Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide History 202
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Date Created: 06/06/16
History Final Study Guide ID Terms (Who, What, Where, When, and Why) 1.) Japanese American Internment: Who: Japanese Americans What: Japanese Americans (and nonAmericans in the US) were forced into internments camps after Roosevelt issued the Executive Order 9066 (Put Secretary of War and Military commanders in charge of deciding military zones for internees). Roosevelt authorize the military relocation and internment of Japanese people shortly after the bombing of Pearl Harbor. More than 110,000 Japanese men, women, and children were forcibly removed from their homes and relocated. The internees lived in military like conditions, expecting to listen to all people in charge of the camps. The conditions were gruesome, people often lived in old horse stables or shacks that were not yet finished. Some internees had to build their own shelter. Basic freedoms were undermined during wartime. At the end of war, the government apologized for the internment and gave $20,000 in compensation to each family (mostly due to post war anger of injustice on Japanese Americans) Where: The act took place all of the United States, except Hawaii. The JapaneseAmerican population in Hawaii made up most of the population there, and the economy could not function without them. Most Japanese however, lived on the West Coast, so most of these internment camps were located in California or places near. When: Roosevelt authorized this internment on February 19, 1942. (Pearl Harbor was in December 1941) Why: The government took military action to intern Japanese people living in the United States because it was a national security risk. There were fears of Japanese invasion on the West Coast and there was plausible reasons for the military or white people to gain Japanese land if forcibly removed. (the latter is less provable). Forcible relocation occurred due to fear during WWII and racism. Theme: Who is an American? Role of government? Lecture: Video covering FDR and the Japanese Internment (Great Depression and WWII.ppt) ∙ Unprecedented power for a president ∙ No due process rd ∙ Happened during his 3 term as president ∙ Norman Mineta: “First thing we had to do was make our own mattresses” Johnson Zinn Does not “In one of its policies, the United States came close to direct duplication of Fascism. mention This was in its treatment of the JapaneseAmericans living on the West Coast. After Japanese the Pearl Harbor attack, antiJapanese hysteria spread in the Internment. government….Franklin D. Roosevelt did not share this frenzy, but he calmly signed Executive Order 9066, in February 1942, giving the army the power, without warrants or indictments or hearings, to arrest every JapaneseAmerican on the West Coast110,000 men, women, and childrento take them from their homes, transport them to camps far into the interior, and keep them there under prison conditions.” (389 PDF) 2.) Hiroshima Who: Truman decided to drop the first atomic bomb onto Hiroshima Japan killing thousands of Japanese citizens What: With consent from the United Nations, Truman ordered the dropping on an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan. The atomic bomb was known as “Little Boy”. Roughly 90,000150,000 were killed upon impact and much more destruction to the city and country ensued. Truman had intent to end the war with Japan, however after asking for their surrender 16 hours later, Japan made it clear that they were still very much in the war. Where: Hiroshima, Japan When: August 6, 1945 Why: Truman wanted to end the invasion of Japan (and WWII in general). The authorization of the use of the atomic weapons was expected to quickly end the Pacific War and WWII. Theme: Is the US an empire? Lecture: July 26, US prompts Japan for destruction, but Japan will not surrender Johnson Zinn “The Allied campaign to break Japan’s will “Truman had said, "The world will note that the first before an invasion became inevitable was driven atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, a military forward with relentless energy. On August 1, 820 base. That was because we wished in this first B29s unloaded 6,600 tons of explosive on five attack to avoid, insofar as possible, the killing of towns in North Kyushu. Five days later, civilians." It was a preposterous statement. Those America’s one, untested uranium bomb was 100,000 killed in Hiroshima were almost all dropped on Hiroshima” (529 PDF) civilians.” (396 PDF) 3.) Nagasaki Who: Truman and Japan What: After Japan refused to surrender after Hiroshima, Truman authorized the dropping of the second atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Nagasaki. Roughly 39,00090,000 people died upon impact. Shortly after the bombing, Japan surrendered and the Pacific War and WWII ended. Where: Nagasaki, Japan When: August 9, 1945 Why: Truman asked for Japans surrender and told them to “expect a rain of ruin from the air.” After Japan still refused, the authorization for the second bomb was complete. Theme: is the US an empire? Lecture: Same as above (Hiroshima)—not incredibly covered in class. Same quotes and authors opinions apply to Nagasaki. 4.) United Nations Who: Participating countries governments (has 193 members) What: Technically a “successor of the League of Nations”. An intergovernmental organization to promote international cooperation. Was created after WWII to help a war like WWII from occurring again. Helps increasing national interests and communications between countries. Where: At a conference near Washington D.C., the structure for the UN was created When: 1944 Why: To give an equal voice to all members involved to help resolve international affairs. Theme: Role of government? US an Empire? Lecture: Only one slide demonstrating that the UN was created after WWII ended. Johnson Zinn No opinion “The creation of the United Nations during the war was presented to the world as found. international cooperation to prevent future wars. But the U.N. was dominated by the Johnson would Western imperial countriesthe United States, England, and Franceand a new probably be imperial power, with military bases and powerful influence in Eastern Europethe neutral about this Soviet Union.” (388 PDF) idea. 5.) Truman Doctrine Who: President Truman, declared that he will pursue countries falling under or persecuted by communist rule. What: the principle that the US should give support to countries or peoples threatened by Soviet forces or communist insurrection. First expressed in 1947 by US President Truman in a speech to Congress seeking aid for Greece and Turkey, the doctrine was seen by the communists as an open declaration of the Cold War. Happened shortly after Winston Churchill declared an iron curtain over Europe Where: Everywhere When: 1947 Why: Truman was convinced that Stalin could not be trusted and that the US foreign policy should revolve around limiting communist powers. Communism was seen as a threat to democracy. Outward principle of anticommunism Theme: Role of Government? Is the US an Empire? Johnson Zinn “Truman Doctrine: `I believe it must be the policy The United States responded with the Truman of the United States to support free peoples who Doctrine, the name given to a speech Truman are resisting attempted subjugation by armed gave to Congress in the spring of 1947, in which minorities or by outside pressure.’ he indicated that he asked for $400 million in military and it must be provided for as long as was needed, economic aid to Greece and Turkey. Truman said which might be many years. In short, the US was the U.S. must help "free peoples who are now undertaking an open—ended commitment, resisting attempted subjugation by armed both military and economic, to preserve minorities or by outside pressures." (398 PDF) democracy in the world” (534 PDF) 6.) National Security Council Who: Truman began the NSC as a way to advise the president on national security and foreign policy issues What: the function of the Council has been to advise and assist the president on national security and foreign policies. The Council also serves as the president's principal arm for coordinating these policies among various government agencies. Where: The United States When: 1947 Why: Truman made the NSC ultimately as a protection agency to observe domestic communist threats Theme: Role of Government? Is the US an Empire? Johnson Zinn “…created an entirely new body, “In the secret memoranda of the National Security Council (which the National Security Council, to advised the President on foreign policy) there was talk in 1950 of give expert advice directly to the what came to be known as the "domino theory"that, like a row of President on all matters affecting dominoes, if one country fell to Communism, the next one would the defense and security of the do the same and so on. It was important therefore to keep the nation.” first one from falling.” 7.) Fidel Castro Who: A Cuban politician and revolutionary who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008. Politically a Marxist–Leninist and Cuban nationalist, he also served as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba from 1961 until 2011. Under his administration Cuba became a oneparty communist state; industry and business were nationalized, and state socialist reforms implemented throughout society. (COPIED FROM WIKI) What: Became the leader of Cuba and turned it into a communist country. Was a threat to the United States because he was allied with Stalin and agreed to harbor nuclear missiles in Cuba. This was a direct threat to homeland security. Was at the forefront of the Cuban Missile Crisis and the Bay of Pigs Where: Cuba When: Prime Minister and President from 19562008 Why: Castro was such a big deal to the United States because he was in such close range to the United States home ground. Since Truman, before Kennedy declared the Truman Doctrine, and the United States did not want to see the “domino theory” in action, Kennedy remained adamant about shutting down Cuba’s Communistic government. However, any attempts to overthrow Castro all failed miserably and Cuba remains a Communist government to this day. Theme: Is the US an empire? Role of Government? Lecture: (really emphasized this in class) ∙ The Cuban Revolution and Bay of Pigs ∙ American interest in Cuba ∙ Fidel Castro leads a revolution in ’50s ∙ Emerges victorious by ’59 ∙ Hero in many countries including the US ∙ Not as popular with the CIA and Eisenhower ∙ Wants to redistribute land in Cuba ∙ Jan ’60 Cuba expropriates 70k acres of land owned by American Sugar Companies. They wouldn’t sell at any price ∙ US begins undermining revolution ∙ Jan 12 US planes begin bombing sugar refineries disguised as counterrevolutionaries ∙ Loans and arms from European countries are also cut off by US action ∙ CIA trains an army of 1,400 expatriates ∙ Kennedy signs off on the attempt ∙ April 17, 1961 they land at the Bay of Pigs ∙ All killed or captured ∙ Huge embarrassment for the US which is obviously implicated in the action ∙ CIA got its information from Cuban exiles who hated Castro. ∙ Believed the people would rise up and throw him out and welcome the Americans back with open arms ∙ However, Castro a popular hero in Cuba. ∙ After the failure, the CIA tries eight times to assassinate Castro. Fails. Obviously. Johnson hates him Zinn “Fidel Castro, a self—appointed guerrilla leader who That little island 90 miles from Florida had gone had taken to the Sierra with 150 followers. The through a revolution in 1959 by a rebel force led drawback to this policy was that Castro was not a by Fidel Castro, in which the American backed democrat, but a believer in Marxism—Leninism, and dictator, Fulgencio Batista, was overthrown. The in Stalinist `democratic centralism,’ and other revolution was a direct threat to American authoritarian methods” business interests. 8.) McCarthyism Who: The term was originally coined to criticize US Senator William McCarthy’s anticommunist pursuits. Now has a broader meaning: attacks of the patriotism or character of political adversaries. What: The practice of making accusations of subversion or treason without proper regard for evidence. It also means "the practice of making unfair allegations or using unfair investigative techniques, especially in order to restrict dissent or political criticism." Where: The United States, Soviet Union. Places with Democracy and Communism going head to head. When: Had its origins during the period known as the Red Scare which occurred in the 1950’s Why: The term was coined shortly after McCarthy’s downfall (accused over 200 people in the US government of being communism. Is now used as shorthand for character assassination, guilt by association, and abuse of power, all in the name of anticommunism. Theme: Role of Government? Lecture: Not mentioned Johnson Zinn Truman also commissioned a study of `hysteria and The liberals didn't like Senator Joseph witchhunting’ in American history, which concluded McCarthy (who hunted for Communists there was a permanent undercurrent of `hate and everywhere, even among liberals), hut the intolerance’ in America which periodically produced Korean war, as Hamby says, "had given outbreaks such as McCarthyism.” (549 PDF) McCarthyism a new lease on life." (400 PDF) 9.) Brown vs Board of Education Who: Was a Supreme Court case involving racial segregation in schools. What: Established that separate schools for black and white kids was unconstitutional. Overturned Plessy vs Ferguson, but did not establish rules for HOW to end racial segregation. Was a landmark in US history for black americans. Where: United States When: May 17, 1954 Why: "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." Theme: Who is an American? Lecture: Not mentioned. Johnson Zinn “The result was perhaps the most important single “In 1954, the Court finally struck down the Supreme Court decision in American history, Brown v. "separate but equal" doctrine that it had Board of Education of Topeka (1954), in which the defended since the 1890s. The NAACP Court unanimously ruled that segregated schools brought a series of cases before the Court to violated the Fourteenth Amendment guaranteeing challenge segregation in the public schools, equal protection under the law, and thus were and now in Brown v. Board of Education the unconstitutional...Thus the judges were consciously Court said the separation of schoolchildren stepping in to redeem what they saw as a failure of "generates a feeling of inferiority .. . that may the legislature.” (625 PDF) affect their hearts and minds in a way unlikely ever to be undone." (419 PDF) 10.) Guatemala Coup Who: CIA and President Jacobo Arbenz What: Was a covert operation carried out by the United States CIA to overthrow the Guatemalan government. This affair was extremely controversial in United States history because the Guatemalan government was a democracy. This coup went against US policies such as the Truman Doctrine because the coup was entirely for business purposes. The Central Intelligence Agency organized the overthrow of Arbenz and the government of Guatemala – a clear violation of the UN Charter, which barred a member state from taking military action against another except in selfdefense. The CIA deposed the democratically elected Guatemalan President Jacobo Arbenz, and ended the Guatemalan Revolution. It installed the military dictatorship of Carlos Castillo Armas, the first in a series of USbacked dictators who ruled Guatemala. Where: Guatemala When: 1954 Why: Jacobo was determined to reduce foreign corporation’s control over Guatemala. He embarked on a sweeping landreform policy that threatened the domination of Guatemala’s economy by the Americanowned United Fruit Company. As a result, Dwight D. Eisenhower authorized the CIA to carry out an operation to invade Guatemala in June of 1954. This invasion intimidated the Guatemalan army, which refused to fight, and resulted in the resignation of Arbenz. Carlos Castillo Annas was put into power who gave land back to United Fruit, the American owned company. Theme: Is the US an empire? Lecture: Not mentioned Johnson Zinn “Eisenhower…thought there were too many military In Guatemala, in 1954, a legally elected men in and around the CIA, and…He was the only government was overthrown by an invasion President who knew exactly how to handle the CIA. He force of mercenaries trained by the CLA at presided skillfully over its operation…in Guatemala, for military bases in Honduras and Nicaragua the overthrow of an unpopular leftist regime…” J 546 and supported by four American fighter planes flown by American pilots...” 11.) The Great Society Who:Lyndon Johnson and the US What: After his landslide victory of 1964, Johnson outlined the most sweeping proposal for governmental action to promote the general welfare since the New Deal. Johnson’s initiatives provided health services to the poor and elderly in the new Medicaid and Medicare programs and poured federal funds into education and urban development. New agencies, such as the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, the National Endowments for the Humanities and for the Arts, and a national public broadcasting network, were created. These measures greatly expanded powers of the federal government, and they completed and extended the social agenda (with the exception of national health insurance) that had been stalled in Congress since 1938 Where: The United States When: 19651967 Why: A response to prosperity, not depression. The mid1960s were a time of rapid economic expansion, fueled by increased government spending and a tax cut on individuals and businesses initially proposed by Kennedy and enacted in 1964. Johnson and Democratic liberals believed that economic growth made it possible to fund ambitious new government programs and to improve the quality of life. The centerpiece of the Great Society was the crusade to eradicate poverty, launched by Johnson early in 1964. One of the Great Society’s most popular and successful components, food stamps, offered direct aid to the poor. Theme: Role of government? Lecture: The Great Society •Host of programs aimed to end, or reduce poverty •Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) •Job Corp •VISTA •Community Action Program (CAP) •Little done to fundamentally alter the nation’s social structure •Medicare—government run health insurance for people 65 and over (or who meet special criteria). •“singlepayer health care system” •Part of Social Security Act of 1965 that amended the New Deal version. Johnson Zinn “Thus mandated, as he saw it, LBJ began his legislative and spending spree, calling on Not Congress to enact his Great Society program…Critics of these projects coined the phrase mentioned `throwing money at problems,’ and certainly quantities of money were thrown in the second half of the decade by the federal government. And as the cost increased, so did the volume of critical voices, which complained that the prodigious expenditure was not producing results” J 574575 12.) Malcolm X Who: A fiery orator who became a spokesman for the Nation of Islam, or Black Muslims, and a sharp critic of the ideas of integration and nonviolence. What: Insisted that blacks must control the political and economic resources of their communities and rely on their own efforts rather than working with whites. Where: The United States. Washington, D.C When: Assassinated on February 21, 1965. Lived from 1925 to 1965. Took part in the Civil Rights Movement Why: Left a call for blacks to rely on their own resources. He did not trust whites and fought for black people and Black Power Theme: Who is an American? Lecture: Not mentioned. Johnson Zinn “Such activities almost inevitably involved the use or “Also, a pride in race, an insistence on threat of force, or provoked it, and, as the Sixties wore black independence, and often, on black on, urban violence between blacks and whites grew, and separation to achieve this independence. King himself came under competitive threat from other Malcolm X was the most eloquent black leaders, such as the black racist Malcolm X” J 585 spokesman for this.” Z 430 13.) The New Jim Crow More of a theme than a term. Lecture: In Class Assignment Johnson Zinn It is clear that what Johnson suggests as the root ofZinn’s views as the basis of continued inequality in continued inequality and perhaps the idea of a New JiAmerica include how “The victories of the civil Crow has led to a reverse outcome – racism against whites and not blacks. Moreover, Johnson explained rights movement had opened up spaces for some AfricanAmericans, but left others far behind” Z how “…the result of judicial aggression was to make 544. Zinn goes into detail explaining how many America not more, but less, governable. Instituting race quotas merely stimulated more forms of direct action, AfricanAmerican families fell below the poverty including more rioting” J 627. As a result, Johnson line, and how black unemployment was at a much suggested that by introducing inequality before the law only weakened the legal process itself and create greater level than whites. He mentioned how this poverty lead to broken homes and family violence, “reverse discrimination.” For example, Johnson as well as street crimes and the use of drugs. Zinn explained that when whites were murdered by blacks, believed that the crime rate, exceptionally high for they had to resort to civil process in cases where verdicts determined racially deprived them of justice, black men, was used as an excuse for the but when whites (especially policemen) killed blacks, construction of more prisons rather than an excuse and were found not guilty, huge riots would occur. As a for elimination of poverty. In Summary, Zinn’s view result, these instances led to more racial inequality, as the basis of continued inequality was that according to Johnson. As mentioned above, Johnson people who loved free enterprise and laissezfaire might respond to the idea of a New Jim Crow as a blamed poverty and inequality of black people as a system that has created reverse discrimination against result of their unwillingness to work hard and stay whites instead of blacks. When discussing crime and the different races of prisoners in jail, Johnson talked out of trouble. about how “the antiracial lobby tended to treat the police as the ‘enemy’ and bring political factors to bear against efficient crime—prevention” J 634. It is clear that Johnson would argue that police are just doing their job and, despite the belief by many African Americans today that racism still exists, instead Johnson would say that police are not the enemy and that the reason so many black people are in prison is because of their wrongful acts of committing illegal crimes 14.) Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Who:The United States, Vietnam, and Lyndon B. Johnson What: North Vietnamese vessels encountered an American ship on a spy mission off its coast. When North Vietnamese patrol boats fired on the American vessel, Johnson proclaimed that the United States was a victim of aggression. In response, Congressed passed the Gulf of Tonkin resolution, authorizing the president to take all necessary measures to repel armed attack in Vietnam. Immediately after Johnson’s 1964 election, the National Security Council recommended that the United States begin air strikes against North Vietnam and introduce American ground troops in the south. Johnson put the plan into effect. Where: Off the coast of North Vietnam When:August 1964 Why: Over forty years later ,in December 2005, the National Security Agency finally released hundreds of pages of secret documentation making it clear that no North Vietnamese attack had ever actually attacked. It is believed that the United States made up this incident so as for an excuse to give reason for the US to attack North Vietnam. Theme: Is the US an Empire? Lecture: Authorized president to “take all necessary means” to defend US armed forces and protect Southeast Asia against “aggression of subversion.” Written six weeks before the incident The incident was intended to “drag” the country into war Johnson Zinn “Johnson continued the war in desultory fashion until “In early August 1964, President Johnson used August 2, 1964, when North Vietnam attacked the a murky set of events in the Gulf of Tonkin, off American destroyer Maddox, which was conducting the coast of North Vietnam, to launch fullscale electronic espionage in the Gulf of Tonkin. Hitherto war on Vietnam. Johnson and Secretary of Johnson had been reluctant to escalate. But he now Defense Robert McNamara told the American summoned Congressional leaders and, without public there was an attack by North disclosing the nature of the Maddox mission, accused Vietnamese torpedo boats on American North Vietnam of `open aggression on the high seas.’ destroyers” He then submitted to the Senate a resolution authorizing him to take `all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression.’ Senator William Fulbright of Arkansas, chairman of the Senate Foreign Affairs Committee, who steered the ‘Tonkin Resolution’ through Congress, said it effectively gave Johnson the right to go to war without further authorization” 15.) The Feminine Mystique Who: Betty Friedan What:During the 1950s, some commentators had worried that the country was wasting its “woman power,” a potential weapon in the Cold War. The public reawakening of feminist consciousness did not get its start until the publication in 1963 of The Feminine Mystique. Friedan had written as her themes the emptiness of consumer culture and the discontents of the middle class. Her book painted a devastating picture of talented, educated women trapped in a world that viewed marriage and the motherhood as their primary goals. Where: The United States When: 1950s Why: The book addressed feminist concerns regarding women living in the US, and as a result, the law slowly began to address feminist concerns. This book resulted in greater feminist movements with a demand for equal opportunity in jobs, education, and political participation. Theme: Who is an American? Lecture: Not mentioned Johnson Zinn “Betty Friedan (b. 1921) in The Feminine Mystique (1974) “Around the same time, white, called femininity `a comfortable concentration camp,’ though middleclass, professional women she also argued, in The Second Stage (1981), that Women’s were beginning to speak up. A Liberation and `the sex war against men’ were `irrelevant’ and pioneering, early book, strong and ‘self—defeating.’…But, in the meantime, ordinary women were influential, was Betty Friedan's The advancing, economically, financially, professionally, and in self Feminine Mystique.” Z 471 confidence, without much help from the feminist movement, which had particularly opposed women’s participation in entrepreneurial capitalism.” J 638 16.) My Lai Who: American troops and South Vietnamese civilians What: A company of American troops had killed some 350 South Vietnamese civilians. After a military investigation, one soldier, Lieutenant William Calley, was found guilty of directing the atrocity. Where: Vietnam When: March 1968 Why:During the Vietnam War, US troops believed the province of Quang Ngai to be a stronghold for forces of the National Front for the Liberation of Vietnam, or Viet Cong. Moreover, a platoon of soldiers called Charlie Company received word that Viet Cong guerrillas had taken over in the Quang Ngai village of Son My Led by Lieutenant William L. Calley, the platoon entered one of the village’s four hamlets, My Lai, on a searchanddestroy mission. Instead of guerrilla fighters, they found unarmed villagers, most of them women, children, and old men. The soldiers had been advised before the attack by army command that all who were found in My Lai could be considered VC or VC sympathizers, and they were told to destroy the village. Still, they acted with extraordinary brutality, raping and torturing villagers before killing them and dragging dozens of people, including young children and babies, into a ditch and executing them with automatic weapons. Them: Is the US an empire? Lecture: Not mentioned Johnson Zinn “Once the TV presentation of the war “The massacre at My Lai by a company of ordinary soldiers became daily and intense, it worked on was a small event compared with the plans of highlevel the whole against American interests.” military and civilian leaders to visit massive destruction on the J 583 civilian population of Vietnam…” Z 448 17.) Tet Offensive Who: Viet Cong and North Vietnamese troops What:Viet Cong and North Vietnamese troops launched wellorganized uprisings in cities throughout South Vietnam, completely surprising American military leaders. The intensity of the fighting, brought into America’s homes on televisions, shattered public confidence in the Johnson administration, which had repeatedly proclaimed victory to be just around the corner Where: South Vietnam When: January 1968 Why: The Viet Cong and North Vietnamese troops wanted to catch the American military off guard during the Vietnam War. Theme: Is the US empire? Lecture: The Tet Offensive •Jan 30, 1968 VC launch a massive offensive •Conduct operations in most cities •Insures massive publicity •Military defeat for Viet Cong •But becomes a diplomatic victory •Johnson decides not to run again •Congress turns down request for more troops Johnson Zinn “Media misrepresentation came to a decisive head “The unpopularity of the Saigon government in the handling of the Vietcong ‘Tet Offensive’ on explains the success of the National Liberation January 30, 1968…Media coverage concentrated Front in infiltrating Saigon and other on the fact that the Vietcong enjoyed initial governmentheld towns in early 1968, without successes [due to the Tet Offensive]… In military the people there warning the government. The terms, the Tet Offensive was the worst reverse the NLF thus launched a surprise offensive (it was Vietcong suffered throughout the war: they lost over the time of "Tet," their New Year holiday) that 40,000 of their best troops and a great number of carried them into the heart of Saigon, heavy weapons. But the media, especially TV, immobilized Tan San Nhut airfield, even presented it as a decisive American defeat, a occupied the American Embassy briefly. The Vietcong victory…” J 581 offensive was beaten back, but it demonstrated that all the enormous firepower delivered on Vietnam by the United States had not destroyed the NLF, its morale, its popular support, its will to fight. It caused a reassessment in the American government, more doubts among the American people.” Z 448 18.) Watergate Who:The Nixon Administration What:Nixon was obsessed with secrecy. He viewed every critic as a threat to national security and developed an enemies list that included reporters, politicians, and celebrities unfriendly to the administration. In June 1972, five former employees of Nixon’s reelection committee took part in a break in at Democratic Party headquarters in the Watergate apartment complex in Washington, D.C. a security guard called police, who arrested the intruders. Where:Watergate apartment complex in Washington, D.C When: June 1972 Why: No one knows precisely what the Watergate burglars were looking for. However, Congressional hearings revealed that a wider pattern of wiretapping, breakins, and attempts to sabotage political opposition all occurred, and it became clear that President Nixon was behind all of this. Theme: ??? Lecture: Age of Dirty Tricks Nixon gathers a team of “insiders” to help his reelection in ’72. The Plumbers •Fix leaks •Withhold information from the public •Discredit critics through wiretaps, etc. •Solicit illegal contributions which they launder through Mexican banks •Former CIA agent E. Howard Hunt and exFBI agent G. Gordon Liddy run this outfit •Go after Daniel Ellsberg for example Other Plumber successes included •Accusing George McGovern of supporting “abortion, acid, and amnesty” •Discredit his running mate by revealing that he had undergone shock treatment •CREEP collects enormous sums for reelection •Also decides to wiretap the Democratic National Convention: Watergate •Meanwhile a Senate investigation is proceeding •Nixon aide John Dean begins to testify about a coverup. His word against the president though •Alexander Butterfield mentions taping system •Supreme Court calls for tapes in June ’74 •In on cover up •Missing 18 minutes •Nixon resigns rather than be impeached in August Johnson Zinn “The merit of this understanding, which made it “Watergate had made both the FBI and the possible for America to leave Vietnam, was that it CIA look badbreaking the laws they were reserved Nixon’s right to maintain carriers in sworn to uphold, cooperating with Nixon in Vietnamese waters and to use aircraft stationed in his burglary jobs and illegal wiretapping. In Taiwan and Thailand if the accords were broken by 1975, congressional committees in the Hanoi. So long as Nixon held power, that sanction was House and Senate began investigations of a real one. Granted the situation he had inherited, and the FBI and CIA.” Z 518 the mistakes of his predecessors, Nixon had performed a notable feat of extrication. But America, and more tragically the peoples of Indochina, were denied the fruits of this successful diplomacy because, by this point, the Nixon administration was already engulfed in the crisis known as Watergate. This was the culmination of a series of assaults on authority which had its roots in the Sixties culture.” J 584585 19.) Affirmative Action Who:Martin Luther King, Jr. Those who tend to suffer from discrimination What:An action or policy favoring those who tend to suffer from discrimination, especially in relation to employment or education; positive discrimination Where: America When: 1961 Why: His proposal was directed against poverty in general, but King also insisted that after doing something against the Negro for hundreds of years, the United States had an obligation to do something special for the Negro now. This was an early call for what would come to be known as affirmative action Johnson Zinn “This was the real beginning of Affirmative Action “In the seventies, with liberal justices William and it is worth remembering that it was based on Brennan and Thurgood Marshall in the lead, the illegality, as indeed was most of the racialism it Court had declared death penalties was designed to correct. However, this defiance unconstitutional, had supported (in Roe v. Wade) of the law was, as it were, legitimized on March the right of women to choose abortions, and had 8, 1971 when the Supreme Court, in Griggs v. interpreted the civil rights law as permitting special Duke Power Company, interpreted the 1964 Act attention to blacks and women to make up for past in such a way as to make lawful discrimination in discrimination (affirmative action).” Z 537 favor of what it termed `protected minorities.’ The ruling gave such minorities an automatic presumption of discrimination, and so gave them standing to sue in court without having to prove they had suffered from any discriminatory acts.” 20.) Reagonomics Who: Ronald Reagan, the 40 President of the US. Affected the American people What:Reagan persuaded Congress to reduce the top tax rate from 70 percent to 50 percent and to index tax brackets to take inflation into account. Five years later, the Tax Reform Act reduced the rate on the wealthiest Americans to 28 percent. These measures marked a sharp retreat from the principle of progressivity (the idea that the wealthy should pay a higher percentage of their income in taxes than other citizens), one of the ways twentiethcentury societies tried to address the unequal distribution of wealth. Reagan also appointed conservative heads of regulatory agencies, who cut back on environmental protection and workplace safety rules, about which business had complained for years. Where: United States When:1981 Why:Since the New Deal, liberals had tried to promote economic growth by using the power of the government to bolster ordinary American’s purchasing power. Reagan’s economic program, known as supplyside economics by proponents and trickledown economics by critics, relied on high interest rates to curb inflation and lower tax rates, especially for businesses and highincome Americans, to stimulate private investment. The policy assumed that cutting taxes would inspire Americans at all income levels to work harder, because they would keep more of the money they earned. Johnson Zinn “The consequences were disastrous. Reagan “Reagan's victory, followed eight years later by the turned down Stockman’s cutting scheme partly out election of George Bush, meant that another part of old—fashioned New Deal emotionalism but of the Establishment, lacking even the faint mainly because he could not understand it. It was liberalism of the Carter presidency, would be in the one big instance in which his inherent charge. The policies would be more crasscutting weaknesses really mattered. As a result benefits to poor people, lowering taxes for the ‘Reaganomics’ showed a yawning gap between wealthy, increasing the military budget, filling the theory and practice. It was supposed to produce a federal court system with conservative judges, $28 billion budget surplus by 1986. In fact it actively working to destroy revolutionary produced an accumulated $1,193 billion deficit movements in the Caribbean.” Z 536537 over the five—year period. Under Reagan the deficit, which essentially dated back to the year 1968 and had got out of hand during the collapse of executive authority in 1975, began to hit the big numbers with a vengeance.” 21.) Iran Contra Affair Who:Ronald Reagan, the United States, the Contras, the Sandinista government of Nicaragua, and American hostages. What:American involvement in Central America produced the greatest scandal of Reagan’s presidency. IN 1984, Congress banned military aid to the Contras fighting the Sandinista government of Nicaragua, which had ousted the Americanbacked dictator Anastasio Somoza in 1979. In 1985, Reagan secretly authorized the sale of arms to Iran – now involved in a war with its neighbor, Iraq – in order to secure the release of a number of American hostages held by Islamic groups in the Middle East. CIA director William Casey and Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North of the National Security Coucil set up a system that diverted some of the proceeds to buy military supplies for the Contras in defiance of the congressional ban. The scheme continued for nearly two years. Where: Iran, the United States, and Nicaragua When:19851987 Why: In 1985, Reagan secretly authorized the sale of arms to Iran – now involved in a war with its neighbor, Iraq – in order to secure the release of a number of American hostages held by Islamic groups in the Middle East Johnson Zinn An attempt was made not only to indict North and “It became clear that President Reagan and Vice Poindexter and crank up a Congressional President Bush were involved in what became witchhunt on the scale of Watergate but even to known as the Irancontra affair. But their involve President Reagan himself. However, after underlings scrupulously kept them out of it, a series of televised hearings from November illustrating the familiar government device of 1986, which failed to inflame the public, a Senate "plausible denial," in which the top official, —House committee, dominated by Democrats, shielded by subordinates, can plausibly deny was obliged to report there was no direct evidence involvement. Although Congressman Henry involving Reagan. In 1989 both Poindexter (April Gonzalez of Texas introduced a resolution for the 7) and North (May 4) were found guilty of impeachment of Reagan, it was quickly misleading Congress, but an appeals court (July suppressed in Congress.” Z 550 20, 1990) overturned both convictions and other charges against them were dropped. The witchhunt served only to reveal a waning popular backing for proceedings against officials who had merely acted in what they thought American interests, even if they had technically broken the law.” J 614 22.) North American Free Trade Agreement Who: Bill Clinton, Canada, Mexico, and the US What:Despite strong opposition from unions and environmentalists, Clinton obtained congressional approval of the North American Free Trade Agreement, a treaty negotiated by Bush that created a freetrade zone consisting of Canada, Mexico, and the US Where: Canada, Mexico, and the US When:19931994 Why:Clinton had a passion for free trade. Moreover, this trade agreement was created to lay the foundations for strong economic growth and rising prosperity for Canada, the United States, and Mexico Johnson Zinn Not “Foreign economic policy was presumably based on "free trade" agreements, most mentioned notably those signed with Canada and Mexico. Democrats and Republicans, enthusiastically supported by corporate interests, joined to pass the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which Clinton signed. Labor unions opposed it, because it meant businesses would be free to move across borders to find workers who would work at lower wages, under poor conditions”
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