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UCI / Criminology and Criminal Justice / CRJU 163 / How is urban agriculture expected to promote food justice?

How is urban agriculture expected to promote food justice?

How is urban agriculture expected to promote food justice?


School: University of California - Irvine
Department: Criminology and Criminal Justice
Course: Ethics and Politics of Justice
Professor: Geoff ward
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Crim, crimonlogy, Law, Society, CrimC163, c163, ethics, Politics, Justice, ward, and geoffward
Cost: 50
Name: Crim C163 - Final Study Guide
Description: These notes cover what will be on the final exam.
Uploaded: 06/04/2016
5 Pages 57 Views 5 Unlocks

Danielle Moore (Rating: )

I'm really struggling in class and this study guide was freaking crucial. Really needed help, and Edward delivered. Shoutout Edward, I won't forget!

Week 8: Food Justice

How is urban agriculture expected to promote food justice?

∙ What do the concepts of food security and food justice refer to specfically.  Regarding food justice, what do food access and sovereignty involve or idealize? o Food security = people having access to nutritious food, that is helpful o Food justice = before we used to define things in quantity, now it’s going  down to quality and how people; changed from thinking do people have  enough food to the quality of their food; to how healthful their food might  be to where their food comes from; how one may access it; does everyone have the same access; how was the food produced, served, delivered,  consequences of that We also discuss several other topics like Why is marketing important?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the important tool for economics?

o Food access = is access the same as having the ability to have access to food in a meaningful way; concerned with secure livelihoods as a 

What does transitional justice mean?

necessary condition for food security and having more subjective  Don't forget about the age old question of What are the benefits of foreign direct investment?

elements of food such as the quality of available food (even people’s  anxiety about food insecurity)

o Food sovereignty = sovereignty (ability to make choices); demands that  individuals have a right to safe, nutritious and culturally acceptable food  and a right to determine their own food systems. It seeks to connect  consumers to producers through systems of rights based on mutual aid,  rather than top­down aid. Sovereignty activists argue that without a shared political stake in the food system, both producers and consumers remain  passive recipients of policy, aid and subsidy.

∙ How is urban agriculture (gardens) expected to promote food justice? o Urban agriculture (gardens) are expected to promote food justice by  allowing people in areas that may not have access to food by providing  them access to fresh fruit and produce.

What is microclimates?

If you want to learn more check out What is the law of contraposition?

o Organizing food production on a community scale through urban  agriculture (in response to loss of produce and consumer agency in the  food system and alienation between producers and consumers)

o Promotes food justice by developing an alternative urban market apart  from the monopolized agency. It also work to return some control over  food production and the means of production to be more transparent and  less privatized (promoting autonomy). Gives you accessibility via logistic  availability, assurance of quality, ability to exercise sovereignty.

o Giving the means of obtaining quality food, affordably, seen less as a  means of profit and capital interests, but more as way of promoting an  adequate standard of living (food security)

∙ In Below the Line, do restaurant worker advocates seek remedies of  redistribution, recognition, or both? How so?

o Restaurant workers have a subminimum wage violates the human right of  having an adequate standard of living. International principles to alleviate  poverty and to promote human rights call on States to “ensure that all  workers are paid a wage sufficient to enable them and their family to have  access to an adequate standard of living.

o Promote the international human rights to an adequate standard of living  and to just and favorable remuneration: fair working conditions free of  discrimination Don't forget about the age old question of What is alfred hitchcock's style?

o Support legislation such as the Raise the Wage Act and the Pay Workers  a Living Wage Act, which raise the federal minimum wage and eliminate  the lower minimum wage for tipped workers (women wants raise)

o Ensure that restaurant workers and their families have affordable access  to healthcare

o Many low­wage restaurant workers who prepare and serve food in  restaurants across the country cannot afford to put food on their own table o Legal reform for the domestic laws that establish the two­tiered wage  structure for tipped workers in the restaurant industry Don't forget about the age old question of What is the krebs cycle in simple terms?

o Tipped restaurant workers often struggle to work and live with dignity

∙ Do rights defined by international law inform a prevailing sense of duty to restaurant workers? How so, or why not?

o Legal duty, moral duty, social duty, ethical duty? In what way is there a  meaningful duty?

o International human rights standards stipulate that “every human being is  entitled to safe and healthy working conditions, access to rest and leisure,  reasonable limitation of working hours, paid vacations, advance notice of  the work schedule, part time flexibility

o International Labor Organization and U.N. human rights bodies recognize  sexual harassment in the workplace as a violation of women’s 

fundamental human rights.

o Wages must be paid directly to workers on a regular basis by their  employers, and that fair and equal wages for equal work must be provided to all workers

o Furthermore, international human rights law recognizes that the right to  equal remuneration includes the right to employment benefits, and equal  treatment with respect to work of equal value

o The two­tiered minimum wage structure traps many low­wage tipped  restaurant workers in conditions of economic and social vulnerability and  violates their fundamental human rights. Earning subminimum wages  leads to an inadequate standard of living. Due to poverty, these tipped  workers cannot access healthcare, adequate housing, experience food  insecurity. Women and people of color experience harassment and  exploitation and discrimination. The US has obligation to protect human 

rights (particularly those of who have been historically victims of 


Week 9: Transformative Justice

∙ What does transitional justice mean or refer to in general (i.e., define), and what  are some examples of where it has been implemented and/or appears needed,  past or present?

o Transitional justice = __ 

o In the past Germany has paid 1 billion for Holocaust (to survivors and  Israel)   Chancellor would acknowledge the unspeakable crimes and  → offered formal public statements of apology

o Australia   no individual compensation rather promised measures to  → overcome the social and economic disadvantages suffered 

o US government paid Japanese survivors and provided funds to promote  Japanese culture and history

o Reparations for slavery and segregation (States apologize)   in order to  → honor the memory of those who have suffered injustice, recognize the  persisting effects of injustice on victims and descendants, atone for the  wrongdoings committed. Apologies help bind wounds and provide basis  for reconciliation (alleviate the effects of the injustice)

o Critics say people should not apologize for something they did not do.  Moral individualism   people are free and subject to obligations they  → volunteer for 

∙ What are backward and forward­looking approaches to transitional justice, which  is most important, and why?

o Backward and forward­looking approaches = recognizing things in the  past really happened, owning up to them, taking responsibility for them,  meaningfully apologizing, and looking forward is the promise that the  things in the past won’t reoccur; and what are we doing about it

∙ What are “microclimates of racial meaning” and why does Ward suggest we  focus on these in remedial efforts?

o Microclimates are areas with environmental factors that differ from  surrounding areas, that describe a particular area shaped over time by  histories of environmental racism, either through socio­political exclusion,  economic discrimination, environmental contamination

o Ward suggests that we focus on remedial efforts to amend the damage  done by a history of racism and to promote social justice (the well­being of others). To make up for the wrong doings of others by implementing 

policies and strategies that better the socioeconomic statuses of those  affected by historic racial violence

o The way we can look at particular communities and how they dealt with  the history of racial violence and discrimination

o Define what we mean by that

o Talk about a small city/town and the history within that one community and how efforts to remedy are intrinsic

o Remedial = the way to fix/address something

∙ What does Ward mean by “intermediate” remedial efforts (e.g., describe and give an example), and why do these seem worthwhile to pursue, compared to more  extreme measures? 

o Intermediate = 

∙ Sandel suggests that people will disagree about loyalties in political communities, on questions of apology and other reparation for example, depending upon  whether they understand themselves as morally neutral or encumbered. Explain. o

Week 10: Moral Limits of Markets

∙ Sandel argues that market triumphalism proceeded without a debate about  “morals and markets” that we needed to have. What is this debate that was and  remains needed? 


∙ What, generally speaking, is the moral logic of the market, in terms of notions of  moral value and social goods – in other words, can you discuss some  distinguishing ideas or features?  


∙ Sandel objects to market intrusion on grounds of coercion and corruption. What  do these objections specifically refer to (i.e., what is morally wrong in each case), which is a more fundamental objection for Sandel, and why? 

o Coercion = force

 Poverty; people taking deals and jobs because they’re the only  things they have

o Corruption = bribery

Key Concepts - Ethics & Politics of Justice: Section 3  

Recall that Section Three focuses on distinct cases or contexts related to the ethics and politics of justice.  These “case studies” illustrate the relevance and utility of ideas explored in the first two sections of the  course, as well as orienting, reconciling, and realistically utopian ambitions of justice studies today.  

Week 8: Food Justice

• What do the concepts of food security and food justice refer to specfically. Regarding food  justice, what do food access and sovereignty involve or idealize?

• How is urban agriculture (gardens) expected to promote food justice?

• In Below the Line, do restaurant worker advocates seek remedies of redistribution, recognition,  or both? How so?

• Do rights defined by international law inform a prevailing sense of duty to restaurant workers? How so, or why not?

Week 9: Transformative Justice

• What does transitional justice mean or refer to in general (i.e., define), and what are some examples of where it has been implemented and/or appears needed, past or present?

• What are backward and forward-looking approaches to transitional justice, which is most  important, and why?

• What are “microclimates of racial meaning” and why does Ward suggest we focus on these in  remedial efforts?

• What does Ward mean by “intermediate” remedial efforts (e.g., describe and give an example),  and why do these seem worthwhile to pursue, compared to more extreme measures?

• Sandel suggests that people will disagree about loyalties in political communities, on questions of  apology and other reparation for example, depending upon whether they understand themselves  as morally neutral or encumbered. Explain.

Week 10: Moral Limits of Markets

• Sandel argues that market triumphalism proceeded without a debate about “morals and markets”  that we needed to have. What is this debate that was and remains needed?

• What, generally speaking, is the moral logic of the market, in terms of notions of moral value and  social goods – in other words, can you discuss some distinguishing ideas or features?

• Sandel objects to market intrusion on grounds of coercion and corruption. What do these  objections specifically refer to (i.e., what is morally wrong in each case), which is a more  fundamental objection for Sandel, and why?

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