EDST 111 Final Test Notes
EDST 111 Final Test Notes EDST111
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Date Created: 06/05/16
EDST 111 Final Study Guide Richard Nixon Announced desegregation of schools would be left to the supreme court. Appoints four conservative judges to the supreme court. Ronald Reagan Slashes desegregation funding Milliken v. Bradley • Detroit 1974 • Forced busing between districts to try to integrate • They were sued it said if the districts happen to be segregated then they shouldn’t be busing kids to try to integrate them (this court case won) Freeman v. Pitts - Supreme court case - Government shouldn’t intervene because schools “were already integrated” Missouri v. Jenkins - Supreme court case - There was a law that provided more funding, school standards increased in minority schools – Missouri v. Jenkins overturned this Adoption Cost How much money school districts pay off to get all of their materials/ curriculum White flight Integration happens leads to white people leaving their district or school to avoid going to an integrated school Apartheid Schools 75% or more poor, and 75% or more minority. 2000, 6% of black/brown kids went to an apartheid school. 2016, 11% of black/brown kids went to an apartheid school. Proposition 227 Proposed by Ron Unz in California. Declared bilingual edu. to be prohibited. When it passed here, he went to AZ and banned bilingual edu. there as well. Then it passed in MA too. He tried to pass it in CO too but it failed. Lots of efforts to repeal 227. Lau v. Nichols If I’m giving you edu. in a language you don’t understand then I’m discriminating against you. Materials adoption process in the This school district decided that they wanted to replace all the books their LA Unified School District (2013) students carry around with tablets that have all of their textbooks pre-loaded onto them. What LA did, is they just went straight to Apple and Pearson and said we want you to do this. They didn’t ask multiple businesses for a bid, which tends to lead to better products. LA district spent a TON of money. When they gave them to the students, a lot of classrooms weren’t even using them because the curriculum that Pearson gave them was so bad. Students were cracking/breaking them, not using them for school work. This was a good idea, but ended up being a huge mistake. The LA school district agreed to pay about 60 million a year for this terrible product. Bilingual Edu. (weak vs. strong STRONG: - bilingualism and biliteracy forms) -maintenance of the native language -addition of the new language (additive) WEAK: - monolingualism - Assimilation, apartheid - Often includes segregation Permissive period - Bilingual ed. Was common - Ohio passed first law regarding bilingual German/English instruction - Louisiana: French/English - New Mexico territory: Spanish/English Restrictive period - Rise in English-only schools, and immigration laws changed - Act to regulate immigration: “prohibits entry to any person unable to take care of himself or herself without becoming a public change” - Naturalization act: made knowledge of English a requirement - WWI and WWII: fears about loyalty, esp. of German speakers, English only laws - 34 states had English-only instruction rules - “illegal alien” Johnson-Reed act of 1924 - created ideas of visas, required passports - no visas for anyone from Asia – “unassimilable” Opportunist Period - launch of sputnik - national defense act: provided funding for math, science, foreign language - civil rights act: prohibits discrimination based on race, ethnicity - immigration act: abolished quota formula for visas - Coral Way Elementary school: established in Miami for the kids of Cuban refugees - Successful bilingual school High-Stakes standardized testing - Teacher, school, and district consequences (teacher eval and compensation. School funding. District eval and programming) - Student consequences (used to make important decision making about student progress, rewards/sanctions. Ability grouping, retention, promotion and graduation) Forced Desegregation Busing Riots - Federal district court judge Garrity found the Boston, MA school (Boston) committee guilty of implementing systematic segregation - Ordered mandatory busing to desegregate South Boston and Roxbury neighborhoods - Sets off years of violent and even deadly riots and protests - Ended in 1990 due to an ending of judicial oversight and “white flight” Charter schools (and their historical - Public schools, so not tuition is required to attend roots, pros and cons) - Not set up by the state. Instead, they are established independently - Not subject to the same state and fed. Requirements - Allowed autonomy with decision-making, teacher contracts, hiring, curriculum, etc. - Parents must apply and enroll their kids - 40 states with charter schools - operate under a contract or “charter” that governs its operation - rules for charters very widely on funding, operational requirements, and accountability Neighborhood public schools - funded by the government - must follow certain guidelines set forth by federal, state, and district regulators - free and accessible for all children to attend - typically assigned by district zoning regulations Race to the Top - Common Core - educational standards that define what students in k-12 should know/be able to do, in English, language arts, literature, and math - intended to be consistent standards w/ clearly defined goals Contemporary issues in today’s - there’s still not federal law protecting LGBT people from being fired schools concerning gender and sexual orientation (including GLSEN’s biennial National School Climate Survey) LGBT- inclusive supports in schools - the things that are making kids feel safe - near exhaustive combination letters to represent all the identities in the queer - GSA - Queer/trans inclusive curricula - Comprehensive and enumerated anti-bullying policy (you may not say these things abut these people) - Gender neutral/inclusive spaces No promo homo laws - Law that harms or stigmatizes LGBT students - Local or state ed. Laws explicitly forbid teachers from discussing gay and transgender issues in a positive light Consequences of Racial Bias/ TEACHER EXPECTATIONS Racism in schools - Implicit racial bias lowers expectations for students of colors and stimulates subtle differences in the way the teacher behaves toward these students DISPROPORTIONALITY IN SPECIAL EDU. - African American kids represent 17% of the school population but make up more than 30% of the kids in special ed. - Black, Latino, and native American children are more likely than their peers with the same disability to be overrepresented in more restrictive settings, or underrepresented in the general edu. settings DISPROPORTIONALITY IN DISCIPLINE - African American students, and especially African American boys are disciplined more often and receive more out-of-school suspensions and expulsions than white students who commit the same offenses Textbooks as technical control Statewide Book Adoption policies: Textbook companies: No child left behind - 2001 - set goal that all students must achieve standards by 2014 - sanctions: tied consequences to test results - all schools must test kids in grades 3-8, and 11, and disaggregate scores by groups and make adequate yearly progress - after NCLB in 2002, annual state spending on standardized tests rose from $423 million to almost $1.1 billion in 2008 Green. V. county school board - US supreme court decided in green v. CSB that the school board had the responsibility of affirmative action integration - Dismantled “with all deliberate speed” - Judged on performance, not on promises or paper: INTEGRATION IS COURT ORDERED - Any kid could could go to any school they want to: about 150 black kids went to this white school, but not a single white kid chose to go to the black school. School board decided they had to do something different FAIR edu. act - Fair, accurate, inclusive, and respectful edu. act - California required schools to teach about the contributions of women, people of color, and other historically under-represented groups - 2012: guidelines updated to include people with disabilities and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people from history and social studies lessons Title IX - “no person in the US shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subject to discrimination under any educational programs or activity receiving federal financial assistance.” - Currently title IX requires gender equity in education in the following areas (edu. for pregnant and parenting students, employment in education, STEM, comparable facilities and access to course offerings) Bilingual edu. act, title VII of the - first bilingual and bicultural education approved at the federal level Elementary and Secondary - offered funding for districts to develop special programs to meet the Education act of 1968 needs of students whose English wasn’t proficient - didn’t force schools to have bilingual education Heteronormativity Practices / institutions that privilege heterosexuality as normal or natural within society, naming everything else as bad Cisgender A person whose self-identity conforms with the gender that corresponds to their biological sex; not transgender School choice - a private decision that’s based off of individual motivations - a term given to a variety of programs offering students and their families alternatives to traditional public schools assigned by residential location Norm-reference tests - follows bell curve - if test results don’t form this curve, the test is “broken” and they fix it - you’re given a percentile - comparing students to each other - used for screening people in and out - EX: IQ tests, SAT Criterion-reference tests - Specific standards established - Certain info/learning is necessary to continue the next steps of learning - Students learning is compared to the criteria or standards (not to each other) - Assumption: if students don’t reach standards, find other way to teach them - Banks of testing items created to match different types of curriculum (mostly multiple items) Formative vs. summative Formative: the process, quizzes, observations, classes, HW assessments Summative: the end, state assessments, end-of-term or semester assessments, SAT/ACT, scores that are used for accountability
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