DETAILED/COMPLETED KINE 255 FINAL STUDY GUIDE
DETAILED/COMPLETED KINE 255 FINAL STUDY GUIDE 255
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shelby Kolb on Saturday June 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 255 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Jennifer O’Brien in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Multicultural Health in Kine at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 06/04/16
KINE 255 Personal Health: A Multicultural Perspective Study Guide Test #2 Friday, June 10 at 4:00 pm Use this guide to study your lecture notes, notes from videos viewed, and assigned reading Birth & Breastfeeding Describe birth in the U.S and how it has changed in the last one hundred years o 1.36% of births outside the hospital now o Women’s Health Movement= wanted say in birth outcomes, now 1.3% of births outside hostpital. Describe the cultural norms of the process of pregnancy and birth (prenatal care, birth location, medical interventions and pain management) o Pain management epidural, narcotics, use of water & mediation o Episiotomy= surgical cut in the muscular area between vagina and anus or perineum & Csection o Vaginal birth beneficial bacteria passed from mother to child. o Medicalized births 6.1/1000 deaths Describe the stages of birth o 1= contractions are opening the cervix “dilating”. Babies head moves lower into the pelvis. 2= birth of baby. 3= delivery of the placenta Describe birth outcomes (infant and maternal mortality) in the U.S. o Infant mortality= 6.1/1000. Maternal mortatility= US ranks #31 of OECD countries caused by obesity related complications (hypertension and diabetes) Describe the benefits of breastfeeding to baby, mother, the economy and the environment o Human milk is biologic norm for infant nutrition. Contains thousands of distinct bioactive molecules that protect against infection/inflammation. o For mom decreased postpartum blood loss, more rapid involution of uterus, increased child spacing, decreased risk of postpartum depression, decreased risk of diabetes type 2, decresead risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Describe why the American Academy refers to breastfeeding as a “public health issue” and not just a lifestyle choice o Wont put a dent in your wallet, saves water, and it doesn’t use energy for manufacturing or pollute the environment w/ garbage or manufacturing air pollution. Describe the changing nature of breastmilk – from colostrum to milk in later lactation o Adapts to changing demands of infant. o Colostrum=produced in late pregnancy and first days after birth. High in carbs & proteins, low in fat. o Human milk= lactoferrin, secretory IGA, bifidus factor Describe the compounds found in breastmilk o High in carbs and proteins. Low in fat. o High in immunoglobulins (secretory iga) Describe the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation on breastfeeding and introduction of food. Describe breastfeeding rates in the U.S. which ethic group has the highest rates of breastfeeding and why? o Latinas 1 o Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months. No food, just breast milk. o Continued breastfeeding for 1 year or longer as mutually desired by mother/infant. o 77% of women initiated breastfeeding. 49% b. feed for 6 months. Exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months is 16.4%. 27% at 12 months. Describe why some women do not breastfeed o Distressed by physical discomfort of early breastfeeding problems, convenience issues, public shaming, pressures of employment, worries that breast will change shape, formula manufacturers manipulate people thru their ads. Describe how our society could promote breastfeeding o Demand paid parental leave, require workplace to provide location, refrigeration, and pay for reasonable breaks, support women in public. Birth Control Define methods of birth control and effectiveness (methods include hormonal, barrier, IUD, emergency contraception, abortion – surgical and medical) o Prevent sperm from reaching egg, inactivate or damage sperm, prevent egg from being released each month, alter the lining of the uterus so that a fertilized egg doesn’t attach, thicken cervical mucus so that sperm cant pass thru it. o Hormonal methods= birth control pills, vaginal ring, contraceptive Implant (nexplanon), contraceptive injection (depoprovera), and contraceptive patch (ortho evra) o Intrauterine devices(IUDS)= copper IUD (ParaGard) and hormonal IUD(mirena or skyla) o Emergency contraception= surgical abortion, medical abortion (pills) o Medical abortion= used up to 70 days thru healthcare provider. Mifepristone blocks progesterone). Misoprostol causes uterine contractions (12 days later). Visit to healthcare provider 12 weeks later. o Sterlization= tubal ligation, essure system, vasectomy o Barrier methods= male/ female condoms, diaphragm, cervical cap, and contraceptive sponge. o Natural Family planning= rhythm, basal body temp. Understand new birth control policies under the Affordable Care Act o Approved contraceptive methods prescribed by a woman’s doctor are covered; generally includes : barrier methods, hormonal methods, implanted devices, emergency contraceptives, sterilization procedures, patient education/counseling. o Plans aren’t required to cover drugs to induce abortions or services related to a man’s reproductive capacity Describe recent changes to reproductive health and birth control options for women in California o Describe how culture impacts birth control choice o Perceived as a woman’s problem. o Cultural isolation of women= lack of education o Cultural/RELIGIOUS attitudes towards premarital sex and divorce/ use of birth control. Describe how other nations address birth control, especially for teens. How does this impact health? * Describe how/why couples choose birth control methods o Effectiveness, compatibility with beliefs, protection, etc. Describe the method American Academy of Pediatrics recommends for young women 1524 and why o Withdrawal method and rhythm method 2 Sexually Transmitted Infections Describe the problem of STIs in the United States (social, physical, and economic costs) o US has highest rate of STis in industrialized nations o By age 24, ¼ Americans contract STI o Estimated 65 mil are living with incurable STI o Poverty/marginalization o Substance abuse o Racial/ethnic disparities Understand the basic information about bacterial and viral sexually transmitted infections and treatments for each o Bacterial = gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis. Treatment : antibiotics for 7 dats o Viral= herpes, HPV, hepatitis B, HIV. Treatment : often with medication o Most HPV cases are harmless. Describe the most common STIs in the U.S. o See above. HPV! Understand the infection rates in the U.S. Which age group is most impacted by STIs and why? How do these rates compare to those in Europe? o 1524 because multiple partners and more sexually active. Women and men are often asymptomatic for a STI what does that mean? o Showing no symptoms. Describe pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). What are the health impacts to PID? o Leading cause of infertility o Complication of bacterial infections in women. Symptoms include abdominal/back pain, vaginal discharge, painful intercourse, fever, shaking, chills. Affects 1 mil women per year. Why are women more vulnerable (socially and physically) to STIs? o Less likely to show symptoms. How can humans avoid contracting a STI? Describe prevention strategies o Prevention, abstinence, vaccination, mutual monogamy, reduced # of sexual partners, condoms What is Human Papillomavirus? How is cervical cancer linked to HPV? o Viral infection. Some strains can cause genital warts and cervical dysplasia. Precancerous cell growth on cervix usually develops w/out symptoms. Describe the vaccine developed to stop HPV transmission. Describe why parents are reluctant to vaccinate their children o Gardasil and cervarix. What are the cultural factors that allow STIs? o Sexuality is normal and part of being a teen. Describe the video “Creating an STD Free Generation” and how the information can decrease the number of STDs in the U.S. o Talks about spreading and accessing information easily thru the internet. Website “So You Can Know” is communication tool and information bank. Nutrition: The Cultural Importance of Food to Health Define nutrition o Study of the nutrients found in foods, the bodys use of these nutrients to maintain health, energy to maintain all body functions, energy for muscle movement, nutrients to repair/build tissue. Describe the connection between food and cultural identity 3 o We have to eat, we like to eat. We are the only animal that cooks. We need fuel daily. Food is almost always shared. Food is an occasion for sharing, giving, and altruism. Describe the connection between gender and food o Women are seen as primary to food prep. Food= security and love. Understand religion and dietary laws (food avoidance, food preparation and food choices) o Provides guidance on rituals, food choice, preparation, consumption. Describe the USDA’s role in food recommendations. What issues arise with the USDA providing what Americans eat? o Offer guidelines to promote health, prevent chronic disease, help people reach/maintain healthy weight. Understand the basics of macro and micronutrients o Macro= protein (build/maintain muscles, bones, body tissues. Form enzymes that facilitate chemical reactions) fat (principal form of stored energy in body; affect taste, texture, and smell of food). Carbs (energy). o Micro= vitamins (promote chemical reactions). Minerals (regulate bodily functions). Describe how food choices are impacted by culture, religion, family, the media and food production o Traditional/cultural eating reclaim cooking as an intricate part of life/society. Whole food, mostly plantbased. “Meet” your food at a farmers market. Try with spices/flavors. Describe how food choices are impacted by immigration to the U.S. o Process of assimilation; dietary changes that impact health. Describe traditional diets and the promotion of Health through Heritage – Oldways o See above. Describe the industrialized food and their impact on health (partiallyhydrogenated oils (trans fats), high fructosecorn syrup & grains stripped of their nutrients) o Industrial food production is stripped of nutrients. Outdated, unsustainable system dominates US food productions. Produce food that is detrimental to human health. Describe the Standard American Diet o Value on speed, no fuss, made ready to eat, industrialized food processing, trans fat, highfructose corn syrup. Meat at center of plate. Factoryfarm dependent. Describe Jaime Oliver’s TED Talk Teach Every Child About Food on antiobesity efforts o Famous chef using fame to change /redefine American diet. Real, whole foods instead of junk food. Describe how health would change if we adopted food policies Jamie Oliver suggests o Potential longer life spans. Obesity and dietrelated diseases would decrease. o Money spent on health instead of obesitydiseases Outline new food priorities for the American diet o Whole and healthy foods and more veggies. Define overweight and obesity and trends/rates in the U.S. o Excessive accumulation of fat in body determined by BMI. Understand the populations that are most impacted by obesity and why o Highest among minorities : American Indian/Alaska native, black, Hispanic, white. 4 o Developing countries with emerging economics; highest among middle aged adults, low educated humans. Describe how we measure overweight and obesity using the BMI. o W*703/h2 Describe issues with using BMI as an accurate measure for all o Doesn’t account for muscle. Describe the health impacts associated with being overweight and obese o High blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer, gallstones, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea, reproductive health problems. Physical Fitness & the Barriers to Becoming Fit Describe Healthy People 20/20 assessment of how physical activity varies among populations in the U.S. o Personal, social, economic, and environmental factors all paly a role in physical activity levels. Describe why understanding barriers to being active can help ensure more effective interventions o Describe the five components of physical fitness and the recommendations of each and each population group o Cardiorespiratory = ability to carry on vigorous aerobic activity for an extended period of time. o Muscular strength= total force that muscle groups produce in one effort. o Muscular endurance= ability to perform repeated muscular contractions over time without tiring. o Flexibility= ability to move joints thru their full range of motion o Body composition= ratio of lean body weight to fat. Describe the many benefits of exercise and being physically fit o Long term= lower risk of early death, stoke, heart disease, certain cancers, type 2 diabetes, depression, blood pressure, cholesterol levels. Improves balance & mental cognition for elderly. o Short term= improve aerobic capacity, muscle strength, sleep, mood, endurance. Describe the factors that are positively associated with adult physical activity o Balance and mental cognition. Postsecondary education, higher income, enjoyable scenery, social support, satisfaction Understand the barriers to physical fitness and how becoming physically fit requires more than just an individual’s effort o Personal, social, economic, environmental. Impacts physical activity levels among Americans and are important to understand to create effective interventions. Understand how family, the worksite, and the neighborhood and built environment impact physical activity o Describe changes needed for cities of the future to promote physical activity o Land use policies create community wide environment that support physical activity. Access to public transportation and pedestrian friendly and bike friendly street designs. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) Describe the basic functioning of the cardiovascular system (heart, blood vessels and blood) o Define CVD and the health impacts and costs to the U.S. o Any disease involving the heart and/or blood vessels. 5 o 82 mil adults live with some form of cvd. o 1 mil deaths are attributed to CVD every year. o Contributes to serious illness, disability, decreased quality of life, and billions of dollars in economic loss. Describe how race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, & gender impact the incidence/outcomes for CVD o Blacks are twice as likely to die from heart disease than whites. o Black men 30% more likely. o Black men and women= 40% more likely to have high BP than whites. o Blacks are 10% less likely to have HBP under control. o Those with LOW income are more likely to suffer from HBP, higher cholesterol levels, heart attacks, strokes. o Leading cause of death for American women and 2/3 women who die from a heart attack had no previous symptoms & 50% men. o Only 54% of women knew that CVD is #1 killer. Describe who is most at risk and why Describe the various types of CVD: stroke, hypertension, myocardial infarction and atherosclerosis and the risk factors for CVD o Stroke= lack of blood to brain. o Hypertension or HBP= sustained high BP. 44% of blacks have HBP. Highest among men and elderly without high school education. More likely when smoking or under stress. o Coronary heart disease= atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries. o Myocardial infarction= plaque bundle that builds up in vessel and blocks blood supply to heart (heart attack). o Risk factors = family history, tobacco use, hypertension, cholesterol & fats, diabetes, overweight obesity, metabolic syndrome, physical inactivity, menopause, oral contraceptives, alchol, added sugar, drugs. Describe metabolic syndrome o Elevated waist circumference, reduced HDL, elevated bp, insulin resistance. Higher in blacks and higher rates within Mexicans. Describe how best to prevent CVD o Prevention, detection, and treatment of risk factors. Explain the incidence and impact of CVD on women and how it compares to men o 2/3 of women had no previous symptoms. Describe how symptoms of heart attack in women varies from those symptoms of men o Neck, jaw, shoulder, upper back or ab discomfort. Shortness of breathe. Right arm pain. Nausea or vomiting. Sweating. Dizziness. Unusual fatigue. MEN have right arm pain. o Describe how the Affordable Care Act plans to decrease CVD o Ensures that health insurance companies provide a # of preventative services free of charge. Screenings for obesity, HBP, cholesterol. Counseling for daily use of aspirin, weight loss, etc. Cancer Define cancer and how it spreads o Uncontrolled growth & spread of abnormal cells. Group of over 200 diseases. o Stage 0= early cancer, when abnormal cells remain only in the place they originated, stage 1,2,3= higher #s indicate more extensive disease; larger tumor size and/or spread of cancer beyond the 6 organ in which it first developed to nearby lymph nodes and/or organs adjacent to the location of the primary tumor. Stage 4= cancer has spread to other organs. Describe the four types of cancer and understand which is most common o Carcinomas= epithelial cells cover internal and external body surfaces. (MOST COMMON) o Leukemia= blood cells o Lymphomas= lymph nodes/tissues. Part of immune system o Sarcomas= least common. Cells in supportive tissues of bones and muscles. Define risk factors associated with all types of cancer o Lifestyle (smoking, diet, lack of exercise). Socioeconomic status. Genetics (early development, family history, multiple targets, unusual gender patterns), occupational/environmental exposure, obesity, alcohol consumption, infectious diseases, inflammatory response Describe how race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status impact the incidence, diagnosis, treatment & outcomes of cancer o Cancer can affect men and women of all ages, races, ethnicities, but does not affect all groups equally. o Blacks are more likely to die of cancer than people of any other race. Describe the most common forms of cancer in women and men (incidence and mortality) o Lung cancer= #1 killing cancer in men and women. Describe treatments for cancer o Surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, stem cell transplant Describe prostate cancer, who is most at risk and why o Most common form of cancer in men. Men ages 65 + most at risk. (age, high saturated fat diet, genetics) Describe how breastfeeding decreases a woman’s risk to premenopausal breast cancer o Making milk 24/7 limits breast cells abilities to misbehave. o Most woman have fewer menstrual cycles when breastfeeding lower estrogen levels o Many woman eat more nutritious foods and live healthier lifestyle. Describe the basic premise outlined in the video “Can We Eat to Starve Cancer?” by William Li o Antiangiogenesis. Preventing growth of blood vessels that feed a tumor. First step is eating cancer fighting foods that cut off the supply lines and beat cancer. Describe angiogenesis and antiangiogenesis o Angiogenesis= forming of blood vessels. Substances. Tobacco Describe why people use tobacco o Pleasure, social pressure, to fit in, relax, reduce stress Describe how age, gender, income and education levels, and geographic location of where an individual lives impact tobacco use o 2544 year old most likely to smoke. o American indian/Alaska native= most likely to smoke o Less than high school education= most likely to smoke o Below poverty level Explain the health effects of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide on health o Nicotine= highly addictive, psychoactive substance. CNS stimulant. Paralyzes cilia. 7 o Tar= carcinogenic particulate matter o Carbon monoxide= deadly gas that reduces the oxygencarrying capacity of red blood cells. Describe populations most at risk for tobacco use o American indian/Alaska native. Describe how tobacco marketing impacts tobacco use in various populations o $9.2 bil in advertising/promotion of cigarettes. o Targets youth/young adults, women, racial/ethnic communities, LGBTQ. Describe methods used to control the use of tobacco, especially for teens and young adults o Tobacco Control Act aims to decrease new, young users. o Target how companies market their product. o Ecigarettes are marketed as a therapeutic device to quit smoking. Describe methods some populations have taken to decrease tobacco use o Cold turkey, gradual reduction, nicotine replacement devices, shortterm programs based on behavior modification and a system of rewards. o Combining several approaches has the most promise. Describe measures that other countries have employed to decrease smoking o Australia = plain packaging marketing. Name of brand in smallertype. Pictures of cancercausing problems. o Ecigarettes. Describe impacts of environmental tobacco smoke or secondhand smoke (mainstream and side stream smoke) o Passive smoke= environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) or second hand smoke. Mainstream, side stream, or thirdhand. Describe thirdhand smoke o contamination by tobacco smoke that lingers following the extinguishing of a cigarette. Outline treatment options or cessation programs o Describe catmageddon o Cats are twice as likely to get cancer if their owner smokes. Alcohol Understand why people use alcohol o To socialize, celebrate, and decompress. Define alcohol and its affects o Central nervous system depressant, which impairs movement and thinking. As concentrations increase, more functions are depressed, and greater impairment occurs. Describe the concept of a standard drink and alcohol proof o Measure of the percent alcohol. 80 proof whiskey= 40% alcohol. o Percent of pure alcohol Describe factors that influence alcohol absorption o Food in stomach, gender, age, drug interaction, cigarette smoking, mood/physical condition, alcohol concentration, carbonation Describe BAC o Blood alcohol concentration= ratio of alcohol to total blood volume. Used as a measure of the degree of intoxication in an individual. 0.08% means 0.08 grams of alcohol in every 100 g. of blood. 8 Describe how women/men are physiologically affected by alcohol consumption o Women= more susceptible to the effects of alcohol and have a higher BAC than men due to less body weight, higher body fat %, alcohol dehydrogenase differences, menstrual cycle, use of oral contraceptives. o Men= consistently higher rates of alcohol related deaths/hospitalizations. Among drivers in traffic accidents, men are almost twice as likely as women to have been intoxicated, excessive alcohol consumption increases aggression and as a result can increase the risk of physically assaulting others, more likely to commit suicide, more likely to have been drinking prior to suicide. Describe problems associated with sexual health and alcohol consumption o STIs. o Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. Describe the societal problems associated with alcohol use o Unintentional injuries, intentional injures, alcohol poisoning, academic problems, STIS, unintended pregnancy. Describe binge drinking and heavy drinking and the associated health problems o Binge drinking= consuming 5 or more drinks for a man or 4 or more drinks for a woman in a 2 hour period. o Heavy drinking= drinking 5 or more drinks on the same occasion on each of 5 or more days in the past 30 days. Describe how socioeconomic status impacts the use of alcohol High status= high bottom Lower status= lower bottom Describe how marketing and the sale of alcohol impacts use o Describe harm reduction policies aimed at decreasing alcohol consumption o Regulate marketing of alcoholic beverages o Regulate/restrict availability o Enact appropriate drinking/driving policies o Reduce demand thru taxation and pricing mechanisms o Raising awareness of public health problems o Providing accessible/affordable treatment Drug Use Define drug use, misuse and abuse o Almost 1 in 10 americans are addicted to alcohol/other drugs. o Drug misuse= use of a drug for a purpose or by a person other than that for whom it was medically intended. o Drug abuse= excessive drug use that is inconsistent with accepted medical practice. Describe the types of legal/illegal drugs available in the U.S. o Top 3 drugs causing addicion = marijuana, opiod/pain relievers, cocaine o Stimulants= increase heart rate, BP, strength of heart contractions, blood glucose level, muscle tension o Depressants= slows down the messages between the brain and the body by slowing down the activity of the central nervous system. o Cannabis= causes alterations in perception and reactions; increases heart rate. 9 o Hallucigens= alter perception, thoughts, reality, mood, sensation, heart rate, body temperature, possible acute anxiety attack. o Narcotics/opioids=slow respiration, pain levels; high potential for abuse; over time heart infections, skin abscesses, lung congestion o Inhalants = slow bodily functions; overtime liver failure, kidney failure, respiratory failure, destruction of bone marrow and skeletal muscles. o Designer drugs = chronic use may cause brain damage, significant impairment in visual/verbal memory. o Addictive drugs act on neurons in 3 brain structures Ventral tegmental area in midbrain Nucleus accumbens Prefrontal cortex Describe the impact of socioeconomic status on illicit drug use & drug choice in the U.S. o High school seniors MARIJUANA usage highest o More White suburban users for illicit drugs. o Prison terms v. Treatment o Incarceration for drugrelated crimes. Has created unequal burden of punishment on people of COLOR; particularly African American men Describe the path to drug dependence o Experimentation, regular use, drug abuse, addiction o Compulsion= pleasure associated with drug or activity is gone. Memory of desired effect and need to recreate persists. Intense craving when cued. o Dependence= physiological changes have taken place in the brain and body chemistry. o Tolerance= body seeks to compensate for the chemical imbalance caused by the drug and achieves a new normal. o Withdrawal= symptoms are different for different drugs and lead to unpleasant feelings. Describe drugs of abuse and their impact on health o Stimulants, depressants, opioids, designer drugs, inhalants, narcotics, hallucinogens, cannabis Describe drug policies in the U.S. and its impact on ethnic minorities o Improve opiod prescreibing. o Use evidencebased substance abuse treatment. o Work collaboratively state and local health agencies, medical examiners o 100 to 1 = 5 year mandatory sentence if you are found with 100 grams powder cocaine Describe the rise of heroin use and its link to opioid prescription drug abuse o Among abusers, 3 out of 4 report abusing prescription opiods prior to heroin use. o People are starting to inject it. Describe harm reduction policies o Seeks to reduce the harms associated with drug use and ineffective drug policies. o Never will be a drug free society. o End discrimination against all drug users by reducing the stigma. o Are unable to access treatment, encountering insurance barriers, monthslong wait lists, programs that don’t meet their needs o Raise awareness about proven drug treatment models. Describe the demand reduction strategy used in the U.S. o Smart on drugs: drug enforcement(focuses on dealers) o Healthcare= helps addicts reclaim lives. o Incarceration for drugrelated crimes. 10 o Mostly African American/Latinos, drug offenders are about half of US prison population Describe harm reduction strategies from Europe o Dutch Approach(marijuana)= distribute drugs instead of having dealers do it o Swiss approach (hard drugs)= cheap syringes subsidized by government, can go to healthcare clinic to get safe heroin and talk about programs to get off addiction. Describe the medical benefits and risks associate with marijuana use o Health benefits= controls nausea and vomiting. Improves appetite. Forestalls loss of lean muscle. Reduces muscle pain and spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis. Decreases seizures. o Long term impacts= may increase risk for testicular cancer, serious mental health problems, suppressed immune system, impaired memory. Describe the changing policies regarding recreational use of marijuana o Has been decriminalized. o Compassionate use = people who need it for medical reasons can use it with no consequences. o Some states have made it legal to possess small amounts. Describe the issues with synthetic drug use outlined in the Vice video o Cannabinoids o Cathinone 11
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