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Black Studies 4 Final Review Guide - Battle & Galicia


Black Studies 4 Final Review Guide - Battle & Galicia Black Studies 4

Marketplace > University of California Santa Barbara > Black Studies > Black Studies 4 > Black Studies 4 Final Review Guide Battle Galicia
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Final Review Guide for BLST4 Final Exam with Professor Battle and TA Mario Galicia.
Critical Introduction to Race and Racism
Study Guide
UCSB, Black Studies, BLST 4, BLST, Battle, galicia
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by on Friday June 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Black Studies 4 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Battle in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Critical Introduction to Race and Racism in Black Studies at University of California Santa Barbara.

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Date Created: 06/03/16
Friday, June 3, 2016 Black Studies 4 Final Exam Review Guide - Kim Tallbear • DNA testing is changing how Native Americans think about tribal membership. Anthropologist Kim Tallbear warns that genetic tests are a blunt tool. She tells why tribal identity is not just a matter of blood ties: • Being Native American is less about genes/backgrounds - Understanding of culture and race in relation to evolution/biology/biological racism. Before 1940: Anthropology was strictly about race. After 1940, anthropology became to be about culture. People are different because of their culture, not because of their race - Native Americans: Native Americans have their own stories which group them in certain ways and in certain places • Identity is linked and expressed through these stories, can not simply be taken away by DNA testing • DNA testing acts as a way to reinforce racial categories - The number of companies offering genetic ancestry analysis as a means of supplementing traditional genealogical research methods is harmful to the psychological well-being of many families and communities, as well as controversial regarding its ethical, legal, and political basis • DNA testing is not only ethically questionable/harmful to societies, but also non- deterministic to the huge amount of variation in the human genome • DNA testing of Native Americans to validate their belonging to a tribe acts as a way to further enforce racial categories and commercializes individual’s cultural upbringings and family ties • Tribal identity is far more than a matter of blood ties- the fact that descendants can be “dis-enrolled” from their cultural surroundings and understandings is unethical and meaningless - Every individual has a cultural identity based in the land/surroundings they have experienced that are held sacred to them, regardless of their blood ties - Race 1 Friday, June 3, 2016 • Form of categorization based on aesthetics; used to develop assumptions • Based on what we can see - racial classification, categorization, social escalations of difference. Based on the visible, the phenotype - School-to-Prison Pipeline • Recidivism: individuals who live in a cycle of incarceration. The younger you are and get caught up in this justice system, the more likely you are to spend your life in prison as an adult - Research shows that psychologically, male brains do not mature until 25-30 years old - Story of male, 17 year old who was born into a gang and sentenced 15 years for being “associated” with a felonious act • Received a group text message from a gang leader stating a plan of when to commit the act. Although the 17 year old was not involved directly at all, he was sentenced 15 years for not calling 911 and was already considered a “gang associate” because of the family he was born into • If you are a gang associate, you can get an “enhancement” - What might have been considered a misdemeanor, they can up to a felony • Results from the “School Discipline and Push-out phenomena” - Disproportionate suspending rates for Black and Latino/Chicano students; keeping them from their own educational experience • Greatly affects graduation rates; employment, and may other socio-political forces - Racism • Biased behavior and policies backed by government agencies, state, economic, and political power… based on assumptions of what people think exists inside the bodies of a particular racialized group • Jim Crow Laws - Social and moral laws to keep “social order” (separate blacks and whites to “protect” whites) 2 Friday, June 3, 2016 • Construct that is still evident today; the US represents 5% of the world’s total population, but 25% of the world’s prison population —> Underrepresentation of Blacks and Hispanics in colleges, overrepresentation in prisons • Xenophobia - Intense or irrational dislike/fear of people from other countries - Housing institutions - overt racism is evident • Restrictions as to where blacks could live - A Level neighborhoods and D Level neighborhoods • Black families making $100,000 a year living in neighborhoods where whites are making $30,000 a year - Legally “okay” for government institutions to do this to black people • Keep segregation strong - FHA Program (came as a result of The New Deal) • “Minority Assistance Programs” - Helped white women - Racial structure that disallows giving loans to people of color, and even if you are offered a loan it is held to extreme specifics that aren’t normal in other contexts (housing covenants - you MUST live in this neighborhood… how are schools funded? Based on house tactics. Past the physical nature of housing, look at education and the rest it entails. The more houses are worth, the more taxes you are paying towards education/resources/access) - Generations of lost livelihood - ALWAYS an institutionalized process that continues the process of racism - The term “minority” - why the need for the label? • Codes for the societal status of people - Went from externalized racism to internalized racism in America 3 Friday, June 3, 2016 - “Broken Windows” • “Broken Windows” —> “breaking the law” - If someone sees disorder (or a “broken window), it is more likely they will participate in and further propel the disorder (and break the remaining windows) • Low economic neighborhoods, abandoned houses • Broken windows becomes burning houses, disorder becomes chaos, further destruction ensues - Low level offenses, that we consider deviant acts, eventually become criminalized acts. We can not let small crimes go by because they eventually become bigger crimes later on • To deal with it: come down with a heavy hand. Low level minor offenses become criminal offenses. - Zero-tolerance • Zero-tolerance, three strikes - Zero-tolerance policies made it so school districts could pay to help hire additional security guards and police officers- thus, educational programs begin losing fundings and is depleted while money for police officers increases. Police presence on the streets and on school grounds • More harmful than beneficial; having police presence and punishment/ discipline is given to them rather than the school principal/guidance counselor/ administrators. Police are given free reign from the streets to school campuses- amp up punishment to scare the kids rather than changing their demeanor from the street to the school - Puts the kids further behind in school - These types of policies do not work; the harsher you are on the student, the more days there are that they are away from the classroom. If a student is not in their seat, the school does not get funding for that kid on that day, the student is not receiving the information needed to receive an education - What we need: patience and empathy, understanding • White t-shirts, jerseys, tennis shoes = Zero-tolerance. Just by wearing certain types of clothes you may be punished. Crimes can be enhanced to felonies 4 Friday, June 3, 2016 based on being associated somehow with a gang, being listed on the gang database - Mass Incarceration - 1.5 million incarcerated - 1 in 3 black men face incarceration during their lifetime • “The number of African Americans incarcerated today is the same as the number of African Americans enslaved in 1863” - Mother-led household: What does incarceration do to the family mindset? How does it tear apart values and stable upbringing? • The Black family in the age of incarceration: - Matriarchal Society - headed by women; idea of a society in which women have an inter-generational right to resources and political decision making. False idea - this does not exist… • The proper term is Matrifocality: - Exhibit family structures formed by racialized male exclusion from the larger socio-economic field - It’s true here, in Brazil, in Trinidad, most places in the Western Hemisphere… remember, this is not just an American issue • Incarceration reinforced racial social structures, subjects Blacks to DNA swabbing (could serve to equate Blackness with deviance) • This idea of the dysfunctional black family in need of some sort of rehabilitation is perpetuated by TV - shows like Judge Judy, Maury, etc. - Heroin epidemic - most prevalent drug causing addition and deaths today, most prevalent in white suburbs in America today • Compassion and rehabilitation is what is recommended as the solution… what happens when drugs cross the tracks? When drugs become a hit among the mainstream (white) community in America? The mindset is changed for the white mass. - Rather than remove 1.5 million mainstream Americans, a compassionate and supportive approach is taken. Punishment is the approach towards crack cocaine- explains the 1.5 million missing black men 5 Friday, June 3, 2016 - Militarization of Police Forces • Ferguson in Missouri: tanks, leftover from the military (surplus goes to police force) - “Life”, “Death”, “Immortality” - Moving into the main text for the class: The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks • Film (1998): The Way of All Flesh by Adam Curtis (filmed before the human genome was sequenced, gives background to the story of Henrietta Lacks) - 3 central themes: • Exchange: Gift giving; Reciprocity through the lens of race and equality; Is it possible to exchange in an environment that is full of inequality? • Informed Consent: Do you own your the rights to your body? Does it belong to you? Does a tumor belong to you? If money is made from your bodily tissues, are you entitled to any of it? • Kinship: What does it mean to be related? - The most famous female in medical history, but is essentially given no recognition • White supremacy doesn’t want a black women to have this title? - In a sense, Henrietta’s cells have destroyed science • Introduced a new pessimism in science; no one can understand HeLa cells, how they multiply, and why/why not they can/can not be applied to certain areas of science • Think about: - Henrietta Lack’s was born on a slave plantation • Grew up during the Jim Crow era • Was placed in the colored ward of the hospital - In death, she is freer than she was in life - Class discussion on The Way of All Flesh, lecture, and The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks Part 1 • Who is Henrietta Lacks? 6 Friday, June 3, 2016 - Orphan, split between her 10 siblings to live with extended family (grew up with grandparents), worked as a “tobacco grower” • Tobacco grower; field job; no different than Share Cropping; no different than slavery; lived in former plantations/slave quarters • Came from a mixed family (half of her family was white); gave her some type of privilege… maybe as an individual she may have had some privilege every once in awhile, but overall, her poor socioeconomic standing gave her a 6th/ 7th grade education and she owned no property - Grew up during Jim Crow era (direct reaction to liberating African American slaves) • Jim Crow = aggressive (physically) time towards African Americans • What if she had been white? What if she had been a white male? - Doctor in charge of the lab told his assistant to write down Henrietta Lacks (black female) identity down as Helen Lane (white female) • Henry Lacks (male) - identity would be well known everywhere • Recognition and representation was not given. Why not? - She had no informed consent that they were taking a sample from her and using it to test • “If black people want to receive free health care, we should get free samples from their body to help propel science forward” • Why did he change the name? To avoid getting sued - He knew what he was doing was unethical and shady by using her tissue samples without her permission • These experiences helped guide research processes today Death made her visible; through death, her life was remade (narratively, • discursively, and in a whole new way to her family) - George Gey • George Gey was the head of tissue culture at Johns Hopkins when Henrietta was being treated for cervical cancer. Gey had been actively trying to grow an immortal cell line—cells that would continuously divide, for an infinite amount of time, in 7 Friday, June 3, 2016 culture—but he wasn't having a whole lot of luck. Then Henrietta's cancerous cells entered his lab, and the rest is history. - “Everybody always saying Henrietta Lacks donated those cells. She didn't donate nothing. They took them and didn't ask...What really would upset Henrietta is the fact that Dr. Gey never told the family anything—we didn't know nothing about those cells and he didn't care." (169) - Kept Henrietta's real name out of the mainstream media. He might have done it to protect her privacy, but then again, he might have done it to cover his butt. The effect? Proper recognition for the woman whose suffering made great things possible was a long time in coming. - Stanley Gartler The geneticist who dropped the “HeLa bomb” when he proposed that many of the • most commonly used cell cultures had been contaminated by HeLa - Gartner had a theory and some evidence to support it. He believed the contaminants were coming from the HeLa cells that many scientists were using for study. It is a very robust cell line of cancer tissue. He asked George Gey, the person who initially took the HeLa sample, what the racial origin she was and Gey confirmed she was African American (Skloot, p. 153). - The scientists were skeptical and did not want to believe this news. If this were true, they would have wasted millions of dollars in research. If tissues they had thought were from different species or organs had been taken over by HeLa, their results would be invalid (Skloot, p. 153). - One of the most disheartening aspects about this was that the concept of “spontaneous transformation”, that is a healthy cell suddenly becoming cancerous, may not exist the way the scientists believed it did. If these cells were contaminated by HeLa, that was the source of the cancer, not spontaneous transformation. This meant the hope that this theory for curing cancer was a dead end (Skloot, 2010, p. 153). - Race as biology/Race as identity - Biological racism • Attached to the assumption of genetic differences to create a hierarchy - Django scene - eugenics used to discuss intelligence 8 Friday, June 3, 2016 • Eugenics: advocating the improvement of human genetic traits through the promotion of higher rates of sexual reproduction for people with desired traits (positive eugenics), or reduced rates of sexual reproduction and sterilization of people with less-desired or undesired traits (negative eugenics) • Indentations in skull: demonstrate “submissiveness” - Using less than 1% difference in our DNA to validate biological differences - Ancestry • Companies that trace genetic ancestry are NOT definitive - Leaves some markers and explanations out… you can’t trace your lineage back to a culture/ethnic group, but it also offers medical predispositions/ advice • These medical predispositions are biased: sugar - Black/brown people are not more unhealthy, but grow up in environments (black and white male with diabetes - white male with diabetes is offered more options) - Sugar became a huge part of black diet when they were trapped on islands Our diets are more related to our social/environmental histories than • to our actual genetics - Social and scientific construct - Eugenics • Moving from the religious argument, it became a scientific argument (Eugenics) - linked physical traits to social behavior - Applied science to what the church claimed regarding human categorization • Film Clip - Django Unchained: “Science of phrenology” - “Submissiveness is more apparent in African Americans” because of three dimples in the skull as well as “servility” • “It’s in his genetics that he allows it to happen - blacks are made to serve us” 9 Friday, June 3, 2016 • “Slaves were content with their position in society and/or they were too stupid to rebel” - Slavery —> Prison complex today: social codes never changed - Race is NOT biological - Impossible to give an accurate description of race based on DNA fragments • Police utilize DNA to create family trees • There is more difference within racial groups than between racial groups - Race as Identity: - Question the binary that exists in American society: black and white • Why does this binary have such persistence? Why is it so productive (particularly in the media? How is it reproduced by not only power, but also all of us as individuals? Why such differing notions between Native Americans and Blacks?) - Native Americans were never commodified or given a property value, never evaluated as a pool of labor (same with Japanese-Americans, Chinese- Americans, etc.) - Self-identification within Racial groups • How power influences the way in which we think about ourselves - UCSB student who claimed he was white and black when he sent his application in. Why? • He claimed he could perform at both levels of race - Short film: Negro: Finding Identity - Aisha Haynes • “Blaxicans” - Native Americans: Native Americans have their own stories which group them in certain ways and in certain places • Identity is linked and expressed through these stories, can not simply be taken away by DNA testing - Hela Bomb 10 Friday, June 3, 2016 • Henrietta Lacks becomes visible; HeLa Bomb = contamination effect of the cells no matter where they were stored - Wherever they put HeLa cells in the laboratory, in any confines, they contaminated all of the cells surrounding them. So, whatever projects the researchers were studying with other cells had been contaminated by the HeLa cells, replaced the properties of the cells, and ultimately made the studies invalid. What had been researched under what they thought were various different types of cancer cells were actually just HeLa cells which had projected themselves and contaminated the cells. - The scientists found some genetic marker that was exclusive to African Americans - Until the HeLa bomb (revealing of her identity), people working in the medical field had been working with her cell line as a laboratory abstraction. The ethics of its sourcing had remained an abstraction, but Henrietta herself was not. • The novel takes the HeLa cell as an abstract scientific object and tells a story about its host, Lacks, as a concrete biographical subject. From object to subject. - What is not clear is whether the object or the subject were ever treated to their full rights as citizens. • Issue of how to translate scientific knowledge production to the public • There is still a physical existence after death - At some point, the physical state is completely gone to what the eye can see - What makes Henrietta immortal? • Her cells, her DNA, lives on forever • Namesake: her name also lives on - Example of immortality of name in the book: Johns Hopkins comes up with a family scholarship to help immortalize Henrietta through the scholarship name (in terms of name representation, this is a specific example) • Is the scholarship an attempt to right a wrong? If the scholarship is given out yearly, why not just directly compensate the family yearly? 11 Friday, June 3, 2016 - The scholarship is essentially helping white males succeed. The initial criteria for the scholarship has no specificity on serving any underrepresented populations. How does this help the family at all? They are unable to afford decent medical care and decent education. • Issue between education and health care; understanding our bodies and the state of our health - Henrietta never even knew what was wrong with her body when she went into Johns Hopkins, so how was she to know her cells would ever be used? - “Push-out” vs. “Drop-out” Drop-out: assumes it is by choice, lack of effort, lack of discipline, lazy • • Push-out: a student that leaves their school before graduation, through the encouragement of the school. Students may be pushed out of school because their presence in the school creates difficulty in meeting some goal of the school. - For example, in the case where funding for the school is dependent upon scholastic achievement of the students, if the school can get rid of low- performing students, average test scores on academic performance tests will go up, thus increasing funding. Schools may push-out truant students, who formally enroll in classes, but then refuse to attend. - Marginalized from being able to participate in community programs, on campuses, etc. Disproportionate suspension rates for Black and Latino students • • Impedes access to education • Schools with high suspension rates = schools with low standardized test scores - Access to funding is dependent on standardized test scores in order to “qualify” for the funding. If low test scores continue, those school districts are taken over by the state, government comes in a sets the new standards • Increases likelihood of youth becoming involved with justice system • Zero tolerance policies have yet to demonstrate improvements to student behavior - Actually helps contribute to the School-to-Prison Pipeline 12 Friday, June 3, 2016 - Institutional Failure - Institutional failure - when an institution creates policies that negatively impact/ target specific groups of people • Failing to provide people with a proper recourse for proper success - “Pulled In” - What “Works” • Safe Space and Place • Culturally relevant pedagogy/programming • From “Institutional Failure” to “Institutional Bridging” • Critical Pedagogy as a Transformative Tool for Youth Participants • Cultural Pivot (teachers & learners) Institutional Bridging • - Schools, teacher, student, families, police, local businesses, etc.; bridging between all of these aspects/institutions- must collaborate • Intervention/Prevention, not suppression • Restorative Justice - Accountability, responsibility and reflexive action • Patience, communication, understanding and love… together they help breed empathy 13


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