HIST 1010 Exam 1 Study Guide
HIST 1010 Exam 1 Study Guide History 1010
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World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 1 Terms To Know People/Groups of People • Hunters and gatherers: people that got the majority of their food from foraging. • Hammurabi: a king of the Babylonian Dynasty that established the Code of Hammurabi. • Pharaoh: a god like king/ruler for the Egyptians. The Egyptians believed that the pharaoh looked over them in their present life and their after life. • Osiris: a god that represented the Nile’s fertilization, and also played a role in the afterlife, in determining who god rewarded or punished. • Akhenaton: an Egyptian pharaoh that tried to evolve the religious views of the Egyptians from polytheism to monotheism. • Tutankhamen: an Egyptian pharaoh that reversed what Akhenaton did in terms of trying to get the Egyptians to believe in monotheism. Tutankhamen restored old religious beliefs (polytheism). • Hebrews: people who originated in Mesopotamia that followed a monotheistic religion in which Abraham was their leader. • Assyrians: very good equestrians that had a large, but brief empire. They conquered Mesopotamia, most of the Hebrew kingdom, and Egypt. • Persians: Indo Europeans that originated in Iran with Cyrus as their leader and replaced the Assyrian empire. • Cyrus: leader of the Persians. • Darius: Cyrus’ successor that defined Persian administration. He lived in the Palace of Persepolis to display his power. • Ahura Mazda: a Zoroastrian god that was considered the good god. • Ahriman: a Zoroastrian god that was considered the bad god. • Raja: the head of each Aryan tribe that can also be described as a king. • Krishna: the chariot driver in the Bhagavad Gita. • Gautama: also known as Buddha, was the founder of Buddhism. His name meant, “the enlightened one”. • Harappan: the first Indian civilization. • Liu Pang: also known as Emperor Gaozu, who was the first emperor of the Han Dynasty. • Wu Ti: also known as Emperor Wu, who was the seventh emperor of the Han Dynasty. • Shi Huang Ti: the first emperor of China after the Qin conquered all of the Warring States. He eventually unified China. • Bodhisattva: were “Buddhists to be”, that stayed in the world after enlightenment to help others. • Scholar gentry: appointed civil servants that performed day-to-day governing of the Han Dynasty. • Aryan: dominant people in northern India after the decline of the Indus Valley civilization. • Mahavira: the founder of Jainism. • Dravidian: a person that believes in the concept of reincarnation. Religion/Religious Symbols • Polytheism: the worship of many gods and goddesses. • Ten Commandments: given to Moses by god, to deliver to the Hebrews. They were laws that the Hebrews should follow, or else they would be punished. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 1 • Upanishads: was a record of speculation about the mythical meaning of man’s relationship with the universe and the meaning of sacrificial lives. • Four Vedas: sacred texts that originated in India, that can be thought of as the “Hindu Bible”. • Zarathustra: also known as Zoroaster, was the founder of Zoroastrianism. • Bhagavad Gita: a book that offered guidance on problems that faced a Hindu, and includes the story of Arjun and Krishna. • Mandate of Heaven: the theory that heaven gives the king a mandate to rule only as long as he rules in the interest of the people. • Hinduism: a religion that emerged as a result of Jainism and Buddhism that originated in India. • Jainism: an Indian religion whose followers consider all life sacred and avoid destroying other lives, Mahavira is considered the founder. • Mysticism: an evolved process of discerning things. People who follow mysticism are known as mystics and they seek to communicate with one god or many gods. • Asceticism: what the Buddhists thought was the answer to getting to the point of Brahmanism. It is when someone gives up everything to live a simple and spiritual life. • Zoroastrianism: the religion, which the Persians followed. The followers of this religion saw their world as a cosmic struggle between good and evil. • Confucianism: one of the 3 classical philosophies that was considered the most important due to its impact on China. Confucius was it’s founder, and Mencius, one of his followers, spread the teachings throughout China. • Taoism: one of the 3 classical philosophies that was known as the “get back to nature” philosophy. The founder was Lao Tzu. Taoists wanted a minimal approach to government. • Four Noble Truths: Buddha’s message that pain and suffering are parts of life that we cant escape, and people can understand and triumph over these weaknesses by following a simple code of conduct. • Buddhism: a religion that is founded by Buddha that originated in India. • Ethical Monotheism: a form of monotheism in which god is the one that guides a person through life. • Nirvana: the state of blissful nothingness and freedom from reincarnation in Buddhism. It was the state that every Buddhist tried to achieve. • Mahayana Buddhism: a branch of Buddhism in which the followers worshipped Buddha. This was a religion of devotional focus. • Theravada Buddhism: a branch of Buddhism in which the followers followed the teachings of Buddha and lived the way he did; however, they did not worship Buddha. • Anthropomorphic: the religious views of Mesopotamia, in which human qualities were assigned to stones or non-human like things. Time Periods/Dynasties • Shang Dynasty: the Chinese dynasty that ruled the Yellow River. They were good at working with bronze and developed a form of writing called logographic. • Zhou Dynasty: the longest lasting Chinese dynasty that set up a decentralized feudal system and believed in the “Mandate of Heaven” theory. • Han Dynasty: the dynasty that was supported by taxes and labor of the farmers. • Mauryan Dynasty/Empire: the first Indian empire that was founded by Chandragupta. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 1 • Dynastic cycle: a series of dynasties that occurred in China. It is what the Chinese relied on to explain parts of Chinese history. • Paleolithic Age: the period during which humans used tools made of stone, bone, and wood, and got food by gathering and hunting (foraging). • Neolithic Revolution: the period in which humans got their food by raising crops and animals and used tools made of stone, bone, and wood. Places • Sumer: the first ancient urban civilization in Mesopotamia. Events • Silk Road: the trade routes across Central Asia that linked China to western Eurasia. • Babylonian captivity: the event in which the Hebrews were taken captive by the Babylons and held in Babylonia. • Royal road: a road that ran through the heart of Persia, created by Darius to unify the empire. Objects/Other • Cuneiform: a Sumerian form of writing. • Pyramids: locate din Egypt that were created to be used as burial grounds for the pharaohs. • Rosetta Stone: found by Napoleon Bonaparte that had 3 bands of different languages, all that said he same thing. This was how hieroglyphics was able to be translated. • Hieroglyphics: an Egyptian form of writing that uses symbols. People didn’t know until recently how to read it, thanks to the Rosetta Stone. • Ziggurat: temple like structures that were built in Mesopotamia. • Sanskrit: the primary language of Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism. • Satrapy: an area that is governed (controlled) by a satrap. • Pastoralism: a hybrid lifestyle between settle and nomadic lifestyles. • Castes: the Indian society of dividing society into hereditary groups whose members interacted primarily within the group, and also married within the group. • Patriarchy: a social system in which men have more power and access to resources than women and other men do. • Covenant: an agreement made through a contract. • Jati: a sub caste in the caste system, which made the system more flexible. Book Notes CHAPTER 1: The Earliest Human Societies Evolution and Migration v Understanding the Early Human Past • Classification helps people understand things. - This can be divided further until you reach a group of organisms that can be interbred and produce fertile offspring. - When interbreeding with in a species cant happen anymore, a new species will form. - Humans are in the animal kingdom (Order: Primates, Family: Homidinae, Genus: Homo). • Scholars use genetic analysis to study early humans. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 1 • Physical remains were the earliest type of evidence that was used to learn about distant human past. • Stone AgeàBronze AgeàIron Age - Stone age was further divided into the old stone age (Paleolithic era) and the new stone age (Neolithic era). o Paleolithic era: the period during which humans used tools made of stone, bone, and wood, and got food by gathering and hunting (foraging). § Foraging: a life style in which people get their food by gathering plant products, trapping/catching small animals and hunting big prey. o Neolithic era: the period in which humans got their food by raising crops and animals and used tools made of stone, bone, and wood. • The last 12 thousand years are known as the “Holocene”. • The “Pleistocene” had glaciers and continental ice sheets. v Hominid Evolution • Most primates (hominids) lived in trees, but some in East Africa began to spend time on the ground. - Hominid: members of the family level Homidinae that contain humans, gorillas, chimpanzees, and orangutans. - 3.4 million years ago, hominids used naturally occurring objects as tools. - 2.5 million years ago, australopithecines made and used simple tools in which they evolved into homo hibilis “handy humans”. - 2 million years ago homo erectus evolved into “upright humans”. o Since they had a different shape/location for their larynx, they probably depended more on the use of sound. o They were also known for moving a lot. v Homo Sapiens “Thinking Humans” - 250,000 years ago came the homo sapiens “thinking humans”. • After each evolution, the brain got larger, but there was a disadvantage to it—bigger brain, more energy needed to operate it. The pelvis size decreased as well. - Making/using tools, symbolic language, thought, and social organization contributed to a larger brain. - 25,000 years ago, humans started weaving cloths and baskets. - 17,000 years ago, humans started using bows and arrows. v Migration and Differentiation • The interaction between homo erectus and homo sapiens resulted in Neanderthals (150,000 years ago). - Neanderthals: a group of homo erectus that have a brain that was as big as a modern day humans. o Thought to be the last living hominids until the hobbits were found. • Scientists divided people into groups that were categorized by skin color and other characteristics; they called these groups “race”. - Caucasian was the first group. Paleolithic Society v Foraging for Food • Paleolithic people have been called hunter-gatherers. - They hunted large game. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 1 - Megafaunal extinction: when large animals died in many parts of the world. • Division of labor was by gender. - Division of labor: assigning tasks by gender, age, training, status, and social distinction. - The men hunted and the women gathered plant and animal products. - These people needed at least 10-20 hours a week in order to find food. • Moms and infants died during childbirth and most children died before reaching childbirth. v Family and Kinship Relationships • Paleolithic people were differentiated by age, gender, and position in family. - Men had the most power. • Some groups would interchange children with other groups, so that connections could be made. v Cultural Creations and Spirituality • Paleolithic people expressed themselves through arts and culture. - Some art pieces have been created to praise ancestors or leaders. • They thought supernatural forces controlled some of the natural forces. - Animism: the idea that people, plants, animals, natural occurrences, and other parts of the world have spirits. - Shamans: people that are healers and communicate with spirits. The Development of Agriculture in the Neolithic Era • Foraging was the main way people lived for most of human history. - The longer people remained in certain areas, the more seeds they planted, the more wild crops they gathered, and the more animals they raised. This all led to the Agricultural revolution. o Agricultural revolution: the transformation in human history that resulted from the changes from foraging to raising crops/animals. v The Development of Horticulture • As earth got warmer, climate got wetter. - Crop planting was done using digging sticks and hoes, and is referred to as horticulture. - Horticulture: crop raising that is done with hand tools and human power. - People learned when to plant and what to plant through observation. o Domestication: plants and animals modified by selective breeding to serve needs. • International crop planting developed in the Fertile Crescent (includes Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, and Turkey). • Crop raising resulted due to a growth in population, more food, and longer life. • Cultural factors could have played a role in agricultural development. - Symbolic, cultural, or religious importance are reasons why foraging changed to agriculture. - A field of planted/weeded crops yields a lot of food, but requires a lot of labor as well. • Farming spread from the Fertile Crescent àGreeceàBritainàEthiopia. • People adapted crops to their local environments. - Corn in Mexico. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 1 - Potatoes and quinoa in the Andes. - Squash and beans in North America. - Dates, mangos, and sesame seeds in Asia. - Corn was by far the most successful and therefore more commonly planted. • “Slash and burn” was when crops were planted until the soil lost fertility. v Animal Domestication and the Rise of Pastoralism • People started to domesticate animals. - The earliest animals to be domesticated were dogs. o Dogs were often used in herding. - The Fertile Crescent domesticated goats and sheep. o Sheep and goats allowed themselves to be herded which led to pastoralism. § Pastoralism: an economic system that is based on herding flocks of goats, sheep, cattle, or other animals. - Chickens were domesticated in Asia. - People learned that animal manure is a good fertilizer. o The feces contact with humans exposed them to illness and disease. • Large animals were soon domesticated to carry heavy objects and people on their backs. v Plow Agriculture • Plows being used helped in the surplus of food production for the Neolithic people. • Wheeled vehicles led to road building and traveling longer distances. v Social Hierarchies and Slavery • Among social hierarchies labor division happened (between rich, poor, elites, and common people). - Social hierarchies: divisions between rich and poor, elites and common people that have been a big part of human society. - The heads of the groups had control over other’s labors. o Wealth could also command labor. • Slaves also became a type of physical power like animals were. • The most important distinction between elites and everyone else was the ability to exploit human labor. v Gender Hierarchies and inheritance • The system in which men had more power over women/other men was known as patriarchy. - Patriarchy: a social system in which men have more power and access to resources than women and other men do. - The plow agriculture heightened this. • In Neolithic societies women spent more time indoors, and men spent more time outdoors. • In 1870 the “Code of Hammurabi” stated the differences in inheritance for the sons a man had with his wife and those with a servant. - Daughters were not mentioned. • Elite men were to be with elite women, non-elite men were supposed to be with non-elite women. Crossing over was not allowed. v Trade and Cross Cultural Connections • A city named Catal Huyuk was located in what is now called Turkey. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 1 - Men/women grew wheat, barley, peas, etc. - Copper was traded. o Copper wasn’t the best, so bronze was made instead. § It was stronger than copper, and had a wide range of uses. • The Bronze Age was the adoption of iron technology. CHAPTER 2: The Rise of the State in Southwest Asia and the Nile Valley Writing, Cities, and States • Complex urban societies are known as civilizations. v Written Sources and the Human Past • History comes from the Greek word “historia”, which was said by Herodotus. - He based his histories on the wars between the Persians and the Greeks. • Methodology is the use of eyewitnesses. • Works considered worthy of copying were usually about political or military events that involved major powers. - Some texts have survived due to people inscribing them on bones, shells, and stones. o The Vietnam veteran memorial is the best example of stone inscription. o The Egyptians used papyrus sheets. o The Chinese used bones and turtle shells. v Cities and the Idea of Civilization • The word “civilized” came from the Latin adjective “civilis”, which referred to a citizen that was from either a town or a larger political unit. - Civilizations had the following: o Codes of manners. o Laws that govern human relationship. o Scientific/philosophical/theological ideas that explained the larger world. - Only societies that used writing were said to be civilizations. o “Cradles of civilization” were the earliest places where writing and cities developed. v The Rise of States, Laws, and Social Hierarchies • In order for cities to work, they needed, more elaborate mechanisms, known as “states”. - States controlled people through violence. - They also established bureaucracies and taxation. - Written laws created more elaborate social hierarchies. • Social gender hierarchies went from MesopotamiaàEgyptàIndiaàChina. Mesopotamia from Sumer to Babylon v Environmental Challenges, Irrigation, and Religion • Uruk was known as the world’s first city. - Temples were built to be used as storage for grain and housing for animals. • Sumerians believed in polytheism. - Polytheism: the worship of many gods and goddesses. - The best way to honor the gods was to build a temple. v Sumerian Politics and Society • Sumerian kingship powers were handed down to the sons, and the daughter’s inheritance would be in the form of a dowry. - The symbol of a royal status was a palace. - Alliances were made through marriage. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 1 - The lowest class of people were the slaves. v Writing, Mathematics, and Poetry • Pictographs were methods in which the use of pictures conveyed a form of writing. The pictographs were a form of cuneiform. - Cuneiform: a Sumerian form of writing. - Scribal schools were established in which there were masters, teachers, and monitors. • Sumerians and Mesopotamians made many advances in mathematics. - They developed the concept of “place value”. • Sumerians didn’t think of written texts to be important in a religious life. - Historians used epic poems to learn about the aspects of society. o Epic poem: an oral/written narration of achievements and failures of heroes that embodies a person’s idea about him/herself. v Empires in Mesopotamia • A king named Sargon conquered Sumerian cities with an army. - He expanded the Akkadian empire to Syria. - He spoke the Semitic language (a mix of Hebrew and Arabic). o The Akkadian people spoke Akkadian. - Enheduana was his daughter and also the world’s first author. • Babylon had Hammurabi as its leader. - He thought himself to be connected with the sun god, Shamash. - Marduk became Babylon’s chief god. v Life Under Hammurabi • Hammurabi’s best accomplishment was setting up a detailed law code, known as “Hammurabi’s Law Code”. - Hammurabi’s Law Code: a set of laws that were issued by Hammurabi. - If the law code was to be broken, it contained punishments. The code also regulated trade. o The punishment for adultery was death. The Egyptians v The Nile and the God-King • Egypt was known as “the gift of the Nile”. - The Nile River flooded once a year for many months. o This brought fertile soil and moisture for farming. - A king was said to be the cause of the rise and fall of the Nile. • Upper Egypt—upstream valley in the south. • Lower Egypt—delta area of the Nile. • Egyptian histories were divided into dynasties and families. • Tombs contained things that a king would need in his afterlife. • The Egyptians were polytheistic. - Considered Ra to be the sun god and the creator of life. o Amon was another sun god in the new kingdom. • The “Book of the Dead” was a book that contained ideas of the afterlife. - Osiris was the king of the dead and has a wife named Isis who brought him back to life. • Anubis was the god of mummification. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 1 v Egyptian Society and Work • Egyptian society reflected the pyramids they built. • Egyptian scribes created 2 writing systems—hieroglyphics and hieratic. • The Nile was essential for Egyptians. - They planted wheat and barley for bread and beer. • Egyptian lives centered around family. - Marriage was a business agreement. v Migrations, Revivals, and Collapse • The Hyksos group “rule of the uplands” were migrants that were looking for good land. - They brought methods for making bronze and horse drawn carriages. • There were many new pharaohs in the new kingdom. - Hatshepsut was a female pharaoh. - Amenhotep II (Akhenaten) was seceded by his son. Nefertiti was his wife. • Anatolia is the name of modern day Turkey. • Many languages were spoken that were apart of the Indo European language - Indo European Language: a large family of languages that includes English, most languages of modern Europe, ancient Greek, Latin, Persian, Hindi, Bengali, and Sanskrit. - Hittite was also spoken. o Hittite was the language of those that migrated to the country. § The Hittites were in the conflict with the Egyptians due to the expansion of territory. ⋅ Ramses II and Hattusili concluded a peace treaty. v The Emergence of New States • Around 1200 B.C.E. was the “bronze age collapse”. - This was the time of economic/political disruption, but also the spread of technology. • The Iron Age began in 1100 B.C.E. - Iron Age: the period in which iron became the most important material for weapons and tools in some parts of the world. • Nubia was the region south of Egypt, along the Nile. - Served as the conduit for ivory, gold, and ebony trade. - Kush (a kingdom) rose to the power in Nubia. o The capital was Napata (now known as Sudan). o The king’s name was Piye. o The Assyrians pushed out the Kush people. • Meroe was the center of iron production. • The Phoenicians “purple people” introduced grape growing. - Phoenicians: people of modern day Lebanon that traded and founded colonies throughout the Mediterranean. - They founded the city of Tunisia, which was the leading city in the Mediterranean. The Hebrews • The Hebrews controlled 2 small states in the Fertile Crescent for many centuries. - They created a form of religious belief (monotheistic) based in worshipping Yahweh. o Yahweh: the god of the Hebrew people and the base of Judaism traditions. • The Christians adapted the Hebrew bible as the Old Testament. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 1 v The Hebrew State • The Hebrews were enslaved by the Egyptians, but later freed by Moses. - They settled in Canaan. - The Hebrews found a leader named Saul. • The temple of Jerusalem was symbolic, and the home of Ark of the Covenant. v The Jewish Religion • The Thorah was the 1 of the 5 books of the Hebrew bible. - Yahweh and Moses were the leaders and known as prophets. o Yahweh would often punish people. v Hebrew Society • For the Hebrews, the first-born son was to be the head of the family upon the death of the father. v Assyria, the Military Monarchy • Assyrians started to create an empire; their methods were harsh but successful. - Babylon won independence and destroyed the Assyrians with the Medes. v The Rise and Expansion of the Persian Empire • Persia is modern day Iraq. - The king of Persia was Cyrus the Great. o Croesus was the king of Lydia that became his advisor. • As the Medes rose, the power in Asia shifted to Mesopotamia. • Darius conquered Scythia, and called himself the king of kings. • Satraps were the heads of the districts. • As long as the people paid their taxes, the Persians let the, believe whatever they wanted to. • Roads were used for trade and communication • The Persian religion was polytheistic and tied to nature. - Ahuramazda was the chief god. v The Religion of Zoroaster • Zoroaster was a thinker and a preacher. - He gathered scared texts that are now known as the “Aveda” - He would preach that one should rely on their own conscience to guide them through life. - Teachers communicated his writings. CHAPTER 3: The Foundation of Indian Society The Land and Its First Settlers • India is divided into Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh. - Pakistan is historically important because it enabled invaders to get into India from the Northwest. o The Bronze Age urban culture was there as well. • What is now known as the Indus Valley was known to contain the Harappan civilization. - Harappan: the first Indian civilization. - This civilization extended over 500,000 square miles in the Indus Valley (twice as large as Egypt and Sumer). - Harappan cities were the centers of crafts and trade. o Known as the earliest manufacturers of cloth. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 1 • Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa had granaries in which food was stored. - Both these places contained public buildings and large storehouses to store grain. - No tombs have been discovered there. • The Indus flowed through a dry region. • The Aryans became dominant after the fall of the Harappans. - They spoke in Sanskrit. - Means “noble” or “pure” in Sanskrit. - The Nazis thought the Aryans to be the superior race. The Aryans During the Vedic Age v Aryan Dominance in North India • Aryans: dominant people in northern India after the decline of the Indus Valley civilization. • The Harappan culture was all-archaeological, Aryans are based on linguistics analysis of modern languages. • The earliest Veda was the Rig Veda. - Rig Veda: the earliest collection of Indian hymns, rituals, texts, and philosophical treaties. • The key to Aryan success is their superior military technology. - Had 2 wheeled chariots, horses, and bronze swords/spears. - Head of each Aryan tribe was known as a “raja”. - After the raja (in order of importance) was the priest, then the common tribesmen. • Ramayana and Mahabharata were known as “dark skinned savages”. • Brahmins (priests) were the advisors to the kings. - Brahmins: priests of the Aryans that supported the growth of loyal power in return for royal conformation of their own religious benefits. v Life in Early India • Caste systems divided the society into defined hereditary groups. - Caste system: the Indian society of dividing society into hereditary groups whose members interacted primarily within the group, and also married within the group. • Aryans considered the work of Artisans impure. • Brahmins were expected to memorize every bit of the Veda. • Some people would often sell them and their families to slavery in order to pay off debts. v Brahmanism • The Brahmins had many gods. - Agni was the god of fire. - Indra was the god of war and the wielder of the thunderbolt. - Rudra was the divine archer. - Dyaus was the father of the gods. - Varuna was the god of order in the universe. - Ushas was the goddess of dawn. o Animal sacrifices were made for these gods. • Ancient Indian cosmology focused on repeating cycles, known as samsara and karma. - Samsara: the transmigration of soul by a continual process of rebirth, “reincarnation”. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 1 - Karma: the tally of the good and bad deeds that determines the status of the individual’s next life. o Do good, get good; do bad, get bad. • “Upanishads” was a record of speculation about the mythical meaning of man’s relationship with the universe and the meaning of sacrificial lives. - Moksha was the release from the wheel of life. - “Life is an illusion and the only was to escape it is to realize that reality is unchanging”. • Brahman: the unchanging ultimate reality. - Gave the Brahmins a high status, to which others could look up to. India’s Great Religions • There were 2 very influential teachings, known as Jainism and Buddhism. - Hinduism emerged as a result of these two. v Jainism • Vardhamana Mahvita (the key figure of the Jains) left home to become a holy man. - He accepted the Brahmanic doctrines of karma and rebirth and developed Jainism. o Jainism: Indian religion whose followers consider all life sacred and avoid destroying other lives. o Humans, animals, plants, and objects all have living souls through the workings of karma (according to them). • The Jains were mostly vegetarians to avoid harming animals. v Siddhartha Gautama and Buddhism • Siddhartha Gautama (also known as Shakyamuni, also known as Buddha) was called “the enlightened one”. - He studied with yoga masters but did asterism. - He preached in a language called Magadhi instead of Sanskrit. - He attracted followers mainly from merchants, artisans, and farmers, rather than the Brahmins. • His first sermon was the 4 Noble Truths and the Eight Fold Path. - 4 Noble Truths: Buddha’s message that pain and suffering are parts of life that we cant escape, and people can understand and triumph over these weakness by following a simple code of conduct. - Eight Fold Path: the code of conduct that was set by Buddha. • Nirvana is a blissful nothingness and freedom from reincarnation. • Buddha formed a circle of disciples. • His teachings were oral until they were written down in scriptures called sutras. - Monks and nuns were formed. • Many traditions formed like, Mahayana. - Mahayana: a Buddhist tradition known as “the great vehicle” which teaches one to be more inclusive. o It taught that reality is empty and that ultimate reality is consciousness. This was kept hidden by its followers. • Bodhisattvas: were “Buddhists to be”, which stayed in the world after enlightenment to help others. v Hinduism World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 1 • Brahmic religion developed into Hinduism. - High social status was maintained but worshippers had more contact with the gods. • Dharma was the moral law. - Dharma: the Sanskrit word for moral laws that was central to Buddhist and Hindu teachings. • Hinduism believes there are many ways to worship Brahman. - Brahman—the creator. - Shiva—cosmic dancer that created/destroyed. - Vishnu—preserver/sustainer of creation. - Lakshmi—goddess of wealth. - Saraswathi—goddess of learning/music. • The Bhagavad-Gita offered guidance on problems that faced a Hindu. - It emphasized the necessity of action. Western Contact and the Mauryan Unification of North India v Encounters with the West • The Persian emperor conquered the Indus Valley and Kashmir to gain control. - From the Persians, Indians learned the techniques of minting silver coins. - The introduction of Aromatic script also happened. • The Persian Empire got turned to Alexander the Great. v Chandragupta and the Founding of the Mauryan Empire • Chandragupta benefitted the most when Alexander took over and expanded territories as a result of it. - He established a complex bureaucracy. - He governed most of the subcontinent. - The capital was Pataliputra. • Kautilya was a great minister and wrote a treaty called Arthashastra. - It was how a king should seize/hold/manipulate power. v The Religion of Ashoka • Ashoka was Chandragupta’s grandson, and he embraced Buddhism. • He conquered Kalinga, and many were killed and abducted in the process. - Due to this he felt bad, and so he started spreading Buddhism teachings throughout India. o He banned animal sacrifices and took in pilgrimages. • Ashoka inscribed his policies on large rocks and stone pillars. - His inscriptions told people about the Mauryan Empire. o Mauryan Empire: the first Indian empire founded by Chandragupta. • He also respected all religions. • The Cholas and the Pandyas were people, which Ashoka kept friendly relationships with, even though he did not rule them. Small States and Trading Networks • After the fall of the Mauryan Dynasty, a city named Taxila was the major center of trade, culture, and education. • The Kushans ruled Afghanistan, Gujarat, and Pakistan. - During the Kushan period, the Greek culture had a huge impact on art. • South India was the center for trade. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 1 • Indian sailing technology got very advanced. • Arab traders sold coins, topaz, coral, ivory, silk, etc. • There were many advances in science, math, and philosophy during this time period. • There was period in which Indian law was modified; the Code of Manu was set. - The Code of Manu: the codification of early Indian law that lays down family, caste, and commercial law. CHAPTER 4: China’s Classical Age The Emergence of Civilization in China v The Impact of Geography • Rainfall is less than 20 inches a year, which is good for wheat and millet. • The northern part of China is the coldest, and has a drought problem. • The soil is loess. - Loess: soil that is deposited by the wind, that is fertile and easy to work with. • The Yangzi River is a dominant feature of the south. - Boats were transportation in the south. v Early Age Societies of the Neolithic Age • Agriculture was influenced in China by the developments in south east Asia. • Dogs, pigs, and cattle were domesticated in China. • People of the Neolithic culture are known for their art of black pigments with bold designs. v The Shang Dynasty • The Shang Dynasty was not as urban as Mesopotamia. • The Shang kings ruled for more than 2 centuries in Anyang. - Anyang: one of the Shang Dynasty capitals. - At the center of Anyang there were large palaces, temples, and altars. - Many homes were built below ground level. - Royal tombs here showed that Shang kings were military chieftains. • Shang warriors used bronze tipped spears and battle-axes, which gave them an advantage. • The Shang king was the high priest. - The high god was named “Di”. • Shang royal families lived in large houses. • There was only one royal tomb that wasn’t robbed, and it was Lady Hao’s tomb. • Kingship was passed along patriarchal lines. • Shang families had to work for their lords. - This made them “serfs”. - They lived in small compact villages that were surrounded by fields. - They raised silk worms. v Bronze Metalworking • China mastered working with bronze. - The decorations on them say interesting things about the Shang culture. - An animal face called a taotie, was used as decoration, and also known as a problematic image. o Taotie: an animal face that is seen on Chinese bronze. v The Development of Writing World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 1 • The writing inscribed on bones from Shang tombs told people of major elements in Chinese culture. - It helped in keeping records. - The Chinese script was called logographic. o Logographic: a system of writing in which one word is represented by a symbol. The Early Zhou Dynasty v Zhou Politics • The Book of Documents described the Zhou conquest of the Shang. - The Book of Documents: a Chinese book that contained documents, speeches, and historical accounts about the Zhou rule. - It also showed that Zhou recognized Shang as owning the center of the world. • Zhou kings sacrificed to their ancestors and Heaven. - Mandate of Heaven theory developed by the Zhou rulers as propaganda. o Mandate of Heaven: the theory that heaven gives the king a mandate to rule only as long as he rules in the interest of the people. • Zhou rulers set up a decentralized feudal system. - Domains became hereditary. - This was dangerous because the lords wouldn’t obey the kings. v Life During the Zhou Dynasty • During this period, aristocratic attitudes and privileges were strong. • Inherited ranks went from kingsàrulers of states (dukes/marquis)à hereditary officials of statesà shià ordinary people. - Shi: lower ranks of Chinese aristocracy. • The Book of Songs: Chinese poetry that showed glimpses of what life and different social lives was like. • Farming incorporated hunting and planting. • Women were distrusted in politics because of practicing concubine. • Iron technology promoted economic expansion. - Iron was being widely used for farm tools and weapons. • Some people had more powers than others due to inherited powers/status. • Social mobility also increased. • There was a practice in which the alive were burned with the dead, but that certain practice soon decreased. • In the state of “Chu” new cults appeared. - The “Songs of Chu” was a book of poems of shamans that flew through the spirit world. The Warring States Period • The Warring States Period was the period of time in which the states fought each other one after the other. v New Technologies for War • The crossbow developed. - Crossbow: a mechanical bow. - To defend against them, soldiers wore armor and helmets. • “War is the way of deceit”. • Rulers wanted to increase their populations so that they could get more soldiers. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 1 • They wanted to increase the agricultural output. - Rulers surveyed their land and taxed farmers. • Infantry armies developed, therefore needing a new type of general. v The Victorious States • By the third century, only 7 states remained. - Before the end of the third century a state named Qin took over all the rest. Confucius and His Followers v Confucius • Confucius was one of the 1 men with ideas. - He set out with some students to near by states to find a ruler to take his advice. • Confucius’ ideas were ethical ad saw 5 relationships at the base of society. - Between ruler and subject. - Between father and son. - Between husband and wife. - Between elder and younger brother. - Between two friends. o The senior was supposed to lead/protect. o Junior was supposed to support and obey. § Friends were an exception. • He redefined the term gentleman to mean man of moral cultivation instead of a man of noble birth. • He though the ultimate virtue was ren. - Ren: a Confucian virtue that means perfect goodness, benevolence, humanity, human-heartedness, and nobility. • He encouraged people to master poetry, rituals, and historic traditions. v Spread of Confucius’ Ideas • Mencius was one of Confucius’ followers, and he offered advice to rulers of different states. - He proposed political/financial measures to improve people’s lot. - Argued strongly for human nature. o Xunxi took the opposite view. § He was a more rigorous thinker. § He didn’t want to stop traditional rituals, but saw them as a good way to maintain order. • The Confucian vision was that we owe our existence to our parents, and so therefore we should respect them. - Filial piety: was the reverent attitude of children to their parents. Daoism, Legalism, and Other Schools of Thought • Daoists thought that the act of striving to impose society made it worse. v Daoism • Daoists disagreed with Confucists. - They defended private life and wanted to leave people alone. - They didn’t make human beings/actions the centers of concern but instead the larger scheme of things known as Dao. o Dao: what Daoists refer to as natural order, and what Confucists refer to as moral order. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 1 • The Laozi and Zhuangzi were books containing Daoist teachings. - Laozi—people would be better off living simply. - Zhuangzi—was filled with fiction between historical characters. • Daoism is a “response” to Confucianism. • Confucianism was more for males, but Daoism was both for males and females, since it was more accepting to feminine principles. v Legalism • Rulers got scared about their states falling. - Legalists: emphasized the need for laws and that a strong government depended on the quality/morals of the ruler. • Qin reformed itself along legalist lines. - Qin migrated people from other states to increase population. - To get farmers to work/improve land, the farmers were allowed to sell it. • Han Feizi was what the legalists found their greatest exponent in. - He warned rulers of political pitfalls. - Thought that Confucian notion that government could be based as virtue to be a naïve thought. • Legalist laws gave constrains to both officials and commoners. • They saw no value in intellectual debate/private opinion. v Yin and Yang • Philosophers developed the idea of yin and yang, which was described in the book of changes. - Yin and Yang: a concept of complementary poles, one that represents feminine, and the other that represents masculine. - Yin was feminine. - Yang was masculine. - They were complementary to each other. CHAPTER 7: East Asia and the Spread of Buddhism The Age of Empire in China: The Qin and Han Dynasties v The Qin Unification • The Qin adopted legalist policies. • The king of Qin didn’t think the title of king was enough, so he came up with emperor. • The first emperor, along with his legalist minister, Lisi, wanted to centralize china. - Told the nobles to leave their land and move to the capital. • The first emperor also wanted a census due to a need of estimating the cost of public works and tax revenues to pay for his people. • The first emperor was known as a cruel maniac. • The Great Wall was built between the Qin and Xiongnu. - The Great Wall: a wall that was built along the northern border of China. • Many people tried to kill the first emperor, so he wanted to become immortal. - When he eventually died. The Qin state unraveled. v The Han Dynasty • Liu Band (Emperor Gaozu) was the victor of power of the Qin Dynasty. - He kept the centralized government, removed harsh laws, lowered taxes, and due to all this, the population increased. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 1 • The Han Dynasty was supported by the taxes and labor of the farmers. • Emperor Wu took land, increased taxes, etc. in order to pay for military campaigns. v Han Intellectual and Cultural Life • Han promoted Confucianism. - Confucian Classics were books that contained wisdom of the past. o Confucian Classics: ancient texts that were recovered during the Han Dynasty that Confucian scholars had created. • Natural disasters were viewed as the emperor was failing to maintain balance with heaven and earth. • When Daoism emerged, the paranormal world became of interest. • Sima Qian wrote a comprehensive history of China, the result of his research was the Records of the Grand Historian. - Records of the Grand Historian: a comprehensive history of China that was written by Sima Qian. - His work set the standard for Chinese historical writing. v Inner Asia and the Silk Road • Chinese civilization didn’t spread easily to the grasslands of North China. • The Xiongnu formed a great tribe and raided within 100 miles of the Chinese capital. - Emperor Wu decided to push them back. • Central Asia was called the Silk Road. - Silk Road: the trade routes across Central Asia that linked China to western Eurasia. • China developed a tributary system to be able to contact foreign powers. - Tributary system: a system that was established during the Han Dynasty to regulate contact with foreign powers. - This was a financial burden, but decreased the coast of defense. • To maintain military power from the center of China was quite expensive, so governments set up self-supporting military colonies. v Life in Han China • Those that lived in Chang’an/Luoyang had a nice life. • Markets were lively places of the city. - People also went to the market, fortunetellers and even executions for entertainment. • The Chinese knew how to liquefy iron and pour it into molds, which provided tools with a higher carbon content. - Iron replaced bronze in tools. • The peasants made up the bulk of the Han population. - In order to fight peasant poverty, taxes were kept low. • In Chinese farms, males had increased authority, parents arranged children’s marriages, and brides joined the husband’s family. • “Biographies of Exemplary Women” told stories of women who gave their husbands good advice. - It also contained warning tales of scheming and jealousy. v China and Rome • Both places reached people through taxation. • Had similar frontier problems as well. • They both recruited barbaric soldiers. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 1 • Roman empire was more culturally and linguistically diverse. v The Fall of the Han and the Age of Division • Child emperors needed reagents to rule in their position, until they reached maturity. - They then turned to eunuchs for help once grown. o Eunuchs: castrated males that played roles as palace servants. • The period after the fall of the Han Dynasty is known as the “Age of Division”. - Age of Division: the period after the fall of the Han Dynasty in which China was politically divided. • In the south, there was a hereditary aristocracy in which marriage happened within families of equal pedigrees. The Spread of Buddhism out of India v Buddhism Path Through Central Asia • Central Asia refers to the area between Persia, India, and China. - Buddhism spread to Central Asia. • There was a form of Buddhism called Mahayana that spread to China, Japan, and Korea. • First translators of Buddhist texts into Chinese were Parthians, Sogdians, and Kushans. v The Appeal and Impact of Buddhism in China • Women turned to Buddhism as readily as men did in China. • Women that didn’t want to marry would join a nunnery. • Empress Wu showed people how Buddhism brought new understanding to gender. • Some people that didn’t believe in it would be labeled as immoral. - In the north, monasteries were told to close twice, but ended up staying open. The Chinese Empire Recreated: Sui and Tang v The Sui Dynasties • Yang Jian founded both the Sui Dynasty along with overseeing the renovation of China. • The biggest achievement was the construction of the Grand Canal. - Grand Canal: a canal that was built during the Sui Dynasty, which connected the Yellow and Yangzi Rivers. • The Sui Dynasty only lasted for 2 reigns. v The Tang Dynasty st • Gaozu and Taizong were the 1 2 rulers of the Tang Dynasty. • Empress Wu and Consort Yang Guifei were 2 women that rose to positions of political power. - The Empress took the title after her husband’s death. - She was a very effective leader. • An Lushan rebellion was a devastating time in the Tang Dynasty. - Calling on the Uighurs restored the peace. v Tang Culture • The cities of Chang’an and Luoyang were great metropolises. - The two cities were laid out in rectangular grids. - In these cities, knowledge of the outside world came from those who visited their city. - Many religions were practiced due to many incoming people—Nestorian, Christianity, Zoroastrianism, Islam, and Judaism. • The Tang Dynasty was the great age of Chinese poetry. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 1 • Merchants kept their money in monasteries for safekeeping. • There were 2 schools that thrived during this period in time—The Chan and The Pure Land. - The Chan: a Buddhist school that rejected the authority of the sutras and claimed the superiority of mind-to-mind transmission of Buddhist truths. - The Pure Land: a Buddhist school that taught by calling on the Buddha Amitabha. • Buddhism at this time was also opposed and many monasteries and temples were destroyed. - The ban was lifted, but what was lost was lost. • Han armies brought culture to Korea and Vietnam. v Vietnam • Vietnam is subtropical with abundant rain and rivers. • The Vietnamese would dip their brown arrowheads in poison to kill large animals. • The collapse of the Qin Dynasty had an impact on this area. • Trieu Da made himself the ruler of this place. • Chinese art/architecture/music had a huge impact on Vietnamese counterparts. v Korea • Korea is a peninsula and it is linguistically not related to the Chinese. • It adopted bronze ad iron technology from China. • Buddhism was introduced. - It connected Korea to societies across Asia. - Buddhist monks would go back and forth from China to Korea. v Japan • The easiest form of communication was the inland Sea. • Female rulers were Japan’s most distinct features. • Korea brought the language that eventually evolved into Japanese. - They also brought silk making, bronze swords, crossbows, etc. • Clans were a warrior aristocracy in which they wore helmets and armor. - Each clan had it own chieftain. • The Yamato rulers established the chief shrine of the sun goddess. - There were groups that formed to other gods, which was a religion known as Shinto. o Shinto: Japan’s native religion, the way of the gods. o They could only do this as long as they viewed their god subordinate (below) to the sun goddess. • Prince Shotoku built a temple that was staffed with monks from Korea. - He also opened direct relations with Korea. • The city of Nara was Japan’s first long term city. - Nara: Japan’s capital and first true city. • Since Japan was geography isolated, it wasn’t as immune to disease, so when people visited that had a disease, the people in Japan didn’t have the immunity to fight it if it got to them. • The largest temple of the Nara period was the Todaiji.
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