JSIS 202 Final Study Guide
JSIS 202 Final Study Guide JSIS 202
Popular in Cultural Interactions in an Interdependent World
Popular in Jackson School of International Studies
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Date Created: 06/03/16
Knowledge and Consciousness Monday, March 28, 2016 11:30 AM Heart of Education • To be human is to be a skilled interpreter o Theory is a plausible interpretation of the characteristic features of whatever we are analyzing, whether a culture, text or living human documents. • Pre-understandings: o Responsible interpreters risk our pre -understandings in the act of interpretation. • "The past is not dead, it is not even past." - William Faulkner • Objects of Interpretation: o Culture that bears an excess of meaning, whic h resists definitive interpretation. o Texts that bear an excess of meaning, which resist definitive interpretation. o People that bear an excess of meaning; they resist definitive interpretation. • Interesting people change their minds over time. To Recognize that we are our interactions • To know that one is a fish swimming in water. Extra Credit: Turkey: From Islamic Democracy Lecture on Thursday April 7: 3:30 to 5 Walker Ames Room, KANE Attend lecture, write 1/2 to one page of what you got out of it: give to ta for 1 point Rules for Conversation • Approach a cultures/humans/texts with pre -understandings - good interpreters, aware of these pre-understandings (our watery environ) risk them in the act of interpretation. Rules for the Game • Say what you mean • Say it as accurately as possible • Listen to and respect what the other says • Be willing to correct or defend your opinions • Be willing to argue, to confront and endure conflict, and being known • To change your mind if necessary Real Education • It is about the real value of a real education, which has almost nothing to do with knowledge, and everything to do with simple awareness; awareness of what is so real and essential so hidden in plain sight all around us, all the time, that we have to keep reminding our selves over and over: o "This is water" o "This is water" • David Foster Wallace To Know and to be Known • From the 17th century forward "knowing things" is prized above all things o What is the Enlightenment • To know is the essential act of the human • To be right, to determine what is valid and reliable, gives us the illusion of security… of being in charge o Knowledge is power o If you can know something, then you have the power What do you really want? • To Know and to be Known o To be in control, to be ri ght, prevents us from being known, and maybe, of from being essentially human o We can slowly come to understand what it is to be known, to have another person validate and accept our feelings, preferences and dreams. o To be accepted for who we are rather th an what we known or what we do. Argument: It's not just knowing something, the interaction allows you to be known. To be known is as important as knowing. A part of education is the process of risking and interacting and becoming known. What is your tribe? • Who are your people • "Your people will be my people" Sherman Alexie I'm extremely conscious of my tribalism, and when you talk about living in a black and white world. I mean, Native American tribalism, even the political fight for cultural sovereignty is a very us vs. them. And I think a lto of people in this country, esp ecially European Americans and those descended from Europeans don't see themselves as tribal… I used to be quite a black and white thinker, until 9/11. Tribalism and Cross Tribalism Wednesday, March 30, 2016 11:27 AM To Know Only • How to be the expert, o ne in control; the one who ir right • Often leads to isolation and to the anxiety that no one knows me • Is there another way? To be Known • We can slowly come to understand what it is to be known, to have another person validate and accept our feelings, prefere nces and dreams. • To be accepted for who we are rather than what we know or what we do. Sherman Alexie: From Tribalism to Cross Tribalism • We are all tribal. • This is an idea. • Our prejudice: cross tribalism o It's a type of norm. Negative Capability • Since then I try to live in the between as Fitzgerald says: o The sign of a superior mind is the ability to hold two different ideas simultaneously. o Keats called it negative capability. • Sources of cross tribalism in civil rights • 30 Years War o The idea of human rights o Secularism • The development of the idea of human rights (life, liberty, and the development of the political system of democracy) is the development of the secular self. • Out of this comes the dream of the cross tribalism world. James Baldwin • "People who imagine that history flatters them are impaled on their history like a butterfly on a pin and become incapable of seeing or changing themselves, or the world. This is the place in which it seems to me, most white Americans find themselves. Impaled. They are dim ly, or vividly aware that the history they have fed themselves is mainly a lie, but they do not know how to release…" Impaled: How? • Since last 4/5 military adventures have gone poorly o They are losses • We've killed our heroes: MLKjr, Kennedy, Lennon • Young people are in debt, decreasing future chances • Minority cultures suffer terribly • Inequality is worse than before the Great Depression o Bernie Sanders o Difference between the top one percents and the bottom • Less educated whites, dramatic increase in rates of death • Political systems are in partisan gridlock o Division of political groups o Health of the political parties • Religious groups are confused or violent • We’re destroying our environment The White Tribe • Albion • David Hackett Fischer's Albion's Seed: Four Br itish Folkways in America: o Puritans: NE o Quakers: mid Atlantic o Anglicans: Virginia o Scotch Irish: Southerners o Germans: Midwest • Natives, traders and then objects of colonization and genocide • African Americans, victims of slavery and genocide • Various ethnic groups colonized and catalyzed to serve empire • Asians, mostly kept out until 1965 The tribe of whiteness have developed themselves into a tribe of privilege Low middle class whites who are struggling because of the economy, etc. Structuralists: • Those who emphasize the role of institutional racism and economic circumstances are known as structuralists Culturalists: • Those who emphasize the importance of self -perpetuating norms and behaviors are known as culturalists Nonviolent Communication Friday, April 1, 2016 11:28 AM Nonviolent Communication • Most of us grew up seeking a language that encourages us to compare, demand, and pronounce judgments rather than to be aware of what we are feeling and needing." • A way for humans and groups to flourish. • Nonviolent Communication Process: o Observe o Feel o Express Needs o Make a request • Creates empowerment NVC can work even in the most trying circumstance • Connect with the feelings and the needs of the person Identifying and Expressing Feelings • Most higher education tends to ignore feelings. • Status Mongering Moralistic Judgments • "Our attention is focused on classifying, analyzing, and determining levels of wrongness rather than on what we and others need and are getting." • Don't confuse value judgments and moralistic judgme nts. o Doesn't mean you avoid value judgments • "When we are in contact with our feelings and needs, we humans no longer make good slaves and underlying's." Process Emotional Liberation • Stage 1 o We believe we're responsible for other people's feelings and even compelled to save them. • Stage 2 o We are angry, we longer want to feel responsible for other people's feelings. • Anger is a cover for my sadness. • Stage 3 o We take responsibility for our own feelings and seek to shine the light of consciousness on the other's feelings; to listen without becoming emotionally enslaved ,without fear, guilt, or shame. Assumption behind NVC • We have inherent compassionate nature. • Something disconnects us from this nature. (Focus on knowledge vs. feelings; control vs. compassion; knowing vs. being known). • Our deepest life of flourishing is in this connection to our feelings, to being in touch with our needs and making a request for what we want. o "NVC keeps our attention focused on a place where we are more likely to get what we are seeking." o "What I want in my life is compassion, a flow between myself and others based on a mutual giving from the heart." Judgments of Others • Judgment of others are the alienated expressions of our own unmet needs… • If we express our needs with precision and ask for what we need, much better chance getting what we want… Social Construction of Reality Monday, April 4, 2016 10:23 AM Max Weber (1864 -1920) • "Man is an animal suspended in webs of significance he himself has spun." - Clifford Geertz • The process of being spun Martin Jaffee • "All world views, religious, and secular, are constructions, it is not as if one is natural the other not, they are both constructed, both fragile, both relative, usually one or the other is accepted unconsciously, the goal of the study of society, religion, culture, is to make a conscious choice, what world view will you commit to, will it be a conscious choice?" • Jaffe, deeply influenced by the Weberian and Bergerian tradition of Verstehen sociology - understanding the meaning a nd motives in human action. • We are experiencing the disenchantment of Western civilization. o The secular world, the real world of common sense. o Do we disenchant that secular world as well? • Is it spinning us or are we being spun by it? Weber's Life • Weber, oldest of eight children; Father, moved to Berlin; politician. Mother, highly educated, introspective, religious. • Full professor, 1895, political economy; mishap with Father, father dies; anxiety from 1897 -1901; marries Marianne Schnitger; retursn to scho larship in 1907. • Protestant Ethnic and the Spirit of Capitalism. • He is ideal case of someone who undergoes Western disenchantment. • Economic studies of the world's religions. Verstehen • Cannot explain human action as one explains natural phenomena in the n atural world. Human agents guided by external and internal factors. • Discern role of motives and meanings in human action. • Competing Methods in the Social Scientists • Nomothetic: o Actions that repeat themselves and create rules to explain. • Idiographic: o Human actions are singular events, requiring individual explanations. • It's difficult to do social science well. o You come into it with prejudice but your studies reveal other things. Weber differs from Marx • Class systems don't function in a singular fashion; social groupings are not formed according to class, but o By location (urban and rural) o By vocation (craftsmen, farmer, or warrior) o By status groups (regardless of money), bureaucrats or professionals. • In Marx: o Structure is the means of production, economic systems of labor that shape and determine superstructure - (ideology, cultural values, ethical ideals, religion) • For Weber: o Structure does not necessarily cause superstructure - Interaction and interrelationship between the two. • Radical empiricism o It's fully aware that what we see, touch, taste, hear and smell is not all there is. • Small choices have big impacts • Cultural prejudice. Weber: Forms of Rationality: Forms of Values and Norms • Motives and meanings create diverse forms of rationality: o Instrumental rationality (seek means to achieve goals) • Capitalism o Value-rational (seeks a goal as good in itself) • The common good is more important than the individual good o Affectional rationality (driven by emotions alone) • Our emotions become the driver o f all our choices. • Modern advertising o Traditional rationality (habits of culture and society) • This is who I am Maturity • Martin Jaffee: o "Maturity is realizing the fragility of your own worldviews, your own identities, whether religious or secular, and nevertheless, you must commit to some - whether it's a religious point of view or secular. You can't live without a commitment or a worldview, whether it's an unconscious one or conscious. Most students commit unconsciously; but you can commit consciously - make a wise decision, (I wouldn't say a rational decision) about what is ultimately worth your time and life." • Humans are known by our interactions. o We are, our social interactions. • Ernst Becker, in his book, The Denial Death" o "Choose the most life enhancing illusion." Peter L. Berger • The Sacred Canopy, 1969 • The Desecularization of the World, 1999 o Secularization • Recognize human origins - nothing self-evident § VS. o Counter-secularization • Sacralization: make essential - taken for granted - self-evident, reifying World Construction • Dialectical Relationship o Humans create society; society creates humanity. o Humans are fundamentally unfinished - to create is a biological necessity. Externalization • On-going outpouring of the human being into the world. o Human nature is externalization - because we have few instincts, we must create to survive. o Invention is our symbolic creativity… symbols, throwing together of sign and things; creating worlds, never finished. Objectivation • Society becomes a reality sui generis; o What we create becomes distinct, alien to us o Ludwig von Feuerbach: • "Man - this is the mystery of religion - projects his being into objectivity, and then again makes himself an object to this projected image of himself thus converted into a subject. God is the highest subjectivity of man abstracted from himself." Internalization • Re-appropriation of objects into structures of subjective consciousness o Language created, objectified, and internalized; inventing social norms, feelings of guilt and shame; need for law and punishment: • Do not cheat • Do not take drugs • Do not gossip • Do not have sex o There are exceptions o The 10 suggestions Moral Mapping Wednesday, April 6, 2016 11:28 AM Society as Coercive Force • Humankind has NO original relationship with society; we create it • Alienation: Humans concoct institutions which then confront human beings as menacing constellations Socialization • Establishment of symmetry between the objective world and the subjective world of the individual o Given social identiti es, we discover a repertoire of selves; ONLY becomes a self in relation o No essential self • No "special" self: the human self is unique in the sense that we create, create symbolic worlds • "There is another world, but it is in this one." W.B. Yeats Congenital Meaning Makers • Craving for meaning, for world order: force of instinct • Society: o A nomocizing activity, without society, without order, life becomes anomic. Working against Alienation • Yeat's 1920 poem: "The Second Coming" Life Project • Socialization is never really complete • Individual co-producer of the world o Persons use creativity and innovation to invent and innovate. o Never underestimate the power of the individual Cosmization • Religion: Furthest reach of human self -externalization: essentialized projections: o Essentialism: Reification, enchantment, sacralization: to make a world self -evident, taken for granted. o Sacralization used to legitimate social order. o What does religion want you to feel. o To bind one back. The essential definitio n of religion. • Humans need discipline. World Maintenance: Sacralizing Worlds • Institutions seek to hide their constructed character: o States must have human consent; so its critical to allow the essentializing or reifying process to manufacture harmony between objective and subjective worlds. Sociodicy Pierre Bourdieu: Michele Lamont's Money, Morals and Manners: Inside the French and American Upper Class • How to legitimate the social norms in light of social anomie, social disasters - poverty? o Aristocracy: Unearned privilege based on position • Is inheritance a form of affirmative action for the privileged? o Democracy: • Tension between an equal playing field (allowing merit/talent to create unequal results) or requiring equal results (coercively taking from the privileged to distribute goods in an egalitarian way). • If a society creates suffering for the majority of its p eople, is it actually a good system? Moral Rafts: Christian Smith Moral, Believing Animals • Externalization • Rational discourse Moral Mapping • Openness (or lack there of) to new experiences o Affinity for progressive views… predicts liberal o Affinity for traditional views…predicts conservative • Groups generally select for one or the other: o When the world is broken in this either/or, harder to understand anyone from the other side. o Cultures break down: no chance of compromise or collaboration, sounds like our congress. • Liberals: openness to experience vs. Conservations: closed to new experience, choosing more traditional values. Five Moral Foundations: First Draft of Moral Mind • Apriori: that which is organized prior to experience: o Harm/care: bonding o Fairness/reciprocity: fair play, fair share o In-group loyalty: only humans loyalty to each other, fight others - tribal psychology o Authority/ respect: sources of tradition o Purity/sanctity: attain purity, sexuality/ food. Tribal Psychology on the conservat ive side deeply pleasurable Tribal psychology of liberals: How they celebrate Hieronymus Bosch: Garden of Earthly Delights Social Entropy • Order tends to decay over time • Studies show: o In general, without social pressure, people, even liberals will fre e ride; not pay taxes o To solve collective problems, punishment increases cooperation (religion tends to do the same; makes groups cohere, cooperate) o Religion tends to add external pressure • Haidt: Religion most amazing invention… all of our moral mapping to create collective goods. An order that comes with costs. o Tends to all parts of the moral framework: • Care, fairress, authority, in groups, and purity The World divide, liberals and conservatives • Liberals speak for weak and oppressed; want change and justice, even at the risk of chaos • Conservatives speak for institutions and traditions; want order even at the cost to those at the bottom; order hard to achieve, easy to lose. o Edmund Burke Truth is both / and, not either or Haidt's Moral Injunction • Don't go charging in, I'm right, you're wrong • First understand that we think we are all right; understand our moral psychology • Step out of moral matrix; everyone has some reasons for doing what they do. • Cultivate moral humility, I may be wrong. Ethical Theory Friday, April 8, 2016 11:27 AM Kantian Principle: Deontological Ethics • Treat each as an end in themselves; • Categorical Imperative o Act only in ways which would make your action a universal law • Creating universals from Nothing: John Rawls: Theory of Justice - Theory, based on "original positions". Nancy Scheper-Hughes • Anthropologist. • Unsure if she should stay objective in the study of group of people • Moral demand Moral Relativism no longer appropriate • If we refuse to prevent an epidemic, or stop an injustice, we lack moral courage - there is no ethical power in being an objective observer. • Scheper-Hughes: Lost the 'false neutrality' an "chameleon -like ambidexterity of the politically uncommitted." • "Watchful waiting or active, politically committed, morally engaged anthropology"? Join Struggle Against Evil • Evil is structural and systematic dehumanization. • "Here I will tentatively and hesitantly suggest that responsibility, accountability, answerability to the 'the other' - the ethical as I would define it - is precultural to the extent that our human existence as social beings presuppose the presence of the other." • M. Rosenberg: "Natural state - compassion." Negative Workers "The negative worker is a species of class traitor - a doctor, teacher, lawyer, psychologist, social worker, manager, social scientist, even - who colludes Utilitarianism • Obligation is the principle of utility, which says quite strictly that the moral end to be sought in all we do is the greatest possible balance of good over evil. Utilitarian's decide moral issues by trying to determine the aggregate good, which will produ ce the greatest non-moral good for the greatest number. • Do the best that you can for the most. Narrativist Tradition: Ethics of Virtue and Character • Ethical theory that is dependent upon principles or rational deliberation is rejected in favor of stories/narratives that shape a particular community; character of the individual is developed through socialization of habits of virtue, arising from one's tradition. • Aristotelian ethics/ethics of virtue/ Anabaptist tradition of nonviolence, ethical theories fo r pacifism. Emotivist Tradiiton: Ethical Egoism • Modern version of hedonism that is generally a form of ethical egoism or expressive individualism/utilitarianism - that says one should get the most of what you determine to be good for you. Often supported by psychological theorists and new age movements. • The true you is always good, so go after whatever the true you wants; moreover, the true you will be good by definition for the rest of the world, thus one must do it. Western Religious Ethical and Moral Tradition • Mixed Deontological Theory: o Principle of utility: maximize the balance of good over evil - arises from principle of beneficence: obligation to do good and prevent harm o Principle of justice: guide our distribution of good over evil; obligati on of equal regard and equal treatment toward all. Genealogies of the Secular Self Monday, April 11, 2016 11:28 AM • How religion uses violence to order society • Escaping the mimetic • Nova effect Mimetic Desire • Rene Girard: o "As we know, mimetic desire always ends in enslavement, failure, and shame." • Children learn through mimetic desire • Our desires really come from others • We have very few natural desires The Problem of Mimetic Desire • At a certain level, it is humiliating. It exposes the fact that most of wh at we desire is the desires of someone else. • Rene Girard: o Mimetic desire is humiliating, once we realize we are doing it, we don't really desire that which we desire, we are only imitating. o Intellectual conversion, most everything we do is a function of mi metic desire- nothing is our own- we are our social interactions. Mimetic Desire and Mirror Neutrons • "Neurophysiologists have discovered an interest class of neurons, the so -called 'mirror neurons', which fire both when an individual is performing a part icular movement, and when she is observing the same movement in another person." • Is it hard to take on a new habit? o It takes 21 days to form a new habit Mimetic Desire and Rivalry • Rene Girard: o "One is always moving towards more symmetry, and thus always towards more conflict, for symmetry cannot but produce doubles, as I call them at this moment of intense rivalry." • As we get closer and closer to one another, there tends to tension and conflict . • Those you are closet to tend to fight the most. • Withdrawing projection o What you want is projected onto the other person, and if they don't give it then you become angry. o Use non-violent communication (a much better way to communicate rather than rivalry) Violence as Sacramental • A mimetic desire leads to rivalries and competitions • "Violence becomes a sacrament by which one wins glory for oneself, ones family, and the state." • Sacrifice a way to protect a community from its violence. Mimetic Desire Creat es Culture • Great stories tell the truth but we as humans. • The beauty of human beings it through mimetic desire. Commandments Sustain Culture by Stopping effects of Mimetic Desire • Ten Commandments o "You shall not murder. You shall not commit adultery. You shall not steal. You shall give not give false testimony against your neighbor." o Tenth commandment: "Prohibits desiring anything that belongs to your neighbor." o At their heart stopping mimetic rivalry. o As Freud said: • "We create rules against the very t hing we desire." Fear of Mimetic Crisis • Rwanda" Hutu vs. Tutsi - a million Tutsi killed n 100 day period - 1994 • "As antagonism and violence erupt, they spread in the same mimetic way, by cumulative resentment and vengeance, producing a state of Hobbesian radical resentment of all against all." • Through the process of mimetic desire, we scapegoat those who are slightly more vulnerable than us. Mimesis and the Sources of Violence • Violence is contagious, product of imitation o "Rivalry does not arise because of the fortuitous convergence of two desires on a single object…Rather, the subject desires the object because the rival desires it." Sacrifice and the Sources of Violence • Rene Girard: o "Real or symbolic, sacrifice is prim arily a collective action of the entire community, which purifies itself of its own disorder through the unanimous immolation of a victim, but this can happen only at the paroxysm of the ritual crisis." • It solves the intensity of mimetic desire. Sacrificial • Sacrifice protects the community from its own violence, sacrifice is designed to suppress internal conflict. • Sacrificial victim is chosen from someone who the group has no fear of reprisal ,their death entails no necessary act of vengeance. Sacrifice and the Scapegoat • Religion is far from useless, it humanizes violence, gives order to the murder, justifies and rationalizes the killing of the scapegoat. • The victim is divinized. Religion, State and Violence • Aztec, depended on tributes religious sy stem depended on blood of human beings to insure the rise of day. • Religion shelters use from violence A Secular Age: What is the present age about? • Belief in God no longer axiomatic; search for alternatives? • Kant: power as rational agents who make the laws by which we live • Our power is autonomous not heteronomous (external) • De-centering of humanity: Copernicus, Darwin, Freud • Unbelief has achieved a certain hegemony - especially in "intellectual circles" • Transcedent vs. immanent order in natures • What is human flourishing? • Rise of humanism Sources of Neo-Liberal Economics Wednesday, April 13, 2016 11:29 AM A Secular and Disenchanted Age • Transcedent vs. immanent order in nature o Transcendent forces reinforce all things together • It was really a part of indigenous cultures o Order from within vs. order from without • What is human flourishing? From God vs. internal markers of the authentically fulfilled life - o Tikkun, to heal the world o We do it vs. we partner with divine to do it • Rise of humanism-we are on our own, to fulfill or fail • Naiveté is not available to believer or unbeliever • Is secularization a binding force or is this a form of being unbound? A new Social Imaginary • Genealogy of the modern individual: o Pre-modern self, deeply enmeshed/embedded in society, in tribal relations - family, group, nation, religion o Your tribe is your identity, their religion is your religion o Lack of differentiation • Buffered identities, impervious to enchanted cosmos -demand for a differentiated self • Post-modern self: Dis -embedding from the social sacred order - to a new social order: o From Christian order of the Good Samaritan to a justice founded on immanent demand for solidarity. equality, and non-domination New Humanistic Social Order • Distancing from hierarchy • Evolution of Human Consciousness: o Stages of humanity, from hunter gatherers to agriculturalists, culminating in contemporary commercial societies, states, directing and ordering communities - freedom to be ME. • Creation of new form of culture of authenticity - expressive individualism, "do their own thing." o Originates in the Romantic period, 18th/19th century. From Mono World to Deism, to Humanism • Mono world, destiny is set from beginning • Deism: o A God that orders the universe, sets up a model and let's the gam e go • Humanism: o Ethic of freedom, demand for individual choice and authenticity • Benefits of buffered self: no longer open to world of spirits, a self that is self -determining • Pride in overcoming old enchantments o Look back on superstitions of the past • A movement to, our desires are inherently ordered in such a way that we can build a new economy based on it. ( as Smith and Hume would say) Negative Side to this Freedom? • Traps us in secular time - immanent order - blinds us to what might be beyond • Malaise of the disenchanted world: o Is this all there is? Caught in world of instrumental rationality - everything exists Nova Effect • Between orthodoxy and unbelief - "nova effect" multiplication of forms of spirituality o Lust for meaning o Some go back to Orthodoxy, to materialist, atheism, even to authoritarianism o Cross-pressures, too difficult to negotiate multiplicity of options, too much freedom o Others, self-create, new spirituality, inclusive and creative (vs. narrow and violent - fundamentalism) Anis Mojgani • Baha'i faith • Transpiritual language Adam Smith - Enlightenment and its Consequences • Unlikely hero of capitalism • Pre-industrial revolution; led, with David Hume, the Scottish Enlightenment; never uttered, Laissez-faire, free enterprise, entrepreneur or c apitalism. • Produced two books (burned all other manuscripts) o The Theory of Moral Sentiments o An Inquiry in to the Nature and Cases of the Wealth of Nations • The foundation of his thinking was understanding the moral sense of human nature • Secularism doesn't mean that you don't have a moral foundation • He referred to competition as "an invisible hand", which kept the economy stable and orderly. Original Thinking • Private gain could lead to general welfare • What appears to look like original sin is self -interest that can be channeled into productivity • Move away from mercantilism (protectionism, subsidies, reducing imports, fearful nationalism) • Humans have an innate "moral sense" extended further by reason, self -interest that creates common good • Epistemology o Empirical reasoning, using evidence to seek truth, progress • Importance of civil and religious liberty David Hume • Humans must, can and will discover, construct, and dominate a new world Learnings • A just society is held together by the rule of law, this does n ot mean that humans act for the good of all, but their private desires can benefit all. o Wealth of nation derives from two factors: • Truck, barter, and exchange one thing for another • Desire of bettering our condition, from the womb, never leave us • The moral sentiment: inherent to the human being, to the human condition, your desire to better yourself in intrinsic • Government must: o Protect freedom of exchange o Insure rights of ownership • Requirements of an Monarch: o National defense o Domestic rule of law o Public works • Money is the general stock of society making circulation more efficient; individuals, free to pursue Shadows of Invention and Production • Division of labor o Making a pin o Dehumanization of laborers, doing same thing over and over again Smith Liberalizing Agenda • Recommended universal education, workers' rights, public health… A Secular Revolution • Smith, believer in God • Humans could be trusted, not only that ,but this sentiment of self -interest to improve ones life for oneself, when trusted, and given the conditions to thrive, would be to the benefit of all, if the government protected rights, health, infrastructure, education and the environment…Something beautiful could happen…Utopian vision. Construction of Democratic Liberalism Friday, April 15, 2016 11:28 AM Democracy • The common people rule • Mostly shackled under monarchy, oligarchy and tyranny • Individual rights and self-determination, rare and difficult to keep • England's Glorious Revolution of 1688 o Bill of Rights, placing limits on kingly authority Slow Process of Democracy • 1900 - 15 democracies, most excluded women • 1930 - less than 30, none outside Western Europe • In 2014: Freedom House: o Fully free: 88 countries, 40% world's population o Partly free: 59 countries, 25% globes population o Not free: 48 countries, 35% of globe's population Britain, US Constitutional Government • Major political miracles o Individual rights o Freedom of the press o Freedom to assemble o Freedom of religion o Legal protection of self, and property o Representative Government Influenced by Scotch/French Enlightenment, Classical Greek and Roman Thinkers • Alexander Hamilton o Strong Central government o Large military o Federally driven industrial economy o Active foreign policy • Thomas Jefferson o Weak government o Local militias o Nation of yeoman farmers o No entangling alliances John Locke, 1689, Two Treatises on Government, published anonymously • First Treatise o Attack on patriarchies - Adam has authority over all things - Locke: "Not over human beings." o Divine Right of Kings - no evidence from Bible that Adam, as King, should and could rule over all. • Second Treatise o All men are created equal in the state of nature by God. o State of nature, each individual needs no permission to act and be. o Rise of property and civilization, only legitimate g overnments are by the consent of the people. America, US Foreign Policy and Global Politics • Seven Year's War (1754-1763), fist World War - known in America as the French and Indian War • Following this war, England cracks down on American colonies, directl y leads to rise of independence movement - mostly burdening taxes. Boston Massacre (1770), Rise of American Independence • Locke's Second Treatise on Civil Government o Notion of unalienable rights • Right to private property • Rule of law, without which no real freedom • Limited constitutional government • Natural law (system of jurisprudence) - no arbitrary power over people • Freedom of speech Alexander Hamilton • Out of wedlock birth • Rags to riches tale - be something before you are something • Congress must take responsibility, in war, peace, trade, finance, foreign affairs and the military - "blend the advantages of a monarchy and republic in our constitution." • He was for a strong state Hamilton and the Constitution • Defending the Constitution and its monarchial cast. o With John Jay and James Madison, 85 essays published, The Federalist Papers (most important writings on political theory ever written) o Power of taxation; structure of new Government; judiciary, independence of each branch Anti-Federalist • Patrick Henry of Virginia - fight against the tyranny of the federal government o James Madison answered with the Bill of Rights to the first US Congress in 1789. o Steering the Republic through the reefs of either tyranny or anarchy o Hamilton: • Ultimate test for the Constitution, to survive bad leaders - through voluntary consent of the people o Hamilton's 1791, Subject of Manufactures, create tariffs and subsidies to favor domestic products (seemingly anti Adam Smith) Marx: The Utopian Critique Monday, April 18, 2016 11:25 AM Argument: Marx sought utopia - lecture on why and how • Marx, one of the three great 19th century masters of suspicion o Friedrich Nietzsche - in philosophy o Sigmund Freud - in psychology o Karl Marx - in economics One of the Great masters in Social S cience • Max Weber - Verstehen- structure and superstructure continually interact • Emile Durkheim - sociology as group relations - creates idea of civil religions, both secular and religious • Karl Marx - on structure and superstructure - revolution in thought - structure produces superstructure o Structure is what produces superstructure o This produces our culture • Religion is a form of alienation Where did he begin? • Ludwig von Feuerbach (1804-1872): Young Hegelians: o "Man - this is the mystery of religion - projects his being into objectivity, and then again makes himself an object to this projected image of himself thus converted into a subject. God is the highest subjectivity of man abstracted from himself." o Essence of alienation o Species being Marx on the highest critique • 1846 (with Engels) wrote Communist Manifesto, working class revolution - encourages by French Revolution of 1848. • Movement toward historical materialism - world changed not by ideas but by physical, material practice - working toward a t ruly revolutionary proletariat movement • 1850: he writes the Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon, discussion of 1848 French Revolution • Class struggle and the dictatorship of the proletariat - the Panic of 1857 - economic crisis - hopes the beginning of change • By 1857 - he had accumulated over 800 pages of notes and short essays on capital, landed property, wage labor, the state, and foreign trade and the world market; this work did not appear in print until 1939… Is Marx a Failure or a Success? Historical Dialectics Follow Inner Contradictions • Dialectical materialism or historical materialism - views history dialectical: o Material realm moves history through inner contradictions o Small scale reform is not enough, only large change to economic system bring real change o Marx deeply influenced by Engel's The Condition of the Working Class in England , 1844 - class conflict as the historical dialectic of real change. Humans as Actual Sensuous Objects • Despotism of capital - calls for the transformation of human nature - what must change is the relation between material objects. • Humans: both potential and real selves - human nature (species being), exists as a function of their human labor. • Marx argues against Hegel: o "The fact that man is a corporeal, actua l, sentient, objective being with natural capacities mean that he has actual, sensuous objects for his nature as objects of his life -expression, or that he can only express his life in actual sensuous objects." Alienation and Commodity Fetishism • Capitalism mediates social relationships of production through commodities, produced by labor • To give up ownership of one's own labor - one's capacity to transform the world - is equivalent to being alienated from one's own nature; it is a core spiritual loss - to give up one's species being. • Marx described this loss as commodity fetishism… commodities, appear to have a life and movement of their own. Why Do Some Groups Hold Ideas Against their own Interests? • Commodity fetishes, example of false consciousness - related to ideology - one is alienated from the true self- species being. • Ideology - ideas that reflect the interests of a particular class - most often used by upper classes to control lower classes. • Upper classes produce ideas, given to lower classes, expl anation for why this class holds ideas against their interests. Religious Suffering Reveals Alienation under Capitalist Modes of Production Marx on Evolution of Revolution • Marx's evolutionary model of history says that human history begins with free, productive and creative work that was over time coerced and dehumanized, a trend most apparent under capitalism. • Means of production (land, resources) to produce goods AND relations of production - the social relations people enter to use the means of prod uction. • Inevitable mismatch between structure and superstructure: o Modes of productions and species -being ends in alienation and eventual revolution. Capitalism and Its Inherent Instability • Capitalism, Marx argues is two sided: o Industrializing and productive, but exploitive of nature and human beings - products become alien from workers. o For Marx, ownership are "vampires sucking worker's blood," a system doomed to fail, because relation of owners and workers. o Capitalism, unstable doomed to crises, cycle o f growth and collapse. Out of Contradictions Comes Communism • Marx believed that if the proletariat seizes the means of production - creating social relations that would benefit all equally, abolishing exploiting class, and introduce a system less vulnera ble to cyclical crises. • Capitalism will end through the organized actions of an international working class. Proletariat Rise • "Dictatorship of the proletariat" o A period where the working class holds political power and forcibly socializes the means of production - o Soviet Union and Stalin's workers paradise o Mao's Cultural Revolution White World, Red World Wednesday, April 20, 2016 11:28 AM What Makes US Human Thu rsday 8pm at Kane 130 Marx • "The mode of production of material life determines the social, political and intellectual life process in general.." • "For as soon as the distribution of labor comes into being ,each man has a particular exclusive sphere of activity, which is forced upon him and from which he cannot escape. He is a hunter, a fisherman, a shepherd, or a critical…" • Marx would argue that the system creates a social construct that you are the chooser. • Capitalist systems need consumers. • Create more productivity so people will buy more stuff. Indian Movement • 1890-1960s Vanishing Peoples • Systematic genocide and breaking of all treaties; WA state, broke 6 treaties, made between 1854 - 1855. • 1960s protests in Canada, US; taking of Alcatraz; Fort Lawton; • AIM: American Indian Movement, militant American Indian civil rights organization, founded in Minneapolis, Minn. o It was very active in Chicago. o Later, Russell Means became a prominent spokesman for the group. • 1990: WA state tribe-state compact, mutual recognition, one of the most progressive western states for Indians, in the nation. Custer Died for Your Sins, 1969 • Manifesto on Indian Freedom o Leave Indian ritual life alone o Indians must make their freedom, not be given it by whites o White "helpfulness" has been genocidal o Sociologists and anthropologists of Indian life have been exploiters and demons. o Black Elk Speaks: universalizing of spirituality -mistake • Marx was trying to create a species - being through Communism, so that people again feel who they were and be who they were. Universal • Daloria is saying that there's a way in which there's a kind of powerful cross -tribalism is against what he believes. The only way humans can survive and flourish is in their own tribes. • Marx thought is Enlightenment th ought. Misunderstanding Indian Life • Why not join the Black Civil Rights Movement? o It was the last great movement for the goals of the Christian religion. • We should seek to nurture cross -tribalism (Daloria is fighting against it) o If Nazis were to found guilty for oppression, what about those in the US who kept blacks down for song long- even after their service in WWII? o MLK Jr. Argued, that there is no solution to domestic problem unless addressed to the International Problem. - Vietnam War. o If Brotherhood of Man is not achieved, what hope is there for Indians? o Brotherhood of man, not achievable in a diverse society. • If it's not achievable, then why seek it? Indian Grave Digging, 1970s • William Carlos Williams: o "The land! Don't you feel it? Doesn’t it make you want to go out and lift dead Indians tenderly from their graves - some authenticity." o Unconsiouc, but precisely what whites were doing in 1971 Choosing History over Nature • Albert Camus, French Novelist, Existentialist: o "When nature ceases to be an object of contemplation and admiration, it can be nothing more than material for an action that aims at transforming it." o What are our real choices? • History or nature? • Time or space? Profound Difference: Chief Luther Standing Bear, Sioux Nation • "The white man does not understand America, He is too far removed from its formative processes .The roots of the tree of his life have yet grasped the rock and soil. The white man is still troubled by primitive fears; he still has in his consciousness the perils of this frontier continent…The man from Europe is still a foreigner and an alien.." • "But in the Indian the spirit of the land is still vested; it will be until other men are able to divine and meet its rhythm. Men must be born and reborn to belong. Their bodi es must be formed of the dust of their forefathers' bones." • How or can the white person become indigenous? How can we sacralize the land? Place vs. Time • Native peoples hold place as sacred • "Very essence of Western European identity involves the assumptio n that time proceeds in a linear fashion; further it assumes that… the peoples of Western Europe became the guardians of the world...This same ideology sparked the Crusades.. Now against terrorism? End of History • The world is not a global village • An anti cross tribal message Different Notions of the Sacred • Homogeneity vs. heterogeneity • Time vs. space • Belief vs. experiencing what is true • Cross-tribal vs. tribal • Manifest destiny vs. one particular place • Beliefs (transferrable ) vs. experience of specific location • Hope in afterlife vs. the sacred is the village o Monotheisms may hold certain places as sacred but primarily appreciated for their historical significance. Cayuse, refusing to sign the Treaty of Walla Walla Chief Seattle, 1854, loss of his people, the Duwamish - 342m cleanup of the river Neuroscience of time -fullness and time-forgetfulness • "The result of this casual attitude toward history, was of course that history has virtually no place in the religious life of the tribe." o Right brain types: what is happening now is all that is important. Those who live into moments of timelessness o Left brain types: those who plan, chronos -types, get it done - one thing after another, result based • Is it possible to live into a new state of consciousness? Fascism Friday, April 22, 2016 11:30 AM Violence, Racial Purity, and Total Devotion to the Nation The Japanese Version • The fundamentals of our National Polity • Children were taught that the emperor of Japan was divine. • Loyalty to the state was paramount . Overcoming the Deficiencies of Modern Capitalism • Problem: Alienation and division results from the harsh competition of market capitalism. o Creation of class conflict • Solution: Reintegrate society by controlling the market, prohibiting class conflict by imposing authority of properly chosen elites, and using loyalty to the nation as a unifying ideology. • They gained popularity because they responded to some real problems. Restoring National Pride and Strength: Purifying the Nation • Problem: Foreign ideas and people have polluted our culture and weakened our resolve. • Solution: Purge those ideas and foreign elements that have weakened our great nation. Cleansing will restore us. • Problem: National weakness and corruption. • Solution: Militarize society, impos e discipline, prepare for war, purge the nation of traitors who will resist. Ours is a superior culture and race, and it is our right to be powerful. Down with Democracy, the Leader Knows Best • Problem: Democracy is a sham that brings only conflict and al lows money to corrupt politics. Enlightenment ideas about individual rights, freedoms are unnatural and deceptions because they only weaken national solidarity. • Solution: The LEADER and his PARTY (or the EMPEROR and his government) know best and that is what the people rave - strong, clean, devoted leadership. The Conditions that Led to the Rise of Fascism in Europe • Disruptive effects of industrialization - blaming Jews for capitalism. Disaster of World War I. Economic crises and unemployment in early 19 20s, then the Great Depression of the 1930s. Italy 1922. Germany 1933. Spain 1939. • Spread in Europe: Spain (Francisco Franco - allied to Catholic Church), Romania (Iron Guard - highly religious, Romanian Orthodox Church) - Fascist Parties in France, Belgiu m, Norway, Hungary, Croatia, others who eventually worked with the Germans when they conquered most of Europe in 1939-1941. Spread Beyond Europe • Fascism much admired, Mussolini then Hitler as heroic saviors of their nations. • East Asia (Japan, Thailand) • Middle East (A model for Arab nationalists.) • Latin America (Argentina most of all. Juan and Evita Peron and the opposition to the Catholic Church). • A bit in the US, but much less. Franklin Roosevelt as a liberal alternative. The Consequences • Attempts to reshape the culture to glorify the leader and the nation • Elite rule - accommodation with the rich elite. • Dictatorship - no free press, speech, or elections. o They promise to be clean. o When there's no rule of law and no appeal, corruption appears in the reg ime. • Curtailment of human rights, repression, murder. • Militarization and when possible, aggression. • Increasing corruption. The Revival • With the death of communism, is this again the ideology of future authoritarian revolutions? Culture, Indigeneity, and International Studies Monday, April 25, 2016 11:29 AM Professor: Jose Antonio Lucero Cultural Analysis: The Traces of the World • The self is always a social project • Antonio Gramsci Culture as Webs of Meaning • Anthropologist: Clifford Geertz • Webs of meaning that we ourselves have spun Imperial Eyes: (Not) Seeing the Native • What people see, is what we expect to see • "Claude Levi-Strauss muses that explorers, anthropologists, and tourist voyage to foreign places in search of the novel, the undiscovered. What they find… is what they already knew they would find, images predigested by certain 'latitudes and common places.' It is thus impossible to see the 'native' with fresh eyes." Colonialism • Manifest Destiny • We are on Duwamish and Coast Salis h land. • Patrick Wolfe: Settler colonialism depends on the logic of elimination of the Native o "Invasion is a structure, not an event.: • Time and the Other: "They" live in another time (Johannas Fabian) • Naturalization of Western expansion • Modernity • We have been tricked into thinking that this is a discrete event. • It's not an event, it's an ongoing structure. Mike Wilson • US/ Mexico/Tohono O'odham Nation o In Mexico and the United States • The Case of Mike Wilson as 1990s -2000s, Human Rights Activist • 1980s- US Special Forces in Central America • How does one explain this transformation? • What does religion tell us about the road toward activism? The Maze of Belonging: Tohono O'odham Borderlands • Labyrinth is metaphor for life, history and a map to or fr om creator god I'itoi's home, located somewhere beneath the sacred Baboquivari Mountain. Argument: Frictions of Conversion and Contention • A curios case of conversion and activism • Conversations often have an "authorizing" and "socializing" function. • Wilson's actions rub uncomfortably against Tohono O'odham nation, the Presbyterian Church, social justice community. • The church didn't want him to do this work o So Mike is critical of the church o He is also critical of the social justice community • It's a fairly lonely kind of activism • Theoretical Framework: Borderlands Friction o Friction (Tsing) • Friction enables movement and it constrains o Contentious Life (Auyero) o Ambivalence (ex. Anzaldua, Brunyeel) o Prophetic Imagination (Brueggemann) • Borders show how unfinished nation states are Religion and Activism: Three Ways of Seeing • A way of seeing and feeling o Cognitive liberation o moral shock o affective map • Emotions can help us navigate the world • As resource: material and culture • As obstacle o Prophetic politics vs. obstacles of organized religion A Moral Shock in El Salvador • A funny thing happened on the way to "win hearts and minds" Presybterian Church as Resource • San Francisco Theological Seminary • The "Social Justice Community" (Humane Borders, No More De aths) • Enters a prophetic mode of activism Conflict with Session • A higher law • Silence of Social Justice Community Conclusion • Religion enables and constrains activism • Traces of belonging and the "voice" of exit. • Self-making and politics of the visual: p rophetic and cinematic politics. Fighting the Doctrine of Discovery Wednesday, April 27, 2016 11:26 AM Doctrine of Discovery: Chief Justice John Marshall • 1823, Chief Justice, Federalist Party -strong state • Gave title to lands of colonial powers • Ignoring aboriginal land claims • 15th to the 20th century, giving title to European nations to seize lands • The principle was that discovery gave title to the government by whose subjects or by whose authority, it was made, against all other European governments, w hich title might be consummated by possession. • 1455 papal bull Romanus Pontifex approved Portugal's claims to lands discovered along the coast of West Africa; (trading with infidel, using slaves) • The 1493 Inter Caetera had ratified Spain's right to conquer newly found lands, after Christopher Columbus had done so… • Imperial eyes allow us not to see the Natives Fall of Constantinople, 1453, Mehmed II, Ottoman Army • Were the Jews ever other worldly? Doctrine of Discovery • 1792 • Thomas Jefferson, US Secretary of State, declared that the Doctrine of Discovery would extend from Europe to the infant US Government, initiating American imperialism over the Amerindian peoples Imperial Eyes that don't see the native • Pope Francis o During his visit to Ecuador in July, he apologized for the "grave sins" committed against the native peoples of America in the name of God." o And he voiced his support for indigenous rights during his speech to Congress Thursday stating, "Tragically, the rights of those who were here long before us were not always respected…" • Pope Nicholas V, 1455 o One particular papal bull, issued by Pope Nicholas V in 1455, authorized Christian nations "to invade, search out, capture, vanquish, and subdue all…enemi es of Christ," take their land and "reduce their persons to perpetual slavery." Pope Addresses the problem, but only call for religious freedom • Christian denominations and organizations have already done so. Differences Deloria • Indian Religious World o God as Great Mystery o Prayers that don't flatter o Natural world is home o Return to the earth o Religion is a dance o Welcome death, no fear o Sacred is the land o Life/death continuity o Group over individual o People as particular-tribal • Near Eastern Religions o God as ruler, judge o Prayers to plead/flatter o Natural world, vale of tears o Escape from the planet o Religion is to bind o Fear of death-consequences o Sacred is God above o Life/death discontinuity Two Camps - Catholic Side • Father Bartolome de Las Casas o Took side of natives o Interpreted the 1493 papal bull as giving a right to Spain to preach Christian doctrine peacefully; native existing property rights would be recognized • Juan de Sepulveda o Justified extinction and enslavement o Preventive conquest to protect commercial ri ght became the basis on which Spanish and Portuguese made complete their mastery of new lands and their peoples. Bartolome de las Casas • Protective of Indians o Gave up slaves o Advocated to Charles V o Lobbied against encomienda o Debated de Sepulveda o Indians, fully human Gustavo Gutierrez • Born, 1928 Peruvian priest • Living and working with poor in Lima • Libertarian theology: o Interpretation of the Christian faith from the life o Perspective of the poor o A Marxian form of theology o Base communities Trans-Indigenous Friday, April 29, 2016 11:32 AM 10 extra credit points Chadwick Allen - University of Washington • Trans = across, beyond, through, changing Transnational vs. trans-indigenous • The transnational o Centers the modern nation -state, its attributes, its agents, and especially its borders. • The trans-indigenous o Centers categories, experiences, expressions, or representations of the Native or Aboriginal o As that which is in some way brought together Focus on the rise of international and global organizing of Native , Aboriginal, and Indigenous peoples Where, when, how and how? Key issues: self-representation and self-definition and collective definition How to define Indigenous Peoples • With a capital I • And capital Ps World Council of Indigenous People • 1974 o George Manuel publishes The Fourth World o Preparatory Meeting in Guyana • 1975 o Policy Board meeting in Denmark o First General Assembly in Canada Formation of WCIP • Competing metanarratives of contemporary Indigenous identity: • Homogenization vs. emergence • Loss vs. invention Competing Early Definitions • Manuel's The Fourth World • It emphasizes what Indigenous peoples claim to still possess: o Distinct worldviews o Attachment to • Preparatory meeting's definition o It emphasizes what Indigenous peoples have lost since the coming of settler-invaders: o Majority population status and supra -local political power in their own lands • The Fourth World is oriented toward the future • The preparatory meeting is oriented towa
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