DETAILED/COMPLETED POLS FINAL STUDY GUIDE
DETAILED/COMPLETED POLS FINAL STUDY GUIDE 112
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Date Created: 06/04/16
SECTION III. (CHAPTERS 8, 9, AND 10) Important Terminology – you will need to accurately identify/apply these terms: BICAMERALISM = principle of a 2 house legislature. CHECKS AND BALANCES DISCHARGE PETITION = Checks & Balances Discharge Petition= device by which any member of the House, after a committee has had the bill for thirty days, may petition to have it brought to the floor. Must be passed by a super majority. FILIBUSTER AND CLOTURE DELEGATE VS .TRUSTEE MODELS OF REPRESENTATION Filibuster= permits a minority to tie up the business of the Senate and prevent it from voting on a bill, barring a cloture vote. Cloture= 16 Senate member signatures on a petition limits debate. Delegate vs. Trustee Models of Representation= representatives either act as delegates or trustees. They act as delegates on easy issues in which they reflect the policy views of their constituents directly. They act as trustees on hard issues in which they do what they think is in the best interest of the constituents but they go off their own opinions and views. APPROPRIATIONS BILLS= proposed laws to authorize spending $$. EARMARKS AND PORKBARRELING= Earmarks= special provision for expenditures tucked inside a larger appropriation bill. Porkbarreling=politicians or governments "unofficially" undertake projects that benefit a group of citizens in return for that group's support or campaign donations. This spending mostly benefits the needs of a small select group despite the fact that the entire community's funds are being used. MANDATORY NON -DISCRETIONARY ) SPENDING vs. NON -MANDATORY (DISCRETIONARY )SPENDING = The Appropriations Committee writes 12 annual appropriations bills that provide approximately 30% of federal spending for a fiscal year. This funding is called discretionary spending. Nearly 70% of federal spending is controlled either by legislative committees or, like Medicare, Social Security, and Medicaid, is on autopilot and does not need to be appropriated every year. This is called direct or mandatory spending. BUDGET SURPLUS VS .BUDGET DEFICIT NATIONAL DEBT= sum of government deficits over time. FISCAL POLICY(“POWER OF THE PURSE ”) = government policy for dealing with the budget (especially with taxation and borrowing) THE F EDERAL R ESERVE 22 NDA MENDMENT = FEDERAL RESERVE = US central bank consisting of 12 regional banks are run by a board of governors appointed by the president for overlapping 14-year terms; formally independent of the executive and congressional branches of government; private bank members of the system own their assets. 22nd Amendment= No person shall be President more than twice. No person who has acted as President for more than two years of a term shall serve as President more than twice. EXECUTIVE ORDER = rule issued by the president that has the force of law. PRESIDENTIAL VETO = president’s authority to reject a bill passed by Congress; may only be over⅔idemajority in each house. EXECUTIVE SIGNING STATEMENT EXECUTIVE PARDON AND REPRIEVE= Executive Signing Statement = bill is law but refuse to execute, doesnt hold beyond presidential administration. Executive Pardon and Reprieve= pardon is an act by a governor or the president that forgives a prisoner and rescinds his/her sentence. Reprieve is extended to a prisoner in order to give him/her an opportunity to find a means or reason for reducing the sentence imposed. IMPEACHABLE OFFENSES= treason, bribery, or other high offenses and misdemeanors. House Of Reps. brings chargers, Senate votes.⅔ vote needed to impeach. EXECUTIVE AGREEMENTS AND TREATIES= arguements between the US president and the leaders of other nations that do not require Senate approval. COATTAILS EFFECT= consequence of one popular candidate in an election drawing votes for other members of the same party. CULTURAL , BENEFIT , AND STRATEGIC TREATIES = Executive traties= agreements between the US and a foreign country that are negotiated by the president and effective when ratified by the senate. Strategic= deal with national security. Ex: NATO. Cultural= try to improve relationships with signatories involved (Russia and china during cold war) Benefit= economically based. Try to benefit everyone involved (free trade agreement) MORAL VS . LEGAL JUSTICE = Legal justice: objective, factual, technical, insensitive to basic human emotions/moral principles. (criminal cases). Objective. § Moral justice: looks at morals , can prevail in civil cases. Subjective. POLITICAL FUNCTION OF JUDICIAL REVIEW MEDIATION VS .ARBITRATION= Judicial review= legal principle that the courts have the power to review laws made by the legislature to determine their constitutionality. Mediation vs. Arbitration= Mediation: neutral 3rd party, assisting in the resolution of the conflict, role of encouragement but ultimate decision lies in hands of 2 parties. Arbitration: 3rd party decides final result, both parties lose control of situation and must obey 3rd party. CRIMINAL VS . CIVIL CASE = criminal= government charges a person with crime civil= legal dispute between two or more parties ORIGINAL VS . APPELLATE JURISDICTION GENERAL , LIMITED ,AND FEDERAL JURISDICTIONS Original jurisdiction: courts of the first instance. Appellate: reviewing courts for appeal General, Limited, and Federal: Federal= courts authority to hear case.. federal cases in federal courts. General vs. Limited= general you can hear all types of cases (both civil and criminal). Limited you can only hear certain types of cases. POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY VS .JUDICIAL PHILOSOPHY Political philosophy= Judicial philosophy= a judge’s philosophy.. their own belief of what a judge/court should do for society. Courts limited role in engaging in checks & balances??? JUDICIAL ACTIVISM= belief that SUpreme Court should shape constitutionality meaning fit its estimate of the needs of contemproary society. JUDICIAL RESTRAINT= arguement that since justices are not popularly elected, the SUpreme Court should move cautiously and avoid direct confrotation with legislative and executive authority. BROAD VS . STRICT INTERPRETATION DOCTRINE OF ORIGINAL INTENT= tendency of every person to be drawn toward what is wrong and sinful. STARE DECISIS= common law doctrine under which judges are obligated to follow the precedents established in prior decisions. “LEGISLATING FROM THE BENCH ”= make specific holdings in order to change law; when courts impose their own opinions and beliefs into the law rather than directly interpreting it. PLAINTIFF VS . DEFENDANT VS . JURY MARBURY VS MADISON (1803)=case in which the supreme court first asserted the power of JUDICIAL REVIEW in finding that the congressional statute expanding the Court’s original jurisdiction was unconstitutional. CONGRESSIONAL OVERSIGHT M EDICARE PART D= plan that pays for prescription drugs with a small co- payment from the patient. PAY-GO RULE =The payasyougo rule, also known as PAYGO, is designed to encourage Congress to offset the cost of any legislation that increases spending on entitlement programs or reduces revenues so it doesn’t expand the deficit. Under PAYGO, Congress must pay for such legislation by reducing other entitlement spending or increasing other revenues. SENATE RULE OF RECONCILIATION (IN REFERENCE TO THE FILM) = procedure that allows consideration of controversial issues affecting the budget by limiting debate to twenty hours, thereby ending threat of a filibuster. Understanding of Concepts – you will need to demonstrate your knowledge and understanding of these concepts: Congress: The Legislative Elite o Functions of Congress: lawmaking, oversight(Congress oversees the bureaucracy and ensures that laws go into effect properly), representation(represent people of the US), and education(informs public about issues and what they intend to do about them) o Powers of Congress: power over fiscal policy (power of the purse), power of impeachment, power of confirmation(Senate approves presidential appointments) , power over commerce(regulates trade with foreign nations), power over foreign policy o Elites within Congress: House of Representatives= part of the federal government’s legislative branch. # of voting represntatives in the House is fixed by law at no more than 435, proportionally representing the population of the 50 states. , Speaker of the House= Officer of the HOR. Fulfills several roles, including representing constituents as a member of Congress, acting as administrative head of the House, and serving as a leader of the majority political party in the House. Senate= several exclusive powers that the House does not. Often known as the worlds greatest deliberative body. 2 per tate. President of the Senate= VICE PRESIDENT Majority and Minority Leaders= serve as the chief Senate spokespeople for their parties and manage and schedule the legislative and executive business of the Senate. They’re called the Majority and Minority leaders depending on which party has the most legislators during any given session. Majority and Minority Whips= primarily responsible for keeping track of party members, to ensure that members are in attendance for important votes and events. Responsible for counting heads and rounding up party members for votes and quorum calls, and occasionally step in for the majority and minority leaders in their absence. They're called the majority and minority whips depending on which party has the most legislators during any given session. Committee Chairpersons= powers include scheduling and presiding over committee meetings and public hearings. Determining meeting agendas by choosing which bills to take up and which not to. o Lawmaking process the importance of rules and the role and nature of the congressional committee system o Congress’ role in the budgetary process= the President is required to submit the budget to Congress for each fiscal year for approval. o The Federal Reserve and its role in monetary policy The Presidency o Formal and informal conditions of the president : Formal= natural born citizen, at least 35 yrs old, resident of the US for 14 years prior to election. Informal= male, European ancestry, middleaged, wealthy, protestant, college graduate, healthy, etc. o The symbolic and psychological roles of the president = symbolic leader of the US, serves as an icon of security and authority. o Formal roles and powers of the president: Chief of State= requires a president to be an inspiring example for the American living symbol of the nation. Chief Executive= the boss for millions of govt. Workers in the exec. Branch. Decides how the laws of the US are to be enforced and chooses official and advisors to help run the exec. Branch. Chief Legislator CommanderinChief (War Powers Act)=president is in charge of the US armed foreces: army ,navy, air force, and marines. Decides where troops shall be stationed, where ships shall be sent, and how weapons shall be used. Chief Law Enforcement Officer= in charge of law enforcement. Chief Diplomat= decides what American diplomats and ambassadors shall say to foreign governments. With the help of advisors, makes foreign policy of the US. Crisis Manager= take action and respond in case of an international crisis. Party Chief= helps members of his political party get elected or appointed to office. President campaigns for those members who have supported his politics. o Significance of an imperial presidency= US presidency that is characterized by greater power than the Constitution allows.(modern presidency) Impeachment as a significant limit on presidential power o Formal and informal duties of the Vice President of the U.S. : Formal= successor to the President, president of the senate so votes only if there is a tie. Informal= ceremonial: represents the president overseas or at home as a diplomat or national symbol. Supportive: makes speeches around the nation defending the decisions and the policies of the President. Advisory: serves on the National Security Council and sits in on meetings with other advisory committees of the President. Courts: Elites in Black Robes o Key role of the courts in society = Resolve conflict without violence. – prevents vigilantes(people that take the law into their own hands). Creates a litigious society. à can lead to a mockery of justice or delayed justice. Determine legal justice. *Justice= fairness. 2 types : Legal justice: objective, factual, technical, insensitive to basic human emotions/moral principles. (criminal cases). Objective. Moral justice: looks at morals , can prevail in civil cases. Subjective.Give punishment or reward via legal means. o Structure of the federal court system: district courts= court that is part of the US federal court system, in which the majority of cases take place. appellate courts=court that hears the appeal of a trial court’s decision. U.S. Supreme Court= highest federal court in the US, consisting of 9 justices and taking judicial precedence over all other courts in the nation. o The significance of judicial review and the role of the courts in U.S. politics = protecting minority from majority. Judicial review mechanism for remaining checks & balances. principle of judicial review of congressional acts grew out of the Founders’ distrust of popularly elected officials subject to influence by popular majorities. Judicial review enables the courts to protect constitutional principles against attacks by elected bodies. o How judicial philosophy influences the application of judicial review = ∙ beliefs of judge regarding role in society and role of court is preserving checks and balances. o How should/to what degree should judicial review be applied?? o Judicial activism= when a judge is willing to rule on the constitutionality of law because of certain beliefs Constitution is a living document. (Broad interpretation) Courts must protect minority + individual rights. Not adhering to stare decisis o Judicial Restraint= reluctant to rule on the constitutionality of law and overturn it unless the law clearly violates language of the Constitution. Job of judges is to apply constitution, not rewrite it. Doctrine of original intent. Defer to other branches to fix bad laws. Stare decisis SECTION IV. (CHAPTERS 5, 6, AND 7) Important Terminology – you will need to accurately identify/apply these terms: MEDIA ELITES = newspapers, radio stations, tv, and other media that influence the political agenda of other mass media. NEWSWORTHINESS AND MEDIA EVENT MIRROR MYTH= media makes choices in what or what not to publish. Leads to information bias. STORY ANGLE= narrowing the focus and scope of a story by posing a question or assertion then investigating and answering it. IMAGE MAKING AND MEDIA AS “KINGMAKERS ”= media provides name recognition; people who cannot perform well in front of a camera are no longer feasible candidates for major public office. Media covers some candidates and ignores others. MEDIA SENSATIONALISM = emphasis on violence, sex, government corruption, and other themes that lend themselves to dramatic presentations and capture mass audiences. INFORMATION OVERLOAD= condition that exists when so many communications are directed at people that they cannot possibly process them all. SELECTIVE PERCEPTION= the tendency that people have to mentally screen out info. Or images with which they disagree. TELEVISION MALAISE= feelings of distrust, powerlessness, and disaffection streaming from TV’s emphasis on negativity in politics. Produces mass cynicism. PROTECTED VS .UNPROTECTED SPEECH Protected- words/speech protected under the Constitution and that have truth. Unprotected- speech that is lewd or obscene; things said to damage reputation and are untrue. LIBEL AND SLANDER = communications that wrongly damage an individual. (libel = written) (slander=speech) SULLIVAN RULE= requires public officials not only to show the media published or broadcast false and damaging statements but also to prove that they did so KNOWING AT THE TIME their statements were false and damaging, or did so with “reckless regard” for the truth or falsehood of their statements. rule.CE OF MALICE STANDARD= no effective governmental checks on media power really exist. Libel, slander, sullivan NEGATIVE AND COMMERCIAL BIASES : Negative bias= emphasis on bad news that captures mass audience’s attention, including crime, scandal, environmental scares, terrorism, etc. Commercial bias= information presented in a manner that attempts to sway a participant’s opinions in favor of a particular commercial product for the purpose of furthering a commercial entity’s business. IDEOLOGICAL BIAS OF THE MEDIA = decisions by editorial staff and journalists to shape the presentation of news to suit particular political opinions. FAT CAT CONTRIBUTORS VS.SMALL DONORS = Fat Cat: a wealthy person from whom large political campaign contributors are expected, legal max is $2500. Small Donors: people who give less than $200. BUCKLEY V VALEO (1976)= court held that the government could not limit individual’s rights to spend money to publish or broadcast their own views on issues or elections. HARD MONEY VS .SOFT MONEY = Hard: contributions from individuals to federal candidates are limited ($2500); individual contributions to political parties are limited to $30,800. Soft: contributions from national party committees are limited to $5000. Parties may no longer accept or spend unregulated soft money. *State and local party contributions can solicit contributions uo to $10,000 for get-out-of-the-vote activities. Hard $ = limited. Soft $= no limits. Non regulatory. PAC S= Political action committee. Popular term for a political committee organized for the purpose of raising and spending money to elect and defeat candidates. SUPERPACS= organization that can raise unlimited amounts of money for spending on federal elections. While candidates and regular PACS are only permitted to raise a few thousand dollars from any one individual, a super PAC can accept unlimited contributions from any US citizen/corporation. 527 S = political organizations as identified in their tax filings with the internal revenue service. The # 527 refers to the section of the tax code that governs such entities. These groups are typically parties, candidates, committees, or associations organized for the purpose of influencing an issue, policy, appointment, or election, be it federal, state, or local. Difference between 527s and PACS ?? PACS are created by Interest groups. There to organize $. Super PACS don’t give money directly to candidates… they purchase electioneering communication( media ads ). 527s came before super pacs. Focus on media advertising. If they focus on issues NOT candidates, they can raise and spend unlimited $. Once they mentioned a specific party or candidate, there would be limits. After Citizens United,… as long as they are not coordinated, they can engage in electioneering communications / raise and spend unlimited $ (super pacs and 527s). -political parties put forth candidates whereas interest groups don’t. -winner take all electoral system contributes to 2 party system. ELECTIONEERING COMMUNICATIONS= TV or radio communications that refer to a clearly identified federal candidate and are distributed to the relevant electorate within 60 days prior to the general election or 30 days prior to a primary. EXPRESS ADVOCACY = often interpreted to include only ads that contain specific terms urging the election or defeat of a candidate, such as “vote for, vote against, support, or defeat” ISSUE ADVOCACY = communications by parties or groups intended to further or to derail a political issue, legislative proposal, or public policy- not to advocate the election or defeat of candidates. PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY ELECTION =direct primary for the selection of state delegates to a national party convention and the expression of preference for a US presidential nominee. FRONTLOADING OF PRIMARIES=practice of scheduling state party caucuses and primary elections earlier and earlier than the general election. Provides decisive momentum toward one political nominee over another. ELECTORAL C OLLEGE AND WINNING REQUIREMENT : Electoral college- body of people representing the states of the US, who formally cast votes for the election of the president and VP. Winning Requirement- need 270+ votes to win election. If no candidate wins, House picks the President with each delegate having one vote and Senate picks the VP. SINGLE -MEMBER DISTRICTS= electoral district or constituency having a single representative in a legislative body rather than 2 or more. WINNER -TAKE-ALL VS .PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION : Winner take all = winner of majority of votes wins all electoral votes. Proportional representation= electorate votes split up in proportion to % of votes each candidate received. If 30% of the electorate support a particular political party, than roughly 30% of seats will be won by that party. MAJORITY VOTE VS .PLURALITY VOTE : Majority= when a candidate wins more than half the votes. PLurality = when a candidate wins the most votes, but not over half. “INDEPENDENT ” NPP (N O PARTY PREFERENCE ) VOTERS = voter that does not align themselves with a political party. INFORMATION BIAS OF THE MEDIA= seeking info. That coincides with one’s existing beliefs. REDISTRICTING= process of drawing United States electoral district boundaries. GERRYMANDERING= manipulating the boundaries of (an electoral constituency) so as to favor one party or class. PUBLIC INTEREST GROUPS = a # of individuals who share the same attitudes on one or more issues and who want to influence public policy, PUBLIC INTEREST “WATCHDOG ” GROUPS= non-partisan, non-governmental groups in the US whose stated mission includes monitoring branches of the state or federal governments for fraud, waste, abuse, corruption, mismanagement, illegal activity, campaign donor influence. LOBBYING= any communication directed at a government decision maker with the hope of influencing decisions. GRASSROOTS MOBILIZATION= getting a group of constituents from a congressman’s home district to lobby for change in hopes that they wont want to ignore their people (and risk not being reelected) and have to change. MASS ACTIVISM= efforts as a whole to promote, impede, or direct social, political, economic, or environmental change, or stasis. NON -VIOLENT CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE= active, professed refusal to obey certain laws, demands, or commands of a government in a non-violent manner. ASTROTURF LOBBYING= tactic used in politics and advertising in which rich are paid to display overt and apparently spontaneous grassroots support for particular product, policy, or event in order to support their own cause. C ITIZENS UNITED V FEC (2010) = Constitutional law case dealing with the regulation of campaign spending by organizations. The US Supreme Court HELD that the 1st amendment prohibited the government from restricting independent political expenditures by a nonprofit corporation. Citizens United wanted to air a film critical of Hilary Clinton but the BIpartisan Campaign Reform Act prevented them from showing it 30 days before a primary eleciton. The Supreme Court reversed this decision, allowing corporations and unions to make independent expenditures. Does not change the federal ban on direct contributions from corporations or unions to candidate campaigns or political parties. PUBLIC FUNDING IN FEDERAL ELECTIONS= funds presidential candidates receive from the US Treasury to pay for the valid expenses of their political campaigns in both the primary and general elections. MEDIA CONSOLIDATION= process whereby progressively fewer individuals or organizations control increasing shares of the mass media. SPLIT-TICKET VOTING= vote for candidates of different political parties on the same ballot, instead of for candidates of only one party. DEALIGNMENT AND REALIGNMENT : dealignment= trend or process whereby a large portion of the electorate abandons its previous partisan affiliation, without developing a new one to replace it. realignment= long term change where a social group changes its party alignment. (ex: southern states switched from democrat to republican) Understanding of Concepts – you will need to demonstrate your knowledge and understanding of these concepts: The American Media o Role of media elites in American society = act as a link between government and voters. Influence cognition and comprehension, attitudes, values, public opinion, and behavior. o Political functions of the media in American politics = News making deciding what and who are newsworthy. Interpretation placing reports into context and providing mass audiences w/ explanations and meanings. Socialization teaching mass audiences the elites preferred norms in both news and entertainment programming. Persuasion direct attempts usually thru paid advertising, to affect mass beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors Agenda setting deciding what will be decided, defining issues, and identifying problems and crises. o Different biases in the American media = bias towards stories that are dramatic, sensational, and inspire mass fear. o Consequences of media’s powers= can cause mass cynicism and declining voter participation from TV malaise (feelings of distrust, powerlessness, and disaffection from the emphasis on the negative) Elections, Parties, and Political Ideologies o Purpose of elections – democratic and elite theory perspectives Democratic theory= prevents radical change because gives people the choice of change during elections. Protection against govt. Abuse, also gives legitimacy. Elite theory= legitimization of govt. A symbolic exercise to help tie the masses to the established order and obligate them to recognize the legitimacy of govt. Authority and to obey the law. Choose based on person and not based on policy. o Major dilemmas of elections today= personality trumps issues: public more concerned about personality rather than issues started bc of TV. Money drives elections: need alot of $ to win. Need media influence and fat cat contributors. Nonparticipation rates: do americans not care? **o Role of money in elections and sources of campaign funding= individual contributions. No limit to total contributions to federal candidate or parties. Super PACS have independent expenditures only. o Purpose of political parties= purpose: to win elections. o Origins and characteristics of the American Party System : Federalists vs. anti federalists. Federalists vs. democratic republican party. Democratic Republican party broke off to form Democratic vs. National Republicans. Democratic vs. Whig Party. Democratic vs. Republicans. Characteristics? Parties organized as oligarchies dominated by active ideologically motivated elites. Parties lean towards the center. o Role of third parties in American politics = introduces the new ideas. Put issues on the agenda; third parties can force the major parties to address potentially divisive problems. Spoil the election : third parties can cost one party an election by playing the spoiler. Keep the majority parties honest. o Political party functions = develop/clarify alternative policy positions to voters, educate people about the issues and simplify choices for them, recruit candidates for public office who agreed with party policy positions, organize/direct their candidates campaign to win office, hold their elected official responsible for enacting party policy positions once elected, organize legislatures to ensure party control of policy making. o Policitcal Ideologies and Characteristics of Party Activists= Socialism economic equality, community Liberalism economic security, = opportuinty, social liberty Conservatism economic liberty, morality, social order Libertarianism total economic and social liberty Organized Interest Groups and Preserving Democratic Values o Purpose of organized interest groups = Influence public policy. o Different types of organized interest groups = business general, business sectoral, union, age related, professional, ideological, single issue, environmental, civil rights and liberties, gender, veterans, government o Theoretical perspectives of the role of interest groups: traditional democratic= provide alternative form of political representation, groups give poitical voice to marginalized individuals pluralist= politics is a struggle among various interest groups and compromise is the essence of political decision making. Link individuals to govt., reduce social conflict provide stability elite theories = most americans dont care about politics, one single group, corporate america, dominates all govt. Policies, small elite groups of citizens make decisions for the masses o Characteristics of effective interest groups= o Interest group membership characteristics & Incentives for group membership= Who joins? Dedicated to cause, educated, affluent Why? Agree with purpose, benefits them, to share similar interests with people o Interest group strategies : lobbying= communication directed at a govt. Decision makers with the hope of influencing decisions access= “opening door” or having contacts with people in power. Information trade knowledge of legislative process, expertise of issue on debate, and info about groups position on the issue for congressional support. Demand requesting a legislatures vote after providing them with info. Or campaign funds. Grassroots mobilization at home influence to get thru to a congress member. Direct contacts former congress members and staff become lobyists because know contacts. Campaign support help elect people to support groups goals, help gain access and support. Perks & benefits wine and dine politicans. FILM – A QUESTION OF POWER –INTEREST GROUP STRATEGIES o ROLE OF ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION (AEC) ESTABLISHED IN1946 o ROLE OF NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (NRC) ESTABLISHED IN1974 o IMPORTANCE OF THE P RICE ANDERSON A CT (1957) o PACIFIC GAS& ELECTRIC(PG&E) AS AN INTEREST GROUP o CONTROVERSIAL ISSUES SURROUNDING CONSTRUCTION /OPERATION OF DIABLO CANYON POWER PLANT o M OTHERS FOR PEACE AND THE ABALONE ALLIANCE INTEREST GROUPS – THEIR GOALS AND STRATEGIES oOTHER LOCAL INTEREST GROUPS (E.G.CAL POLY CONCERNED FACULTY ) o POLICY OUTCOME : ELITE PREFERENCE AND/OR INTEREST GROUP SUCCESS
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