Psych 305 Final Exam Study Guide
Psych 305 Final Exam Study Guide Psych 305
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Abby Kienle on Monday June 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 305 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Aaron Estrada in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 112 views. For similar materials see Personality in Psychlogy at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 06/06/16
Psych Study Guide- Final Exam Terms to know Behaviorism Social cognitive theory Rational emotive therapy Aversion therapy Systematic Desensitization Law of effect Irrational belief Emotional consequence Activating experience External locus Internal locus Locus of control Androgyny Masculinity Femininity Congruence model Actual self Ideal self Ought self Negative cognitive style Depressive schema Schema Self-schema Personal constructs Possible selves Unmitigated communion Learned helplessness Self-regulation Self-efficacy Reciprocal determinism Operant conditioning Observational learning Classical conditioning Unconditioned stimulus Conditioned stimulus Unconditioned response Conditioned response Behavior modification Deficiency needs Optimal experience Performance Mastery Know the basics of every theory: Psychoanalytic, Trait, Humanistic, Behaviorism, Social Cognitive, and Biological Know prominent figures from these paradigms (Freud, Adler, Rogers, Murray, Maslow, Jung, Watson Allport, etc) Know all of Chapters 13 & 15 (Behavioral and Cognitive Approaches) (attached are notes from those chapters) Chapter 14: most important concepts to know What is Observational Learning? Why is it important? Where does aggression come from? How can we modify aggressive aversive behavior? Know about the locus of control concept. What is it? What is the difference between an external and internal locus of control? Why is it important to know what type of control orientation you have? Chapter 16: Are there differences in memory retention based on gender? What were the findings of the studies we talked about in class? Know about self-construal. What is it and why is it important? What do we know about depression? Why is depression different from just being sad a lot? How can we treat depression with therapy? BEHAVIORISM AND SOCIAL LEARNING –CH14 Behaviorism: a cause and effect account of why people engage in consistent behavior patterns Consistent behavior patterns = personality Observable and measurable Social Learning Theory Includes non-observable concepts (thoughts, values, expectations) Behaviorism Classical Conditioning Pavlov dog experiment Food and salivation Introduced unconditioned / conditioned stimulus / responses Watson and Classical Conditioning in Humans Personality: the end product of our habit systems We are conditioned over the course of our lives to respond to certain stimuli in predictable ways Explains the consistency in personality characteristic Little albert: abnormal personality in humans Classical Conditioning Begins with an existing stimulus-response bond Operant Conditioning Conditioning begins with behaviors the person produces or performs spontaneously Rewards and punishments Edward Thorne The Law of Effect Behaviors are more likely to be repeated if they lead to satisfying consequences Less likely to be repeated if they lead to unsatisfying consequences Skinner and Radical Behaviorism Claimed classical conditioning could not explain all behavior Did not deny the existence of inner causes of behavior Still challenged the extent we can observe them Operant conditioning is better able to explain behavior Especially in humans Operant Conditioning Basis of operant conditioning is a behavior emitted by the organism, sometimes at random Consequences of that behavior determine whether it will be repeated in the future under similar circumstances Reinforcement-increases the frequency of behavior Punishment - decreases the likelihood of the behavior Techniques Positive reinforcement = increasing a behavior by administering a reward Negative reinforcement - increasing a behavior by removing an aversive stimulus when a behavior occurs Punishment = decreasing a behavior by administering an aversive stimulus following a behavior OR by removing a positive stimulus Extinction = decreasing a behavior by not rewarding it Effect of Punishment and Limits Punishment does not teach the desired behavior Punishment must be delivered immediately and consistently Negative feelings that accompany the punishment as the punisher At most, punishment can temporarily suppress behavior Operant Conditioning Contd Generalization -how personality characteristics are consistent (generalize) across different situations Example: polite child Shaping What to do when a desired behavior is not emitted by the subject We use shaping, or the method of successive approximations We reward small increments toward the final (desirable) behavior Successive approximations Useful for teaching complex behaviors Social Learning Theory Considers conditioning internal events Thoughts and attitudes Behaviors- environment - behavior interactions Rotter's social learning theory Human behavior is more complex than conditioning with "lower animals" Introduced several "unobservable" concepts In any situation we have different options for behavior Behavior potential Two variables for which behavior expectancy Reinforcement value Rotter's Locus of Control In novel situations we have no data / experience to draw on Generalized expectancies Internal - the generalized expectancy is that People can affect what happens to them Good and bad experiences are generally of our own making External - the generalized expectancy is that: What happened to you and others is outside of you These generalized expectancies have implications for psychological and physical well being LOC and Psychological Disorders People suffering from psychological D/Os tend to be more EXTERNAL LOC and Depression (DEP) Study exploring the relationship between LOC and DEP in patients recently diagnosed (dx) with cancer External LOC patients - More severely DEP they became Internal LOC patients - Severity of dx HAD NO IMPACT on DEP of patients These patients believed they could control / impact the disease This belief shielded them form giving up and becoming depressed Social Cognitive Theory Albert Bandura Central in shifting from traditional behaviorism to an increasingly cognitive approach Humans are not simply passive recipients of environmental stimuli There are not internal and external determination Reciprocal determinism Reciprocal Determinism External factors (environment, rewards, punishments) AND Internal Factors (beliefs, thoughts, expectations) AND Behavior are parts of system of interacting influences Not only can environment influence behavior, but behavior can influence the environment Potential environment The potential for what type of behavior could happen Actual environment You create this with your behavior Self-Regulation Most behavior is performed in the absence of external reinforcement and punishment Most of our daily actions are controlled by self-regulation We often work toward self- imposed goals with inner rewards The rewards come from feelings of accomplishments and self- worth, and competence Self-efficacy Observational Learning (Bandura) Learning is not limited to classical or operant conditioning People can also learn by: Observing other people Reading Hearing about other people's actions Vicarious (observational) learning Can pick up a lot from observing other people's actions Aggression (4 step model) Attend, remember, enact, expect (rewards) Expectation of rewards or punishment is where the difference lies Learning vs. Performance An important distinction between learning and performance Behavior learned through observational methods not being performed Performance is dependent on the expectation of consequences Rewards or punishment Self-efficacy in Psychotherapy People do not alter behavior until they make a decision to expand the necessary effort Outcome expectation - extent to which people believe actions will lead to a certain outcome Efficacy expectation = extent people believe they can bring about the outcome Conditioning Principles in Psychotherapy Must identify specific behavior of focus Classical conditioning Traditionally use physical stimuli (can use imagery) Systematic desensitization (oft for phobias) Aversion therapy Operant conditioning Contingencies of rewards and punishments Token economy Biofeedback - equipment used to provide information about somatic processes Cognitive Approach The ways we process information are stable over time and situations Differences in personality are based on differences in which we each process information Filters are usually stable Foundations George Kelly Man-the-Scientist People generate and test hypothesis about the world Why?: people aim to predict and control experience.. Template matching - expectations for events If template matches experience = keep it It makes good predictions If NOT = adjust new info for better predictions next time Personal constructs Structures we use to predict and interpret experiences Bipolar - we arrange information we encounter in an "either-or-manner" Based on polar opposites Friendly vs unfriendly Tall vs short Consistent use of constructs = consistent way of understanding Initial polar opposites are evaluated further (the gray area) e.g. intelligent or unintelligent Academically intelligent - common sense intelligent Personal constructs are relevant to specific events or situations Wouldn’t use onstruct of intelligent-unintelligent to describe a table Would use the construct(s) stable-unstable, tall-short Psychological Problems Anxiety at the heart of most problems Anxiety results when our constructs don’t make sense of our experiences Or using old constructs to interpret current events The event is not the cause of your problem, as it is not still happening to you It influences your construct but the anxiety is less about the experience and more about how we are living currently Schemas Def: cognitive structures that help us perceive, organize, process, and use information Mental short cuts As many as there are categories that you believe exist Different for each individual Well-formed schemas allow for rapid processing Stereotyping based on brief, observable data Self-schemas - who /what you think you are Help us organize and process information about ourselves Behaviors and attributes most important to you at the core off self-schema Name, important relationships, physical features New info is processed "like me" OR "not like me" Integrated of rejected Based on how we see ourselves currently (and over time) Possible Selves Cognitive representation of who we might become someday (not self-schema) include selves we want to become AND resolve fear we might fall into Serve TWO functions 1. Provide incentives for future behavior 2. Helps us interpret the meaning of our own behavior and life events a. Does the experience get you closer or further away from your possible self? i. We pay more attention to information that is relevant to our possible selves Self-Discrepancies Actual Self Contains all the info about the kind of person you are Ideal Self Your mental image of the person you want to be Internal; your dreams, aspirtaions, goals Discrepancies between AS and IS result in disappointment, dejection, and sadness Ought Self The self you believe that you should be Oriented to fulfilling obligations set by outside sources Parents, peers, authority figures Externally driven Gender, Memory, and Self Construal Research suggests that men and women do not differ in the general ability to memorize and recall info BUT there are often differences in what they remember Two main differences in how men/women process info: Women= emotional and personal relationships Men: more factual information, non emotive info This related to gender socialization Men told to be less emotional and more independent Women taught to be emotional and attentive Self-construal is different Independent for men, interdependent for women Negative Schema Cognitive structure containing memories about depressing events and thoughts Referred to a depressive schema People processing information through the schema Attend to negative info Interpret ambiguous info in a negative light Characteristics of a negative schema Attribute problems to stable and global causes Anticipate the worst outcomes Attribute problems to their own shortcomings Cognitive perspective: depressive thoughts CAUSE and maintain depressive states Depression Depressive thoughts, feelings, emotional and behaviors feed into one another Process: negative thoughts decline as a depressive episode dwindles Problem: negative schema structures stay in tact Long-run: individual is vulnerable to future depression Relapse rate After one episode = 50 percent After 2 = 70 percent After 3 = 90 percent Application: psychotherapy CT,CBT,RET,REBT Identify inappropriate thoughts as a cause for mood disorders and self-defeating behaviors Central concern with self-defeating thinking Focus on current issues Rational Emotive Therapy Emphasis on irrational beliefs Emotional / mood problems are due to reliance on irrational beliefs Model A= activating experience B= irrational belief C= emotional consequence Goals: 1. Clients must see that they rely on irrational beliefs 2. Therapist helps clients replace irrational beliefs with rational ones
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