatic anxiety responses by challenging avoidance strategies • effective for treating specific phobias, panic disorders, agoraphobia, social phobia, and anxieties associated with OCD • Systematic Desensitization • therapist helps client build an anxiety hierarchy and learn relaxation techniques • people cannot be relaxed and anxious at the same time • uses counterconditioning by repeatedly pairing an incompatible relaxation response with anxiety • Flooding • more extreme form of exposure therapy • client experiences extreme exposure to an anxiety-provoking object or situation for prolonged periods (e.g. 1 hour) • Modeling in Therapy • used to build and develop effective coping skills (particularly social skills) • assertion training and behavioral rehearsal • Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies • our beliefs and automatic interpretations about ourselves and the wolf can strongly influence our feelings and behaviors • Cognitive-FocusedApproach • focused on how cognitions and thought patterns maintain • goal is to challenge core beliefs and distorted thoughts • most helpful for depressions and anxiety disorders • Group therapies • individuals with common problems met regularly with a therapist to help themselves and none another • client realizes that he/she is not alone • ex: alcoholics anonymous, family therapies 4/26/16 Psychological Treatments II • Biomedical treatments—attempt to directly alter the brain’s chemistry or physiology to treat psychological disorders • Drug Therapies • psychopharmacotherapy—use of medications to treat psychological problems • today antidepressants are the most commonly prescribed medications among adults • medications do not help patients build active coping skills, so it is best when paired with therapy • for mood disorders: • depressive disorder: • antidepressant medications • cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) • bipolar disorders: • lithium • anti convulsive medications (seizure-reducing) • for anxiety disorders: • adult anxiety disorders: • CBT • short-term relief: • Valium or Xanax (can be addicting) • general relief • SSRIs • specific phobias • systematic desensitization • schizophrenia • medications are essential • thorazine or haldol • many unpleasant side effects • psychological treatments: social skills training • Electroconvulsive Therapy • involves brief electrical pulses to the brain to produce a seizure • used to treat severe problems as a last resort • can result in short-term confusion or memory loss • electromagnetic stimulation • vagus nerve stimulation • transcranial magnetic stimulation deep brain stimulation—used for extreme parkinson’s and other extreme • circumstances • Psychosurgery • brain surgery to treat psychological disorders • prefrontal lobotomy—sever connection between prefrontal cortex and rest of the brain • used as an absolute last resort with severe OCD, depression, and bipolar disorders 4/28/16 Module 3 Human Development • Human development continues throughout the lifetime • special considerations in human development • bidirectional influences • ex: children can effect the environment and the environment can effect children • cohort effects: effects that result from a group of people growing up at a particular time • ex: younger generations text more whereas older generations talk on the phone • early experiences: early experiences effect later development (ex: parenting), humans are resilient—we are influenced throughout our lives • nature vs. nurture—we are influenced by genetics and environment • obstacles to healthy prenatal development • teratogens: environmental factors that can negatively impact prenatal development • alcohol and fetal alcohol syndrome • rubella and birth defects such as deafness • pika virus and microcephaly • Prenatal development • all major organs are established by 9 weeks • brain begins developing at 18 days gestation • proliferation: neurons develop very quickly • more neurons are developed than are needed at infancy and they migrate and form brain structures • Physical development • infancy • born with reflexes that help them survive: sucking reflex (to eat), rooting reflex (touching baby’s face will make it turn towards the touch) infants that are swaddled develop slower • • adolescence • onset of puberty starts around age 12 but range until 18 on average • onset of puberty starts around age 11 and ranges until 14 on average • adulthood • as we age: • decreased muscle tone, increased fat • decline in sensory abilities • reproductive changes • declines in motor coordination • increased age-related diseases • there is great variability in how people age • Cognitive Development: developing mind and brain • occurs in a series of stages and is more continuous • learning occurs through physical experience, social interaction, and biological maturity • Cognitive theorists • Vygotsky: • children learn through social and cultural influences (scaffolding, training wheels— parents provide structure for children to learn new skills) • zone of proximal development—children are ready to use the scaffolding provided by the parent • Piaget: • children are little scientists (learn and discover by interacting with the world around them) and develop in stages, they are not mini adults • conducted research with children in Universities in Switzerland and France • ASSIMILATION: incorporation of new info into current way of thinking about the world • child knows four-legged animal is a dog, sees cow and says “doggy” • ACCOMMODATION: modify the current way of thinking to include new information • new understanding of doggie and cow—dog is at home, cow lives on farm • Sensorimotor (birth-2years): children understand the world around them based on physical interactions • Preoperational (2-7years): children can perform mental operations on objects, they see things only from their point of view • he used the three mountain task to test this (also could be that they just cannot do mental rotation) • Concrete operational (7-11 years): children can perform mental operations, but only for actual physical events Formal operational (11 years to adulthood): children can think abstractly • 5/2/16 Human Development II • Other methods for testing cognitive development • impossible tasks and looking time • high amplitude sucking paradigm (higher rates of sucking indicates alertness) • newer ways: • theory of mind: understanding that not everyone knows all of the same things you know • Cognitive development: • adolescence • prefrontal cortex is responsible for impulse control and it is not fully developed until after teenage years • learn that not all answers are black and white adulthood • • ability to recall people, places, and things begins to decline after age 30 • decrease in processing speed with age • free real ability declines but recognition and cued recall remains intact • accumulated knowledge stays the same or increases with age (older=wiser) Social and Moral Development • temperament: basic social, emotional, and behavioral style that emerges early and appears to be largely influenced by genetics and culture • tends to be stable throughout lifetime • majority of temperaments (American children) fall into 3 categories: • easy 40%, difficult 10%, slow to warm up 15%, none of these 35% • attachment: strong emotional connection we share with those to whom we feel closest • attachment theory • Konrad Lorenz and imprinting • imprinting: some bird species chicks will follow the first moving object near the nest • evolutionary: imprinting contributes to survival • human infants do not imprint • Harry Harlow and infant rhesus monkeys—showed that comfort is really important • MaryAinsworth’s Strange Situation Procedure—child’s reaction to mother during reunions • attachment styles in human infants • secure attachment—child sees mother as secure base because she has been reliable in the past • insecure attachment—child is unsure if mother will provide comfort because she has been inconsistent in the past • insecure avoidant—mother has not been available and child avoids seeking comfort • disorganized—child responds inconsistently • Parenting styles • permissive, authoritative, authoritarian, uninvolved • mothers: exhibit more mutual attention, more affection, more time • fathers: more physical play, preferred playmates • same sex parents: no difference in academic performance or social adjustment • stigma was associated with decreased well-being • single parents: child outcome depends • divorced parents: child outcome depends on severity of parental conflict before the divorce • divorce may be a relief from the arguing • possible difficulty with relationships in the future • Identity development • Erikson’s theory: identity development occurs in 8 distinct stages • • individuals go through stages in order • identity develops throughout the lifetime • gender identity: • sex refers to biological characteristics and gender refers to emotional identity • more than just being only male and only female • cisgender: gender identity is the same as what was assigned at birth • transgender: gender identity, expression, or behavior is different from what you were assigned at birth • gender roles: stereotypical behaviors associated with being male or female • social influences • gender roles are more strictly reinforced for boys than for girls • Morality development • Kohlberg • pre conventional, conventional, postconventional • adult years • careers • midlife crisis and empty nest syndrome 5/3/16 Learning I • Three main types of learning: • non associative: doesn't require linking two stimuli together • habituation: process of responding less strongly over time to repeated stimuli • getting used to something such as squeaking chairs and clock ticking • response to harmless stimuli • sensitization: process of responding more strongly over time to repeated stimuli • response usually to dangerous or irritating stimuli • associative: learning about the relationship between two pieces of information • classical conditioning: • neutral stimulus—does not elicit and automatic response (metronome) • unconditioned stimulus—stimulus that does elicit an unconditioned response (meat powder) • each stimulus was presented together and the dog learns that the metronome signifies the meat powder • conditioned response—trained response/salivating for metronome • extinction—stop pairing the metronome with the meat powder and the associated will go extinct • classical conditioning is used in: • advertisement • taste aversion (not wanting to eat food that made you sick in the past) addiction • • fears and phobias • operant conditioning: learning controlled by the consequences of an organism’s behavior • rewarding a dog for doing something will make it respond that way in the future • can be used to increase or decrease a behavior by adding or removing a stimulus • there is positive reinforcement, positive punishment, negative reinforcement, and negative punishment • differences between classical and operant conditioning: • classical: target behavior is elicited automatically, consequence is provided unconditionally, behavior depends on autonomic nervous system • operant: target behavior is emitted voluntarily, consequence is contingent on behavior, behavior depends on skeletal muscles 5/4/16 Learning I • more on operant conditioning… • variable reinforcement schedule: reinforcement variably instead of every time • shaping: training animals to do exotic tasks (ex: pigeons playing ping pong) • superstitions: (ex: wearing “lucky socks” every time your favorite teams plays because they won when you wore them in the past) • observational: learning by watching others • mirror neurons—same part of brain that is activated when you do an activity is activated when you see it done • biological preparedness: we are biologically prepared to learn to fear things that can harm us • learning fads • sleep assisted learning • accelerated learning • discover learning • learning styles 5/5/16 Memory • hyperthymestic syndrome: the ability to remember almost everything you experienced • savant syndrome: when people with developmental disabilities have genius capabilities incongruent with their mental disabilities (rare) Three memory systems • • sensory memory: information enters via the senses and remains for a brief period before it is moved to short-term memory • auditory: echoic • visual: iconic • short-term memory: • duration: between 5 and 20 seconds without rehearsal • maintenance rehearsal—simply repeating information over and over • not very useful at getting it into long-term memory • elaborative rehearsal—linking stimuli to one another in a meaningful way • visualizing • trying to understand the relations between stimuli • decay: information fades away over time • interference: other info gets in the way • working memory: where we “work” on (process and think about) information • info is either passed to long-term memory or it is lost • digit span: people can retain 7 plus or minus 2 numbers • chunking: grouping info into meaningful groups helps to remember it • primacy and recency effects: people are more likely to remember initial info and recent info more than the info in the middle • long-term memory: • capacity is enormous (as much as 500 encyclopedias 1500 pages each) • information lasts for many years (sometimes permanently) • explicit: things you consciously know • semantic—things we consciously know about the world • Who ran against Obama and Biden in 2012? • episodic—recall of events (episodes) of our lives • What did you do your last birthday? • implicit: things you know but do not deliberately recall • procedural: memory for motor skills and habits • priming (do not need to know in detail) conditioning (do not need to know in detail) • • habituation (do not need to know in detail) • memory processes: • attention: attending to information • rehearsal: processing information • maintenance • elaborative • works because of depth of processing • encoding: getting information into our memory banks • storage: keeping information in memory • retrieval: remembering information when it is needed 5/9/16 Memory II Elaborative Rehearsal • the more deeply we process information, the better we remember it • visual processing—how the sentence looks to us, the font, word spelling • auditory processing—how the sentence sounds, perhaps repeatedly speaking the sentence aloud • semantic processing—emphasize the meaning of the sentence • Context-dependent learning • refers to the external context in which the learning occurred • State-dependent learning • refers to the internal state in which the learning occurred people remember things better when they are in the same state as when they learned them • • sometimes refers to mood—mood dependent learning Retrieval • recall—“describe the differences between short-term and long-term memory” • tip of the tongue (TOT) phenomenon—person often knows the first letter of the word and how many syllables it contains • recognition—“all statements below (a-d) about short term memory and long-term memory are true except:” Where is memory stored in our brain? • the size of the lesions in the rats’brains made a difference in their memory but the locations did not How are memories malleable? • storage of information depends on our interpretation of that information • schemas—knowledge structures we have stored in our memories • they guide our attention to relevant information and help us interpret meaning based on our previous experiences • gist—basic meaning or context of the information you are given • source monitoring—where did I hear, see, experience that? • the average age of earliest memory in adults is 3.5 years • they are few and lack significant details • what we remember is often a result of conversations with adults, photos, stories • infantile amnesia may be because hippocampi are not fully developed until age 2, self awareness is essential for creating memories about the self, and children do not understand events well enough to encode them properly • in childhood, age at earliest memory depends upon the age of the person doing the remembering • abducted by aliens study— more 7-8 year olds reported false memories compared to the 11-12 year olds Flashbulb memories—memories so vivid that people appear to recount them in remarkable, even photographic detail 5/10/16 Intelligence Measuring Intelligence • sensory capacity—people with higher sensory capacity (e.g. sight, smell, hearing) would acquire more knowledge than those with lower sensory capacity • scientists used to think that intelligence could be measure by the angle of the head and the size of the brain • there were some differences between Einstein’s brain and the typical brain • Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon developed the first intelligence test • it was meant to measure the overall thinking ability • reasoning • thinking beyond the here and now • understanding hypothetical concepts • Lewis merman modified the previous test to establish a set of norms for the new test (Stanford Binet Intelligence Test) • Deviation IQ—how far you deviate from the average score which is 100 Eugenics Movement • brought about to encourage people with good genes to reproduce and those with bad ones were discouraged from reproducing • Some questions are on intelligence tests • analogies (ex: a book is to eating as a fork is to _____ reading) • patterns (37, 34, 31, 28… 25) • spatial (Which shape does not belong?) • classification (Which diagram is the result of folding the diagram at the top?) • General Intelligence—a single factor shared across all intelligence items • Spearman’s two-Factor model: verbal, quantitative, and abstract reasoning, and short-term memory are all part of general intelligence • Cattle and Horn’s fluid (solving problems we have never seen before) and crystalized (knowledge we have accumulated over time) intelligence • Sternberg’s Triacrchic Model • 3 distinct types of intelligence • analytical, practical, and creative • Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence Model • eight frames of mind that are each separate from the others What do IQ tests predict? • academic success—scores and grades are positively correlated at 0.5 • occupation—people with higher IQs tend to have more mentally challenging jobs • job performance—positive correlation in professions that are mentally challenging What influences IQ? • genetic and environmental influences • twin studies—twins raised together and apart score similarly on IQ measures • adopted children’s IQs tend to resemble those of their biological parents • no differences between men and women IQ, higher variability
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