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School: University of Oregon
Department: Journalism Core
Course: Principles of Advertising
Professor: Troy elias
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Advertising Principles
Cost: 50
Name: J340 - Troy Elias - Final Exam Study Guide
Description: Fellow J340 students - this is a study guide I made for our final exam on June 8th. I incorporated the notes into the study guide which he provided. Basically, I expanded and dove into all of the bulle
Uploaded: 06/05/2016
8 Pages 16 Views 9 Unlocks

Parker Hessel (Rating: )

I was sick all last week and these notes were exactly what I needed to get caught up. Cheers!

J340 | Exam 2 Study Guide

Major routes to message processing

Instructions: This exam consists of 40 multiple choice and 10 T/F. For each of the 50  questions, CLEARLY circle the correct answer AND fill in the answer on your scantron sheet. (a, b, c, d, a=True or b=False).

Elaboration Likelihood Model: Are people rational? Do we carefully  consider persuasive messages we receive?  

Major routes to message processing:

 Central route

 High elaboration, active involvement, thinking about content,  expending cognitive energy  

 Peripheral route  

 Low elaboration (cues from environment, script)

 Rational thought plays little role, cognitive misers

 Source credibility, source attractiveness, presence of evidence, no. of  arguments, etc.

 Which factors determine the route taken?

 Motivation – how much the receiver wants to elaborate on the  message

 Ability – how capable the receiver is to elaborate on the message  When both are high, the receiver will engage in high  

What factors affect ability to process messages?

elaboration(central processing)

 If either is missing/low, the receiver will engage in low  

elaboration(peripheral processing)

 What affects motivation to process messages?

 Personal Relevance (personal involvement) of the topic

 Need for Cognition – need to engage in info processing, find thinking to be enjoyable in and of itself

 Incongruent Information – info not consistent with what receiver  believes to be true

 What factors affect ability to process messages?

 Message Comprehension, Repeated Messages, Distraction,  Prior Knowledge, Written

 What is the significance in terms of the routes taken to persuasion?  (e.g., better predictor of behavior) Don't forget about the age old question of What mandated the toleration of christians?

∙ Attitudes formed through peripheral processing Don't forget about the age old question of kenneth chaiprasert

o More temporary, less stable over time, more susceptible to  

change or counter persuasion

Why is CDT a consistency theory? What are consistency theories?

∙ Attitudes formed through central processing 

o Better predictors of behavior

Cognitive Dissonance Theory 

∙ Why is CDT a consistency theory? What are consistency theories? o CDT – Cognitive Dissonance Theory We also discuss several other topics like a tripeptide has ________.


 Tendency for individuals to seek consistency

o Humans have a basic drive or need to be psychologically consistent  (military, fraternities, etc)

o Dissonant Relationship – two cognitions inconsistent with one another o Consonant Relationships – two cognitions consistent with eachother o Irrelevant Relationships – involves two cognitions that a person  perceives as unrelated

∙ Do humans view themselves as consistent? What happens when  we’re not consistent?  

o Perceive ourselves as rational beings, include perceiving ourselves as  being consistent in beliefs, attitudes and behaviors

∙ What happens when two cognitions have a dissonant relationship?  o Cognitive Dissonance occurs

 Aversive motivational state, it’s unpleasant and people are  

motivated to eliminate it, pressure to change ones cognitions to  regain consistency

∙ Does all dissonance result in change? What leads to  


o Not all inconsistencies bother us enough to warrant changing our  attitudes and beliefs

o Magnitude of dissonance can vary – this affects pressure for change ∙ Which three factors affect the magnitude of dissonance? o The Importance of the Cognitions We also discuss several other topics like dr elsawaf
If you want to learn more check out What is the study of everything beyond earth?

 Once magnitude is large enough, receiver feels pressured to  deal with reducing the dissonance in some way

o The Ratio of Dissonant to consonant cognitions

 The greater the number of dissonant cognitions in relation to  consonant elements, the greater the pressure to change

o The Degree of cognitive overlap between the choices facing the  individual

 Cognitive overlap refers to the similarity of the choices available ∙ For cognitive dissonance to be present there must be three  conditions present. What are they?

o Must be aversive consequences for dissonance to operate

 Has to be outcomes possible that receiver wants to avoid  

∙ Eg – smoking…long term health, cancer, heart disease,  

etc, smokers find this aversive

o Freedom of Choice

o Insufficient External Justification

Internet vs. WWW

∙ Internet – global data communications system comprising interconnected  computer networks

∙ World Wide Web – A graphic interfase for interlinked “Hypertext”  documents on the internet


Advertising - Social media, TV, Radio, Internet, etc. Advantages and  disadvantages




Strongly persuasive,  

reach specific audiences,  audio and visual,  

flexibility of ads

high costs, fleeting  

message, difficult to  



Low cost,  


accessibility, use of music

Difficult to convey  

message without visuals,  fleeting message


Wide circulation, easy to  update ad material,  

credible source, good  choice for reaching  We also discuss several other topics like it-210


no guarantee it will be  read, lots of ads (hard to  notice), cheap paper w/  absorbent printing


Highly targeted, regional  versions, creative,  

consumer involvement,  traceable pass along rate, highly credible

High production cost,  long lead time

Direct Mail

Highly targeted, flexible  format allows for  

extensive creativity

People hate it, mailing  lists often need updating,  negative environmental  impact

Outdoor (Billboards)

Low cost, potential access to large audiences

Message attentiveness is  low, affected by lighting  and weather


Low cost, highly targeted

Irritating, limited users

Nontraditional Advertising, Microsites, etc 

Non Traditional Advertising

∙ Ideas that appear in unexpected places, targets unsuspecting audience ∙ Purpose is to get people talking about product

∙ Ambient, unconventional, innovative, guerrilla, etc

∙ NEEDS to be…Simple Idea, Original, Cost Effective, Flexible, Practical,  Interactive, Relevant

E Commerce

∙ Direct selling of goods/services through internet, continues to grow in  downloadable purchases

Social Media  

∙ Online activities that integrate technology, telecommunications, and social  interaction



∙ Individual web page or cluster of pages which are meant to function as an  auxillary supplement to a primary website

∙ May/may not be linked to main site

∙ Provides more detailed info about product, service

Internet Communications Objectives  

o Create Awareness, Generate Interest, Disseminate Information, Create  an Image, Create a Strong Brand, Stimulate Trial, Create Buzz, Gain  Consideration

Creative Advertising Strategies 

Fewer and fewer products sold today via total market approach  *      Demographics vs. Psychographics 

*    Demographics – age, SES, geography (Group by who they are) *    Psychographics – market of people with similar lifestyles (group by  how they behave)

* Gender Portrayals 

∙ 3 Common stereotyped Portrayals

o Women as objects, women as submissive, women as inferior ∙ 5 Examples of Submissive portrayals of women  

o Licensed Withdrawal, Engaging Gaze, Body/Head Cant, Recumbent,  Touching Self

Representations of men

 Sturdy oak, Big wheel, Tough, emotionless beings

Types of strategic approaches 

∙ Product Oriented Strategies –

o Generic Claims, Product Features, Product Benefits, Unique Selling  proposition, Positioning

∙     Consumer Oriented Strategies

o Brand Image, Lifestyle, Attitude

 Social influence – 

∙ Ralph Waldo Emerson – If we build it they will come

∙ Innovations and ideas that are clearly superior to existing ideas  should be widely recognized and quickly adopted

Social Influence operates through one or more of three processes: 4

∙ Internalization – accepts influence because it reflects ones values, agrees  privately and publicly

∙ Identification – adopting a behavior/opinion from another because of  identification

o Compliance lasts as long as identification does

∙ Compliance- when an individual conforms to expectations of another to  receive a reward or to avoid punishment

Different types of Influence, Conformity –  

∙ The act of agreeing with the opinion expressed by the majority

Characteristics of Attitudes, Behaviors, Beliefs, etc., Informational and  Normative social influence

∙ Informational Social Influence

o desire to be right based on facts, leads to private acceptance ∙ Normative Social Influence  

o desire to be liked, leads to public compliance

∙ Attitudes

o Involve affect, tend to be consistent, always tied to an object,  predisposition to behavior, attitudes are learned

∙ Behaviors

o Refers to clear physical actions on the part of an individual

o Behavioral intention – “persons intention to perform various behaviors” ∙ Beliefs

o Deal with the cognitive dimension (attitudes deal with affective  dimension)

o Peripheral Beliefs – isseus less important/permenant

o Core Values/Beliefs – strongly held, hard to change, often formed early  in life

o Values – types of beliefs closely linked to our identity

Consumer Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence –  

∙ need to identify with or enhance one’s image in the opinion of significant  others through the acquisition and use of products and brands,  

Opinion Leadership –  

∙ Extent to which individuals provide information about a single topic and the  extent to which information is sought by others from those individuals

Market Mavens –  


∙ Individuals with information about many kinds of products, places to shop,  and other facets of markets

Impression formation and Immediacy 

∙ Immediacy refers to?  

 Actions that communicate warmth, closeness, friendliness, and  involvement

∙ What are the 7 types of nonverbal communication discussed in  class?  

 Kinesics – study of eye contact, facial expressions, gestures, and body language

 Physical Appearance – beauty sells, at the very least it catches our  attention

 Haptics = Touch, does it make your more persuasive, it’s tricky  because it can be ambigious

 Proxemics – how we use space to communicate, close distances  affect persuasiveness, expectancy violation.  

 Artifacts – clothes, makeup we wear, car we drive, physical objects.  Communicates our credibility, material goods viewed as extension of  ourselves

 Paralinguistics – vocalics, the study of vocal stimuli aside from  spoken words, the way a person speaks affects ability to  


 Chronemics – how time is used to communicate and persuade, leads  to psychological reactance (limited time offers, 50% off, etc)

Writing copy – What do headlines do, headline guidelines

∙ Capture attention, Lure readers, Target Audience, Communicate a benefit,  Make connection to the customer, Enhance a visual

Types of headlines 

∙ Direct Benefit – promise a reward, offer readers a reason to use product

∙ Reverse Benefit/Indirect Headline – consumers be worse off without  product

∙ Opposite Headlines/Headline Twist – provides surprise by flipping a  clichéd or common phrase

∙ Factual Headlines – provide factual or sometimes trivial information ∙ Selective Headlines – limits the audience to a specific group


∙ Curiosity Headlines – intrigue the reader, arouse their interest enough to  make him or her read the ad

∙ News Headline – introduce new product, tells the reader something he or  she did not know before

∙ Command Headline – when you want them to do something related to the  product, “Just Do It”

∙ Question Headline – force consumer to stop and think before answering

∙ Hyperbole Headlines – exaggerated, not meant to be taken literally but  makes a point

∙ Parallelism Headline – repetition of structure. Raise an issue on one hand  and complete it nicely on the other

Typography, What it is, why do we need it, and what is good typography

∙    The balance and interplay of letterforms on the page, a verbal and visual  equation

∙    Plays a dual role in both verbal and visual communication

∙    Good typography maximizes the reader’s comfort, establishes a visual  hierarchy for rendering content on the page

Body copy –  

∙ Visuals and headline advance an argument, the body copy justifies it Principles of Good Ad Copy

∙ Voice – writing natural and authentic, without clichés

 Brands image expressed in words

∙ Details – writing full of specifics

 Facts from research. Find the best word, not the available one.  ∙ Style – clear sentences and well chosen language

∙ Thesis – writing has one central idea

∙ Organization and Structure – Begin, Middle, End

Headline and visual relationship – Synergy

This study guide does not cover EVERY SINGLE question on the exam AND  you not only have to know terms/definitions, you must also know and  understand all aspects relative to each concept on this guide. 




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