Public Speaking Final
• Aristotle developed systematic approach to rhetoric through developing four proofs, which are…
o Logos; rational appeal to logic, facts and objective analysis.
o Pathos; appeals to someone’s emotions
o Ethos; appeals to personal character and credibility
o Mythos (posthumously added); appeals to values and beliefs embedded in cultural narrative or stories.
• Cicero characterized public communication into five “arts of public speaking.” o Invention; the moment you find an idea, line of thought or argument.
o Arrangement; how the ideas are organized
o Style; the imagery used to bring the content of a speech to life.
o Memory; using knowledge and abilities to to give an effective speech.
o Delivery; how you use your voice, gesture and bodily movements.
• The elements of audience-centered public speaking…
o The audience; fully centered on the audience. We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of hybridization?
o The speaker; the source of communication.
o The message; the words a speaker uses (verbal communication) and how the speaker presents those words (nonverbal communication).
o The channel; the medium used to communicate (in person, print, electronic) o Noise; any distraction that may take away from the audience’s ability to hear or understand the message.
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o Feedback; the audiences’ response to your message (could be negative or positive). o The context; the situation for which the communication occurs (also could be negative or positive). Also includes the physical setting of a speech.
o The environment; the surroundings that extend beyond the immediate context that can influence a speech.
• Uncertainty reduction theory; when individuals face an uncertain or unfamiliar situation, their level of anxiety increases.
• Strategies for overcoming anxiety include…
o Relabeling; assign positive words in place of feelings associated with anxiety. (“I’m so excited,” rather than “I’m so nervous.”)
o Visualization; think positively of the speech occurring, rather than negatively. • Spotlight effect; leads a speaker to think people observe him/her more carefully than they actually do. We also discuss several other topics like How do you find the number of atoms in a molecule?
• Ethical communication; the moral aspects of speaking and listening, such as being fair. • Communication climate; the psychological and emotional tone that develops as people interact. • Dialogue; communicators are invited to express their ideas with the goal of understanding each other.
• Monologue; communication is one way and communicators are only concerned with their own goals.
• Ethnocentrism; occurs when individual’s belief their view of the world is better than anyone else’s. Can have a drastic effect on evaluation of credibility and competence. We also discuss several other topics like Do all nuclei have angular momentum?
• The HURIER model; a component of listening that involves…
o Hearing; physical reception of sounds.
o Understanding; comprehending what you heard.
o Remembering; recall auditory information
o Interpret; assign meaning to the sounds received based on own experiences. o Evaluating; critically examine a message.
o Responding; verbal and nonverbal responses demonstrate involvement and effectiveness. • Types of listening include…
o Empathetic; you understand the feelings and emotions conveyed by a speaker. o Appreciative; listening for enjoyment. If you want to learn more check out How do we study families?
o Contextual; when you’re listening to gather information or knowledge.
o Critical; listening to evaluate the speaker’s credibility, ideas and supporting evidence.
• The general purpose of a speech is to…
o Speaking to inform; describe, explain or demonstrate something.
o Speaking to persuade; reinforce, modify or change an audience member’s beliefs, attitude, opinion, value or behavior.
o Speaking to entertain; seek to captivate audience members and have them enjoy the context of the speech.
• The specific purpose of your speech is what you expect to achieve with the speech, and is accomplished via merging the general purpose with your knowledge of the audience. Specific purposes include to inform, to persuade or to entertain. We also discuss several other topics like Would the new national government be strong enough to balance power and liberty?
• A working outline is a guide that is used during the initial stage of topic development to keep the writer focused on the general purpose of the speech.
• The target audience is the particular group or subgroup that the speaker is trying to reach. • In order to speak to diverse audiences, the speaker should attempt to identify commonalities, or things that the audience members may have in common with each other and the speaker. • Voluntary audiences; choose to attend (or not attend) an event.
• Captive audience; attend because they believe it is mandatory.
• Speaker credibility includes the following aspects;
o Competence; the qualifications a speaker has to discuss a topic.
o Trustworthiness; overall perception of being trusty.
o Dynamism; the activity level displayed during a speech (dynamic).
o Sociability; the degree to which an audience connects with a speaker.
• Completing research is incredibly important to having a credible speech.
• Resources for speeches include…
o Reference works, such as material found in library databases (maps, atlases, encyclopedias, etc.)
o Non-print resources, such as audio sources or sound bytes.
o Interviews, such as a newscast or personal interview.
o Print, whether that be physical or electronic (websites or web articles).
• Research materials should be evaluated prior to use based on the following qualities… o Reliability; the consistency and credibility of the information, and that it comes from a reliable source (such as an expert research publication).
o Validity; the soundness of the logic underlying the information.
o Currency; how recent the information was discovered and published.
• Supporting materials are used to illustrate, clarify and provide evidence for ideas. • Materials should be used to hit the four emotional appeals as defined by Aristotle; ethos, pathos, logos or mythos (see Chapter 1 for definition).
• There are four types of narratives, which are ways to convey your message. They are… o Personal stories; relating your own narrative to personalize the topic.
o Other’s stories; relating events of others to personalize the topic.
o Institutional stories; stories of organizations or corporations to personalize the topic. o Cultural stories; transmit basic values and accepted behaviors of culture.
• General examples provide little detail, whereas, specific examples give listeners much more detail in order to support what you are saying. Both are based on actual events. • Hypothetical examples from supposition, which is not an actual event. This could occur if the speaker asks the audience to imagine something.
• Definition by function; when a speaker describes what something does.
• Definition by analogy; when a speaker describes something by comparing it to something else. • There are three different types of testimony we are concerned about…
o Expert; a source the audience will perceive as highly qualified about a topic. o Celebrity; a source that can compel and audience due to their fame or status. o Lay; individuals who have experience with a topic but are not considered experts.
• Every speech has four main parts…
o Introduction; the attention getter, purpose and thesis, credibility establishment, and preview of the speech’s main points occur in this section.
o Body; includes all of the speaker’s main and subordinate points.
o Transitions; The phrases utilized to shift from point to point.
o Conclusion; ends the speech through reviewing the main points, restating the thesis and providing closure.
• In developing your main ideas, ensure you have clarity, relevance and balance. • There are many ways to organize the main points of your speech, including… o Chronological; the way in which something develops of occurs in a time sequence. ▪ History of a subject of a step-by-step sequence.
o Spatial; the physical or geographical relationship of objects or places.
▪ Describing an object or place.
o Topical; arranged by subtopics of equal importance.
▪ Examining the elements that make up a topic.
o Narrative; dramatic retelling of events as a story.
▪ Speeches of tribute or introduction.
o Cause and effect; displays how and action will have a certain outcome.
▪ If you take path A, you will result in outcome A, whereas path B will result in outcome B.
o Problem and solution; describes a problem and provides a possible solution. ▪ Because of A, companies should do B.
o Monroe’s motivated sequence; each step is designed to facilitate audience involvement and interest.
▪ Useful for gaining interest or agreement.
▪ Composed of 5 steps, which are…
• Gaining audiences attention.
• Establishing the need for something or the existence of a problem.
• Satisfying the problem.
• Helping audience members visualize an outcome.
• Moving an audience to action (important).
• Primacy effect; the influence of first impressions on later perceptions.
• Recency effect; audience members recall what the speaker presents last more so than what was presented first.
• Attention getter; a device used to create interest in your speech.
• Language is arbitrary. Communicators use words to stand for their thoughts and ideas. • Language is ambiguous. Words have multiple meanings and individuals have their own meanings and concepts for these words.
o Denotive meanings refer to formal or literal meanings (as you would find in the dictionary).
o Connotative meanings refer to the unique meanings for words based on own experiences (such as democrats).
• Language is abstract. Some words are fairly specific, while others are more abstract. • Language is active. Speakers get listeners to think more deeply, laugh out loud, learn something new, change their views or alter their behaviors.
• Jargon; language associated with specific professions.
• Idioms; the expressions have practical meanings that differ from literal meanings. • Euphemisms; speakers use them in place of words viewed as disagreeable (such as democrats). • Clichés; trite or obvious expressions used often.
• Spoken language is dynamic while written language is static.
• Spoken language is immediate while written language is distant.
• Spoken language is often informal while written language is often formal.
• Spoken language is irreversible while written language is reversible.
• Visual languages include…
o Simile; comparing things using like and as.
o Metaphor; equate one thing with another.
o Parallelism; same phrase or wording multiple times to add emphasis.
o Rhymes; words with similar sounds.
o Alliteration; when they repeat a sound in a series of words.
o Antithesis; refers to the juxtaposition of two contradictory phrases organized parallel.
• Presentation materials include many advantages and disadvantages, including… o Digital slides can be overused and boring, especially when too much information is presented to the audience (disadvantage).
o Document cameras can project images with great detail and work great if the speaker is organized (advantage).
o Overhead projectors are dated (disadvantage).
o Flipcharts are great for brainstorming, but not presenting (disadvantage). o Whiteboards are unprofessional (disadvantage).
o Interactive whiteboards work for teaching, but not presenting (disadvantage). o Video invokes emotion in audience (advantage).
o Handouts provide a visual layout of your speech (advantage).
o Physical models work great if done correctly (advantage).
o Human assistance requires close coordination and must be done effectively (advantage). o Sound and music can help create and environment (advantage).
o Real-time web content is great when used to monitor developments (advantage). • Speaking is the best way to deliver a speech, so don’t get carried away.
• Important to practice and set up early.
• Impromptu speaking; delivery with little or no preparation.
• Extemporaneous speaking; giving a speech that has been planned, researched, organized and rehearsed, but not read word-for-word off a transcript.
• Manuscript; a speech that is read word-for-word off of a transcript.
• Memorized; a speech that has been committed to memory.
• Factors that influence delivery include…
o Pitch; the highness or lowness of a speaker’s voice.
o Fluency; whether or not the speaker can speak fluently.
o Dialect; vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation.
o Physical impairments; such as a wheelchair, limp, broken limb.
• An informative speech is a speech in which the speaker seeks to raise awareness, increase knowledge or deepen the audience’s knowledge about a topic.
• These speeches are personally meaningful, accurate and clear.
• There are five key types of informative speeches. They are…
o Speeches about objects and places.
o Speeches about people and other living creatures.
o Speeches about processes.
o Speeches about events.
o Speeches about ideas and concepts.
• Some possible organizational patterns are… (see Chapter 8 for a detailed description). o Chronological pattern.
o Spatial pattern.
o Topical pattern.
o Narrative pattern.
o Cause and effect pattern.
• Important guidelines for informative speeches include…
o Keep your search informative; describe, explain or demonstrate something, but don’t tell the audience specifically what to think or do about it.
o Make the speech topic come alive.
o Connect the topic to the audience.
o Inform to educate.
o Utilize media to inform.
• A persuasive speech is one that relies on language, images and other means of communication to influence people’s beliefs, attitudes, values or actions.
• Coercion; when people are forced to think a certain way or feel compelled to act under pressure.
• Manipulation; using dishonest tactics, such as deliberately skewing data.
• Types of persuasive speeches include…
o Question of fact; the speaker asks whether something is true or false. The speaker tries to persuade an audience that something did/did not occur or that something did/did not cause another thing.
o Question of value; the speaker argues that something is good/bad, right/wrong, beautiful/ugly, boring/engaging or funny/serious.
o Question of policy; the speaker asks what specific course of action should be taken or how a problem should be solved.
• How to persuade different types of audiences…
o The negative (hostile) audience; is informed on your topic and holds an unfavorable viewpoint of it.
▪ Establish credibility by developing a positive relationship.
▪ Take a common-ground approach to the topic.
▪ Help your audience visualize the topic in a positive way.
o The positive (sympathetic) audience; is informed about your topic and has a favorable view of your position.
▪ Incorporate engaging evidence that reinforces the audience’s commitment to the topic.
▪ Use vivid language and images to heighten enthusiasm to the topic.
▪ Rely on narratives to elaborate your points.
o The divided audience; is informed about your topic but holds a split view. ▪ The challenge is to persuade those who disagree with you.
▪ Demonstrate you recognize the legitimacy of arguments both for and against. ▪ Cite statistics to establish credibility.
o The uninformed audience; is unfamiliar with your topic and therefore have no opinion. ▪ Show the relevance of your topic to the audience.
▪ Demonstrate expertise and fairness in addressing all perspectives.
o The apathetic audience; is informed about your topic but are not interested. ▪ Gain their attention and pique their interest.
▪ Show how your topic specifically affects them.
▪ Show the audience you care about the topic through energy and dynamism.
• Argument; makes a claim and backs it up with evidence and reasoning.
• Claim; the position or assertion a speaker wants the audience to accept. Claims lay the groundwork for the argument that makes up your thesis.
• Evidence; the supporting material that provides foundation for your claims. • Reasoning; the method or process used to represent the claim and arrive at the arguments conclusion.
• Conclusion; the primary claim made by a speaker, often using words such as therefore, consequently, and so, thus and accordingly.
• Premise; gives a reason to support a conclusion, often using words such as because, whereas, since, on account of and due to.
• There are four different types of reasoning. These are…
o Deductive reasoning; the speaker argues from a general principle to a specific instance or case.
o Inductive reasoning; the speaker argues from specific examples to general principle. o Casual reasoning; the speaker argues that one action or event brought about another action or event in order to 1) explain why something happened, 2) identify who is responsible, 3) determine whether people can control an event, and 4) predict what might occur.
o Analogical reasoning; the speaker compares similar objects, processes, concepts, and events.
• Fallacies; an error in making an argument.
• Fallacies in claims include…
o False dilemma; choices are reduced to just two that the audience can choose even though other alternatives exist.
o Begging the question; something is true because it is.
o Slippery slope; one event leads to another without a logical connection.
o Ad ignorantiam; a thing is true because it has not been disproved.
• Fallacies in evidence include…
o Red herring; when speakers present evidence that has nothing to do with a claim. o Ad populum; appeal to popular attitude without offering any supporting materials. o Appeal to tradition; support the status quo rather than trying a new idea or approach. o Comparative evidence; inappropriate use of statistics.
• Fallacies in reasoning include…
o Division; speakers assume that what is true of the whole is also true of parts. o Hasty generalization; drawing a conclusion from insufficient examples.
o Post hoc; concluding that a casual relationship exists simply because one event follows another in time.
o Weak analogy; when two things have important dissimilarities that make the comparison misleading.
• Fallacies in responding include…
o Ad hominem; a personal attack.
o Guilt by association; links the thesis with someone the audience finds objectionable, deplorable, repulsive or evil.
o Straw man; misrepresentation of the speaker’s argument.
o Loaded words; emotionally laden, misleading language to distract from the argument.
• Speeches for introduction; a short speech that introduces a person who is about to give a speech.
• Acceptance speeches; a thankful and humble speech to accept an award.
• After dinner speeches; usually serve as a featured part of an organized event, and are used to be entertaining and lighthearted while usually focusing on a certain topic.
• Tributes and eulogies; give credit, respect, admiration, gratitude or inspiration to a person or group who have accomplished something significant, lives in a way that is deserving of praise or is about to embark on an adventure.
• Speeches of nomination; demonstrate why that person would be successful at something if given the opportunity.
• Public testimony; the opportunity to participate in discussion that shape the policies and directly affect your world.
• Roasts; a humorous presentation in public.
• Toasts; unabashedly celebrates the person or person’s being toasted.
• Elevator speech; a short speech to introduce themselves and talk about their work, interests and extracurricular activities.
• Mediated speaking; access to the mass media in order to extend ventures into public speaking. • Different ways to present in small groups include…
o Oral report; one representative from a group gives an entire report.
o Panel discussion; a moderator or facilitator asks questions to direct the groups interaction, which occurs in front of an audience.
o Symposium; the group chooses a topic and divides it into different areas.
o Forum; the question and answer session that follows a formal group presentation. o Videoconferencing; people at multiple locations used video to communicate in real time.