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CHD 3243 Exam 1 Study Guide Part 1

by: Sarah Cibula

CHD 3243 Exam 1 Study Guide Part 1 CHD3243

Marketplace > Florida State University > Family and Child Sciences > CHD3243 > CHD 3243 Exam 1 Study Guide Part 1
Sarah Cibula

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This set covers Chapter 1, Chapter 2, and Chapter 3 up until "Minority Adolescents"--stay tuned for Part 2!
Contexts in Adolescent Development
Melinda Gonzales Backen
Study Guide
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Cibula on Sunday June 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHD3243 at Florida State University taught by Melinda Gonzales Backen in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Contexts in Adolescent Development in Family and Child Sciences at Florida State University.

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Date Created: 06/05/16
Summer A 2016, Prof. Gonzalez-Backen CHD3243 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE-SUMMER A 2016 1. WHAT IS ADOLESCENCE? A. Adolescence: the period of growth between childhood and adulthood; the period of growth from childhood to maturity i. Transition is gradual and uncertain ii. The time span is not the same for every person, but most become mature adults B. Puberty: the developmental stage at which one becomes capable of reproduction i. Beginning of adolescence = when children begin to physically/sexually mature (“hitting puberty”) 1. The physical changes associated with puberty begin a few years before the child is actually fertile ii. Usually happens between 11 and 13 years old (lower boundary of adolescence) 2. APPROACHES TO STUDYI NG ADOLESCENCE A. Eclectic approach to studying adolescents (t he book) i. The approach is interdisciplinary emphasizing not one aspect of adolescent development but all of them, recognizing that no single discipline has a monopoly on the truth B. Cultural/sociological i. Current cultural conditions that are affecting today’s youths 1. Socioeconomic status, ethnicity, etc. C. Biological i. Process of sexual maturation and physical growth that takes place during puberty ii. Maturation of functions of the sex organs iii. Growth trends in height, weight, body composition D. Cognitive i. Qualitative changes in the way that adolescents think and reason and the quantitative changes that take place in attention, memory, and intelligence ii. The effect that cognitive changes have on the adolescent’s personality and behavior 1. Ex.: problem solving, decisions ma king, and IQ E. Psychosexual i. Development of emotions and of the self, including the development of self -concept, gender role, and identity 1. Ex.: Mental health and the effects of stress on the adolescent F. Social Relationships i. Parent-adolescent communication and conflicts, sibling relationships, and parenting styles ii. Effects of different families —single-parent, blended, adoptive, etc. 3. COHORTS/GENERATIONS i. Cohort: a group of individuals who are born at approximately the same time and who share traits because they experiences the same historical events ii. The Lost Generation 1. Were adolescents, young adults during of just after WWI (born between the mid 1880s -1900); traumatized by the large # of casualties during WWI and disdainful of their parents’ Victorian ideas about morality and propriety iii. The G.I. Generation 1. Were children during the Great Depression and adolescents/young adults during WWII iv. The Silent Generation 1. Born in 1925 -1940; conservative and traditionalist v. The Baby Boomers 1. Born after WWII (1945 -mid 1960s); children of the G.I. Generation; unusually high birthrate after WWII causing this cohort to be very large; comprised the rock -and-roll and hippie movements vi. Generation X 1. Born in the mid -1960s to 1980; feelings of cynic ism and alienation; adolescents in the 1980s and 1990s; generally, the children of the Baby Boomers; felt neglected by their parents, pessimistic about their own economic opportunities and abilities to make positive changes in the world vii. Generation Y 1. Born in 1980 -2000; known as the Millennial Generation; young enough that computers, the Internet, and cell phones are integral parts of life; “helicopter parents” viii. Generation ? 1. The most recent living generation (born after 2000); the first generation post -9/11 4. PROLONGATION OF ADOL ESCENCE A. Since the 1970s, individuals’ full entrance into adulthood has been more and more delayed, as youth have taken longer to complete their education, settle on a career, move out of their parents’ home, marry, and have children i. Why? 1. More skills needed to get a job 2. Increased societal permissiveness toward premarital sex 3. Inexpensive, effective birth control 4. Parents more willing to support their children for longer B. Emerging adulthood: the stage of life between adolescence and young adulthood 2 5. EMPLOYMENT A. General Employment Patterns i. Most individuals believe that it is important to own a nice home and to have many possessions in order to lead a good life ii. The recent past has seen increases in the # of workers who hold 2 jobs (usually o ne full-time and one part-time) as well as increases in the amount of overtime put in by workers with single jobs iii. Mothers are more likely to work than women who are not mothers iv. Increasing employment among mothers has intensified the need for child care 1. Women are less likely to be home to supervise and monitor their adolescent children in the late afternoon and early evenings v. The proportion of high school students who work has been rising rapidly and steadily 1. Conventional wisdom: employment is good for st udents vi. Many experts are beginning to believe that adolescents are devoting too much time to work and not enough for school 1. Credible data suggest that working after school is associated w/ lowered school achievement and w/ increased delinquency and substan ce abuse rates 2. Adolescents are less likely than nonworking peers to get adequate sleep and exercise B. Low Income Families i. Youths who come from extremely poor families are more likely to be nonjoiners in school activities, are seldom elected to positions of prestige, and often seek status through antisocial behavior 1. Struggle for identity 6. EVOLVING FAMILY A. General Patterns i. The marriage rate has declined, the age at which people marry has gone up, and the # of children per family has decreased 1. Why? a. Increase in permissiveness toward premarital sex b. More need and opportunities for higher education c. Decreased negative attitudes toward singlehood d. Increase in nonmartial cohabitation 2. People who wait until their mid - to late -20s to marry have a greater chance of marital successs ii. Birthrates have declined since 1965 = smaller families 1. More than 70% of U.S. families had 1 or no children younger than 18 living at home 2. 1900s: women had 5 children; today: women have ~1.8 children iii. Adolescents today have grown up in a time when the fulfillment of romantic love and companionship — not economic necessity —are considered to be the primary reasons to get married 1. High rate of divorce in the U.S. is because couples often separate if their pe rsonal needs and expectations are not met B. Changes in Family Dynamics 3 i. The family has become more democratic 1. Distinction between patriarchal (father -led, father -breadwinner) society and current shared - responsibility society 2. Rise of feminism and more educatio nal opportunities for women to get out of the house 3. Development of effective contraceptives ii. Nonmarital cohabitation 1. Increased 2. Affects adolescents because: a. Adolescents will be more likely to be raised by nonmarried, cohabiting couples than in the past b. Adolescents will be more likely to cohabit someday themselves iii. Out-of-wedlock births 1. Teens are more likely to become parents themselves prior to marriage and that they are also more likely to have been raised by single, never -wed mothers iv. Divorce 1. The divorce rate in the U.S. has been declining slightly since 1980 2. The U.S. has one of the highest divorce rates in the world a. ~1/3 of American adults have been divorced at least once b. ~2/3 of American children have experienced their parents’ divorce 7. EVOLVING SEXUAL L ANDSCAPE A. Changes in sexual behavior i. Acceptance of sexual desire 1. More open acknowledgement that humans are sexual beings 2. More comprehensive sex -ed in schools ii. Development of Scientific Knowledge About Sexual Functioning 1. Little was known about the human sexual response prior to the 1960s 2. The knowledge of the sexual response system enables individuals to understand human sexual functioning better a. Enhances the sexual pleasure of relationships b. Solves many sexual problems (s exual dysfunction) iii. Development of Contraceptives 1. The acceptability of sex for pleasure’s sake (as opposed to for procreation) spurred the development and availability of new forms of birth control 2. Family planning enabled 3. Many individuals have become mor e willing to be sexually active outside of marriage iv. Willingness to Deal with Unwanted Sexual Behavior 1. People have become more willing to openly discuss sexual harassment and rape 2. Sexual abuse of children is also being faced and dealt with in a more helpfu l and healthful manner 4 v. Flexibility of Gender Roles 1. Traditional: Femininity vs. Masculinity 2. Today: Gender roles have become more flexible and men and women are interchanging roles vi. An Earlier Beginning to Premarital Sexual Behavior 1. Not only are youths mor e likely to have premarital intercourse, but also the age of their initial intercourse is younger than in the past a. More than half of American teens have lost their virginity by their senior year of HS i. Many early and middle adolescents are not emotionally p repared to deal w/ intercourse 2. Nonmarital pregnancy a. About 750k adolescent pregnancies, most of them unplanned, occur each year in the U.S. b. Almost 500k babies are born to adolescent girls annually, most of them unwed, single mothers c. Adolescent mothers a re more likely households than other adolescent females to face continuing economic hardship, to fail to continue their education, and to fail to establish their own independent households vii. STDs and AIDS 1. The average person have more sexual partners in his or her lifetime than did those before it occurred 2. Rapid spread of STDs a. Adolescents are at high risk for STDs because they have multiple sex partners, do not consiste ntly use safer sexual practices, and are frequently ignorant of STDs’ symptoms viii. Confusion About Sex 1. Adolescents have moved from viewing sex as forbidden and terrifying to seeing it as accessible and interesting but still terrifying 8. RESEARCH METHODS A. Correlations: relationships between factors or situations i. Positive correlation: as one factor increases, so does the other 1. Ex.: Income level and years of school ii. Negative correlation: as one factor increases, the other decreases 1. Ex.: Weight and popularity B. Experiments and causailty i. Correlations DO NOT equal causations 1. Correlations DO allow us to make predictions about which adolescents are or are not like ly to have a particular experience ii. A correlation’s strength depends on its direction of relationship, NOT it s magnitude or certainty iii. True vs. Quasi-Experiments 1. True experiment: a study in which the researcher maintains control to ensure there are no significant differences among his or h er groups of participants before the study begins and that 5 the different groups of participants have identical experiences (except for the one issue of interest) a. Much of the time researchers of not ha ve this degree of control 2. Quasi-experiment: a study in which the researcher compares preexisting groups a. More useful for studying adolescents than true experiments 3. It is essential not to jump to causal conclusions when you read quasi-experimental or correlational data C. Longitudinal vs. Cross-Sectional Research Designs i. Cross-sectional study: compares a group of people who are one age w ith a group of people who are another age 1. Ex.: do teens become less anxious as they move thro ugh adolescence? 2. Benefits: a. Results available quickly 3. Drawbacks: a. This design can never tell you whether traits are stable within individuals ii. Cohort effects: differences amongst individuals that are caused by historical events rather than by maturations or development 1. Tend to increase between group differences and may make it seem that a true developmental difference exist s when it does not iii. Longitudinal study: a quasi -experimental study in which a group of people are tracked over time as they age 1. Benefits: a. Because we are tracking the same individuals across ti me, we can get an idea of the temporal sequence by which events occur b. You can track trait stability within an individual 2. Drawbacks: a. Very lengthy b. It is difficult to k eep track of subjects over many years, and so fewer subjects are tested at the end than at the beginning of the study iv. Testing effects: a change in subject performance due not to age or maturation, but to repeated exposure to test materials v. Cross-sequential study: a research method in which subjects at several different ages are tracked over time 1. Takes longer to complete than cross -sectional studies, but is more efficient than longitudinal research and eliminates most of t he problems associated with moth of those two designs 9. PSYCHOANALYTIC AND P SYCHOSOCIAL VIEWS OF ADOLESCENCE A. Sigmund Freud: Individuation i. Freud’s perspective is somewhat biological be cause he believed that “biology is destiny” 6 1. I.e. males and fema les, because of differences in the anatomy of their genitals, would necessarily have dissimilar experiences a nd hence turn out different from each other ii. Freud considered the early years of a child ’s life to be the formative ones 1. Puberty is the culmination of a series of changes destined to give infantile sexual life i ts final, adult form iii. Stages of development: 1. Oral stage: the 1 psycho sexual stage; birth -1 year; the child ’s chief source of pleasure and satisfaction comes from oral activity 2. Anal stage: the 2 nd psychosexual stage; 2 years old; the child seeks pleasure and satisfaction through anal activity and the elimination of waste rd 3. Phallic s tage: the 3 psychosexual stage; 4 -6 years old; the genital area is the chief source of pleasure and satisfaction a. During the phallic stage, males and females had different personalities and engage in different behaviors because of differences in their anatomy i. Oedipal complex: in boys; boys become jealous of their mothers ’ attention to their f athers and believe, unconsciously, that their fathers must be equally jealous of their mothers ’ attention toward them ii. Castration anxiety: in b oys; in order to reduce the anxiety that their fathers will try to hurt them and remove them as sexual r ivals they identif y with their fathers 1. Identification: the taking on of parental values and beliefs to reduce castration anxiety since imitation is flattering to fathers and reduces conflict between father and son an d it teachers the boy how to behave like a man, enabling him to find a wfe of his own when he matures 4. Latency stage: the 4 th psychosexual stage; 6 -12 years old; sexual interests remain hidden while the child concentrates on school and other activities 5. Genital stage: the last psychosexual stage; 13+ years old; sexual urges result in see king other persons as sexual objects to rel ieve sexual tension iv. Individuation: the formation of personal identity by the development o f the self as a unique person separate from parents and others B. Anna Freud: Id, Ego, and Superego i. Characterized adolescence as a period of internal conflict, psychic disequi librium, and erratic behavior 1. Id: those instinctual urges that a person seeks to satisfy according to the pleasure principle 2. Ego: the rationa l mind that seeks to satisfy the id in keeping with reality 3. Superego: the part of the mind that opposes the desires of the id by enforcing moral restrictions that have been learned to try to attain a goal of perfection C. Erik Erikson: Ego Identity i. Similar to Freud in that he believed in the id -ego-superego triad, but placed less emphasis on the id ’s basic biological urges 1. He believed that the ego was the driving force behind much of behavior ii. 8 stages of human development - in each stage, the individual has a psychosocial task to master 1. Overall task: to acquire a posi tive ego identity as he or she moves through one stage to the next 2. We are most concerned about id entity formation (stage 5, aged 11 -early 20s) 7 a. Stage name: Identity v. diff usion b. Outcomes: a sense of one ’s current and future self v. lack of community and instability 3. Each stage builds on previous stages 4. Adolescents who feel optim istic and secure, who are independent and curious, and who feel pride in their accomplishments —all qualities learned earlier in life in previous stage —are more likely to be able to form an identity effectively iii. Erikson emphasized that the identity search is a normative crisis, a normal phase of increased conflict 1. The indi vidual must establish personal identity and avoid the dangers of identity diffusion (lack of personal identity) iv. Psychosocial moratorium: a socially sanctioned period between childhood and adulthood during which an individual is free to expe riment to find a socially acceptable identity and role 1. At present, the length of time it takes many individuals to create an identity has been increasing until well into their late 20 s, so that a new stage of life —emergin g adulthood —is being established 2. The adolescent who fails in the search for am identity will experience self -doubt and role confusion a. The individual may indulge in a self -destructive one -sided preoccupation with the opinions of others i. Ex.: using drugs/alcohol; caring too much or not caring at all of the opinions of others v. Erikson emphasized that although the identity crisis is most pronounced at adolescenc e, a redefinition of one’s ego identity may also take place at other periods of life (marriage, moving out, divorce, etc.) 10. COGNITIVE VIEWS OF A DOLESCENCE A. Jean Piaget: Adaptation and Equilibrium i. Cognition: the act or pr ocess of knowing ii. Organismic psychologist (Piaget ’s title): someone like Piaget, who believes that both brain maturation and environmental experience ae needed for cognitive deve lopment iii. From birth onward, children actively interact with their surroundings to make sense of their world 1. Schema : the original patterns of thinking; the mental structur es that people use for dealing with what happens in the environment a. By forming new schema and linking them together, children learn to adapt to their environment i. Adaptation: including and adjusting to new information by creating new structures to replace old ones 1. Two types: assimilation and accommodation a. Assimilation: incorporating a feature of the environment into an existing mode or structure of thought b. Accomodation: adjusting to new information by creating new structures to replace the old ones 8 2. Equilibrium: according to Piaget, achieving a balanc e between schemas and accommodation a. Disequilibrium: when there is a dissonance between reality and a person’s comprehension of it; makes accommodation necessary iv. Stages of Cognitive Development 1. Sensorimotor stage (birth -2 yrs) a. Coordination of physical actions and sensory experiences i. Ex.: babies learn to reach for their bottle s, move their arms and hands to pick up an object, follow an object using head and ey es 2. Preoperational stage (2 -7 yrs) a. Children acquire language and lea rn to use symbols, such as maps, to represent the environment b. Children can deal w/ the world symbolically but still cannot think logically c. Preoperational = young children ha ve not yet developed the mental operations needed for logical thought 3. Concrete Operational Stage (7 -11 yrs) a. Children show some capacity for logical reasoning, although it relates onl y to things actually experienced i. Mental operations: abstract reasoning principles that allow children to think logically b. Children are not as easily fooled by appearances as they previously were 4. Formal Operational Stage (11+ yrs) a. Adolescents move beyond concrete, actual experiences and begin to think in more logical, abstract terms i. Systematic, propositional logic ii. Inductive and deductive reasoning iii. Can think beyond what is to what might be, projecting themselves into the future and planning for it B. Ecological Systems Theory: Urie Bronfenbrenner i. The Microsystem 1. The most immedia te influences of the adolescent; whom he or she had immedi ate contact with a. Immediate family followed by friends and school, health services, religious groups, neighborhood play areas, and social groups 2. Microsystem s change as the adolescent moves in and out of different social settings a. Ex.: changing schools, not go ing to a particular religious center, and dropping out of/joining new activities 3. The pe er microsystem increases in influence during adolescence 4. A healthy microsystem offers positive learning and development that prepares the adolescent for success in adult life ii. The Mesosystem 1. Involves reciprocal relationships among microsystem settings 9 2. A mesosystem analysis would look at the frequency, quality, and influence of interactions, such as how family experiences are related to school adjustments, how family characteristics are related to peer pressures, or how religiosity is related to intimacy with the opposite sex iii. The Exosystem 1. Composed of those settings in which the adolescent does not play an active role bot that nevertheless influence him or her a. Ex.: what happens to the parents at work influence the adolescent ’s development b. Ex.: the school board established the curriculum and the school calendar and hires the teachers iv. The Macrosystem 1. Includes the ideologies, attitudes, mores, customes, nad laws of a particular cukture a. Core of educational, economic, religious, political, and social values b. Sets standards of physical attractiveness, gender -role behavior, influences health practices, educational standards, relationshi ps 2. Macrosystems differ in various countries and in racial, ethnic, or socioeconomic groups C. Mead and Benedict: Anthropological Views i. Cultural determinism: the influence of a particular culture in determining the personality and behavior of a developing individual ii. Cultural relativism: variations in social institutions, economic patters, habits, mores, rituals, religious beliefs, and ways of life from one culture to another iii. Cultural Continuity v. Discontinuity 1. Anthropologists challenge the basic truths of all age and stage theories of child and adolescent development 2. “The Princip al of Continuity of Cultural Conditioning ” a. 1. Responsible v. Nonresponsible Roles i. Children in nontechni cal societies learn responsibility quite early ii. Children in Western culture must assume drast ically different roles as they g row up b. 2. Submissive v. Dominant Roles i. The sub missive role of children in Western culture is contrasted with a more dominant role of children in many nontechnological societies c. 3. Similar v. Dissimilar Sex Roles i. The similarity of sex roles of children and adults in many nontechnological cultures if contrasted with t he dissimilar sex roles of children and adults in Western culture 3. Storm and Stress Revisited a. In showing the continuity of development of children in some cultures, in contrast to the discontinuity of development of childre n in Western culture, anthropologists and some psychologists cast doubt on t he universality of ages and stages of growth of chil dren in all cultures 10 11. LIMITATIONS OF LOW S OCIOECONOMIC STATUS A. Low Socioeconomic Status (low SES): those persons who are of low social class and status and experience cultural deprivation and low incomes B. 11


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