Bio 361 Final Exam Study Guide
Bio 361 Final Exam Study Guide BIO 361
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anna Kretschmar on Friday June 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 361 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Lars Tomanek in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Principles of Physiology in Biology at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 06/03/16
BIO 361 FINAL EXAM REVIEW GUIDE!!! (Answers at the end!) 1. Amphibians living in aquatic environments form dilute urine. How do they accomplish this task while also reabsorbing most of the water that enters as filtrate into the tubular structure of the kidney? Which channel proteins play an important role in this process and how is the abundance of these channels regulated? 2. What does it exactly mean when we say that the blood plasma of sharks is hypoionic and hyperosmotic? Which “problems” do shark face to maintain their water and ion balance? What active processes do sharks employ to counteract these problems (or challenges)? 3. What are the “problems” that a marine fish (teleost) experiences in terms of keeping its water and ion balance? Which organ is the site of these “problems”? What are the three “activities” that are employed to counteract the problems of its water and ion balance? Explain why these fish don’t desiccate. 4. Why do freshwater organisms have a U/P ratio of <1? Explain the significance of this U/P ratio for water and solute excretion. How will a U/P ratio of <1 affect the blood plasma of a freshwater organism? 5. What are compatible osmolytes? Name four groups? Which ones are compatible osmolytes? Why are they called “compatible”? What are counteracting osmolytes? When are they compatible? 6. What are the different fluid compartments in a vertebrate tissue? Describe if they are iso-ionic to each other or not, and if they are iso-osmotic to each other or not. 7. E. It is staggering that freshwater fish are able to transport Na and Cl ions across the apical membrane of their gill epithelium against a huge concentration gradient between the intracellular and the fresh pond w+te+). i. What is the role of the Na -K -ATPase in this process? ii. Which other membrane proteins are involved in the process of importing Na across the apical membrane? How do they contribute to its import? - iii. Which proteins are involved in importing Cl ions across the apical side of the gill epithelium? What is the role of carbonic anhydrase in this process? 8. Define primary and secondary active transport. Name an example for primary and for secondary active transport. 9. Assume a single cell membrane. Why is the Na gradient considered to have the + - greatest energy potential? Why is the energy potential less for K and Cl ? Explain all your answers. 10. What happens when we start out with a beaker and an unequal concentration of a solute across a membrane that is permeable for this particular solute? Which variables affect the rate of change? Assume the solute is a positively charged ion and that the charge difference across the membrane is zero. Assume also that the membrane is permeable only to this positively charged ion. How does this affect the rate of change? Explain your answer. What is this chemical condition called? 11. How does temperature affect the function of membranes? How do animals assure that their membranes do function properly at their adaptation temperature? 12. Describe the difference between neuronal and hormonal signaling. 13. Explain the reasons for the changes in membrane potential during the following phases of an action potential: resting, rising, falling and recovery. Describe the changes in membrane potential, the changes in membrane permeability and reasons why these changes occur (or what triggers these changes). Also, draw a figure that provides a simple overview of these changes. 14. How can we increase the conduction velocity of an action potential? 15. Describe what is called the neuromuscular junction in vertebrates in general (What is it?). Explain the steps that occur during the chemical synaptic transmission at a neuromuscular junction. 16. When we measure the metabolic rate by quantifying the consumption of oxygen, the heat produced per ml of oxygen depends on the food consumed. How can we identify (at least make a good guess of) the type of food that the organism is eating? 17. Which factors have the largest effect on the metabolic rates of animals? Which are also exerting an effect but less so? 18. Specifically, name the three so-called rate-limiting reactions of glycolysis. Why are they considered control steps? How are the enzymes of these control steps regulated? Use Phosphofructokinase (PFK) as an example. 19. G. What is one of the side effects of aerobic metabolism? Which enzymes control the degree of this side effect? And why is it considered harmful? 1. In the proximal tubule ions are reabsorbed and it is permeable to water. In the distal tubule ions are still absorbed but water is not free to pass. This allows amphibians to absorb the water earlier on but still produce dilute urine because only the ions can leave. This all depends on the amount of aquaporins in the tubule which is regulated by the amount of ADH in the body. 2. Their osmolarity is higher than the seawater but they have a lower salt concentration than the seawater. The problems they face are they tend to gain water and gain ions. To counteract these problems they produce hyposmotic urine (dilute) and secrete ions through glands and in their feces. 3. A marine fish tends to lose water and gain ions through diffusion across the gills. The gills are the source of these problems. The solutions to this problem are: produce small amounts of concentrated urine, active transport to get rid of ions, gain water from their food. These three solutions are why the fish will not desiccate. 4. U/P ration < 1 means the species is hyperosmotic to its environment but has hyposmotic urine. Its urine is very dilute compared to itself, with little ion excretion. This results in an increase in the osmolarity of the plasma. 5. Compatible osmolytes are organic molecules that can have a large effect on osmolarity of blood, however, do not effect protein structure and function. These include amino acids, sugars, polyols, and methylammonium compounds. They are usually polar and highly soluble, they are neutral and lack hydrophobic regions to they do not denature the proteins, which is why they are compatible. Counteracting osmolytes do disturb the function of proteins when alone however as teams they can counteract the effects of the other, such as urea and TMAO, to become compatible. 6. Bodily fluids consist of intracellular, interstitial, and blood plasma. They all have a similar osmolarity because the single cell membranes separating them are permeable to water and ions (iso-osmotic). However, the intracellular differs in ion composition because of ion pumps, such as Na/K ATPase, to create concentration gradients. 7. i. Na/K ATPase removes Na from the cell using ATP in order to keep the higher concentration of Na outside of the cell. By removing 3 while only adding two K+ a negative charge is created inside the cell. This attracts Na into the cell. Its role is to create a chemical and electrical gradient. ii. A proton pump also helps with this gradient. It removes H from the cell to further contribute to the negative charge and thus attraction of Na into the cell. iii. Cl is able to enter the cell because it is countertransported as HCO3- leaves the cell. Carbonic anhydrase is what turns metabolic waste into HCO3-. Without it Cl would have nothing to countertransport with. 8. Primary active directly uses ATP to move molecules, such as Na/K ATPase that moves 3 Na out and 2 K into the cell. Secondary active indirectly uses the ATP by instead using the electrochemical gradient that the ATP using pump created. This gradient lets Na move with its gradient into the cell while co-transporting glucose against its own gradient. 9. Na has the greatest energy potential because both its concentration and electrical gradients make it move in the same direction. It is far from equilibrium so it has a high potential because lots of molecules will be moving. Cl has less because its gradients are in opposite directions so Cl is close or even at equilibrium. The lack of movement means a lower potential. K has less than Na as well because it gradients are in opposite directions. It is more than Cl though because its concentration gradient is slightly stronger to create some net movement. 10. The concentration gradient will cause the molecule to diffuse from the higher side to the lower side. The steepness of the gradient affects rate. How thick the membrane is also affects rate. The surface area of the membrane does as well. The overall permeability of the membrane to the molecule factors into the rate as well. The positive molecule will diffuse across to create an electric gradient as well as a concentration gradient. Once it moves a positive charge will be on that side. This will prevent further diffusion of the molecule because the same charges will repel. The rate of change would then be zero. This is called Donnan equilibrium. 11. Lower temperatures make a membrane less fluid while higher temperatures make it more fluid. Animals more adapted to the cold typically have more unsaturated lipids (carbs) incorporated into their membranes in order to keep fluidity. 12. Neuronal signaling involves a neuron that takes an electrical signal releases it as a chemical signal in the form of a neurotransmitter and then back to a chemical signal when it binds to the postsynaptic axon, it is also addressed to a specific target cell. Hormonal signaling includes the release of a chemical signal as a hormone from an endocrine cell that then travels slowly through the blood till it reaches the right target cell with the proper receptors, it is broadcasted to all cells but only certain ones interpret the signal. 13. Resting – perm to K due to leak channels out of neurons cause a negative voltage Rising – depolarize past threshold so Na voltage gated channels open for split second to further depolarize neuron with Na influx. Falling – Na gates close and enter refractory period where they can’t be open, K gates open after short delay and stay open a little longer to hyperpolarize Recovery – undershoot to make sure AP continues forward, from extended open of K gates and leak channels, gates close and leak channels bring back to resting 14. Conduction velocity can be increased by – increasing the area of the axon (this increases the Rm/Ri ratio which increases speed, increasing the myelination (this increases membrane resistance so less ions can leave and reduces capacitance), increasing the length constant (can spread further), higher temperature results in a faster velocity. 15. It is the neuron that is connected to the muscle fibers. a. AP depolarizes presynaptic terminal b. Ca gates open and it enters c. Vesicles fuse to the active zones and release Ach d. Ach diffuses across the cleft to bind to receptors on post synaptic membrane e. Ligand gated channels open and Na in and K out to produce a depolarizing EPSP that can spreads through muscle fiber f. EPSP depolarizes the whole membrane to cause a contraction g. Ach is hydrolyzed to be terminated h. Choline is recycled for further use 16. Different types of foods have different amounts of heat produced per unit of oxygen consumed. You can determine the respiratory quotient (mols O2 consumed/mols CO2 produced), foods have their own exchange ratios. So whichever food is closest to the RQ then you can conclude the animals diets consists of mostly that type of food. 17. Physical activity and ambient temperature have the largest effect on metabolic rates. Many other factors have smaller effects: ingestion of food (inc after eating), body size (weight specific dec as size inc), gender (higher in males), time of day (higher in day). 18. The rate limiting steps of glycolysis are those with phosphofructokinase, hexokinase, and pyruvate kinase. This are control steps because they are irreversible – once the molecule is changed in this step the process can only go forward. PFK is regulated by citrate – when it binds it decreases the catalytic activity of PFK which slows this step in glycolysis. AMP can also bind, but this increases catalytic activity. 19. Aerobic metabolism has an end product of CO2, if there is a buildup of CO2 it can lead to acidification because it can bind to and change the conformation of proteins, which can cause serious problems. Carbonic anhydrase helps with this problem. It can turn CO2 and water into HCO3- and protons which can be used for a proton pump.
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