New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

POSC 100

by: Sangil kim
Sangil kim
Cal State Fullerton

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

American Government
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in American Government

Popular in Department

This 25 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sangil kim on Tuesday June 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Posc 100 at California State University - Fullerton taught by DONALD MATTEWSON in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 99 views.


Reviews for POSC 100


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 06/07/16
Political Science 100 Midterm 1 Study Guide The Exam will be on Thursday, March 17. Please bring a large blue book. You will not be allowed to take the exam if you do not have a blue book. Write in blue of black pen. The midterm is worth 25 points (there are 100 possible in the course). The midterm has three different parts and each part is weighted differently. Multiple Choice—20 questions, 20 percent of the 25 possible points Short Answer—3 questions, 30 percent of the of the 25 possible points Identifications—4 terms, 50 percent of the 25 possible points *A breakdown of a hypothetical grade is at the end of this document. Multiple choice questions are derived from the textbook. Most of the content will focus on chapters 2-5. With the exception of one or two questions, these questions are not going to test just the knowledge of terms; the questions are going to test your understanding of concepts. Some of the concepts are covered in both the book and the lecture. They are generally moderate in difficulty. If you did not read, you will not do well in this section. I am posting the PowerPoints for chapters 1-5 on Titanium; these PowerPoints were created by the publisher of the book. They are intended to present the material in the chapters in a slightly abbreviated and different form. The short answer questions are also generally designed to test your understanding of concepts. There are 10 possible short answers in this study guide, three of these, or some variation of them, will be on the exam. These answers should be a paragraph or two in length. While not all of these will be on the exam, being able to answer all 10 may be beneficial for the other sections of the exam. The identifications will be the type of problems on the first quiz. These will be broad terms and concepts that can be developed into a two or three paragraph answer. The terms will be taken primarily from Vocabulary 3. You will be responsible to cover material from both the book and the lecture when discussing these terms. Think of these as a sort of “brain dump.” Possible Short Answer Questions: 1) What two large sectors of colonial society were harmed by British policies? What were some of these policies? What theory can be used to explain the behavior of these two groups? 2) Who was John Locke? What are the importance of his ideas in American society? 3) What do you see as the advantages and disadvantages of federalism? 4) What is meant by substantive and procedural rights? Which one is more characteristic of the Bill of Rights? Does this create problems? 5) What is the history behind the 14 Amendment? Why is it so important? 6) What power did the Supreme Court use in Brown v. Board (1954)? What does this case show about the limits of judicial power? 7) What is the difference between civil rights, civil liberties, and “social rights?” Given one example of each. 8) What is libel and slander? Under what circumstances are they protected speech? 9) What is the importance of the following Court Cases: Gideon v. Wainwright, Escobedo v. Illinois, and Mapp v. Ohio? 10) What is the logic/philosophy behind affirmative action? How has the Supreme Court viewed affirmative action policies? Give at least one specific example. Hypothetical Score Example Weight of Raw Raw Raw each Weighted Category Correct Possible Percent category Points Multiple Choice 15 20 75% 5 3.75 Short Answer 8 9 89% 7.5 6.67 Identificati ons 8 12 67% 12.5 8.33 Points Final Possible 25 18.75 Score 75% Percent Each Short Answer and Identifications will be out of 3 points. If this changes it will not change the weighting. Vocabulary Through February 4 State of nature: The state of nature is a situation without government, employed in social  contract theory in order to justify political authority. No governments, laws, police. Natural rights: man's natural rights are life, liberty, and property. Collective action: “The pooling of resources and the coordination of effort and activity by a  group of people to achieve common goal.” It refers to action taken together by a group of people whose goal is to enhance their status and  achieve a common objective. It is enacted by a representative of the group. (pg 13­18) Social contract:  the social contract or political contract is a theory or model, originating  during the Age of Enlightenment, that typically addresses the questions of the origin of society  and the legitimacy of the authority of the state over the individual. Free riders: Enjoying the benefits of some good or action while letting others bear the costs. A person who chooses to receive the benefits of a "public good" or a "positive externality"  without contributing to paying the costs of producing those benefits. (pg 18, part of collective  action) Selective incentives: private goods made available to people on the basis of whether they  contribute to a collective good. Selective incentives can either reward participants (or  contributors) or punish nonparticipants. Solidarity incentives: Solidary Incentives are those incentives associated with social benefits  derived from joining a group. Examples of solidary incentives might include a person who joins  the Sierra Club because they enjoy Saturday morning hikes with club members, or club­ sponsored camping trips. For those active in politics, solidary incentives might include enjoying  being recognized by important people, getting invitations to social events and meeting politically active people. Prisoner’s dilemma:  a situation in which two players each have two options whose outcome  depends crucially on the simultaneous choice made by the other, often formulated in terms of  two prisoners separately deciding whether to confess to a crime. (pg 510) Public good: (=a mosquito­free meadow)A good that, first, may be enjoyed by anyone if it is  provided and, second, may not be denied to anyone once it has been provided. It is one that can  be consumed by individuals without using it up, and for which there are no means at hand to  exclude individuals easily. A classic example is lighthouse, national defense, clean air. It is easy  for some members of a group to free ride on the efforts shouldered by others. (pg 18, part of  collective action) Path dependency: Some possibilities are more or less likely because of events that occurred and choices that were made earlier in history. (pg 22) An idea that tries to explain the continued use of a product or practice based on historical  preference or use. This holds true even if newer, more efficient products or practices are  available due to the previous commitment made. Principal­agent: The relationship b/w a principal and his/her agent. This relationship may be  affected by the fact that each is motivated by self­interest, yet their interests may not be well  aligned.  (pg 12) Elected officials are agents for citizen­principals. Leaders are agents for their  followers. Government bureaus called agencies after all serve as agents for elected principals in  the executive and legislative branches.  Economic liberalism: the ideological belief in organizing theeconomy on individualist and  voluntarist lines, meaning that the greatest possible number of economic decisions are made by  individuals and not by collective institutions or organizations. Populism: a doctrine that appeals to the interests and conceptions (such as hopes and fears) of  the general population, especially when contrasting any new collective consciousness push  against the prevailing status quo interests of any predominant political sector. Republicanism: one possible ideology of governing a society or state as a republic. The key  point is that the people hold popular sovereignty, rather than the people being subjects of a  monarch. Many countries are republics, but this article covers only those that adhere to the  ideology of republicanism. Popular sovereignty: the principle that the authority of a state and its government is created and  sustained by the consent of its people, through their elected representatives (Rule by the People),  who are the source of all political power. American Dream: the set of ideals (Democracy, Rights, Liberty, Opportunity, and Equality) in  which freedom includes the opportunity for prosperity and success, and an upward social  mobility for the family and children, achieved through hard work in a society with few barriers Laissez­faire: an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from  government interference such as regulations, privileges, tariffs, and subsidies. became popular in  the 18th century. The driving idea behind laissez­faire as a theory was that the less the  government is involved in free market capitalism, the better off business will be, and then by  extension society as a whole.  Lecture Notes January 26 and 28 I.  From 1517 through 1648 Europe experienced continual religious warfare. Religious warfare was, in part a revolt against the Medieval Order. The Enlightenment was also a revolt against this order and emphasized that human  knowledge came from science, experience and experiment rather than from an  unquestioned authority. II. Three Revolutions took place between 1688 and 1789.  These revolutions marked the  end of the Medieval order that had dominated Europe for 1000 years. III. John Locke (1632­1704) was the intellectual source both for the English Revolution  and the American Revolutionaries. a. Prior to the establishment of government man lived in a “state of nature.”  Man  was given life, liberty and property by God.  Hence the term natural rights. 1.  In the State of nature there is a basic equality between men.  Each is a  sovereign.  Since each is a sovereign each must respect the sovereignty  of the others. 2. Sometimes conflicts occur, most often when one man attempt s to  exercise power over another.  This can become a state of war rather than  a state of nature. 3. Most disputes are over property.  Locke developed the “labor theory of  value.”  Each man mixes his labor with property to create value.  The  major source of political conflict is over property rights. b.  Because of potential (and real) conflict there are some good reasons for leaving  the state of nature and forming government, but certainly not without some  reservations.  The contract is based on a rational calculation by each individual.  And the contract takes place in two steps: 1. Societal contract.  Must be unanimous.  Every person must “quit his  natural power” and give it up to the community.  The community  becomes the Umpire.  Why would a person do this? a.  Since everyone gives all his power and participants in the  new community, a person is simply obeying himself. b. All share common values.  The purpose of the new  commonwealth is the preservation of property, directed to  the common good. 2.  Political contract.  Essentially is the constitution.  Need only be based  on majority rule. Thus the English Revolution does not abolish England only the relative  power between King and Parliament.  The American Revolution does  not fundamentally alter the relations between Americans, merely  changes the political relationship between England and the colonists.   Note The Declaration….”to assume among the powers of the Earth the  separate and equal status to which the laws of nature and nature’s God  entitle them.”  Thus, the defect is not in the social contract but the  political contract. c. Lockes assumes that political society emanates from a broad social consensus on  values…which are: 1.  Individualism 2. Rationality 3. Equality 4. Freedom 5. State is an artifact, only exists to protect natural rights d. Some general considerations about government 1.  Legislature is primary location of power 2. Laws cannot be arbitrary 3. Cannot take property without consent 4. Cannot transfer power to other hands 5. Laws should be designed for the good of the people. 6. No taxes without consent 7. In general, the whole purpose of government is to protect individual  freedom. Sources: John Locke Second Treatise of Government A Letter Concerning Toleration An Essay Concerning Human Understanding Morris, Christopher, ed.  The Social Contract Theorists Shapiro, James.  The Year of Lear. PS 100 Vocabulary #2 Factions: a group within a larger group that has different ideas and opinions than the rest of the  group/a party or group (as within a government) that is often contentious or self­seeking   Articles of Confederation: 1777–1781. The Articles of Confederation served as the written  document that established the functions of the national government of the United States after it  declared independence from Great Britain//America’s first written constitution. Adopted by the  Continental Congress in 1777, the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union were the  formal basis for America’s national government until 1789, when they were superseded by the  Constitution (pg 39) Great Compromise: The Connecticut Compromise (also known as the Great Compromise of  1787 or Sherman's Compromise) was an agreement that large and small states reached during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that in part defined the legislative structure and representation that each state would have under the United States Constitution. It retained the bicameral  legislature as proposed by Roger Sherman, along with proportional representation in the lower  house, but required the upper house to be weighted equally between the states. Each state would  have two representatives in the upper house. (pg 44­45) Bicameralism: the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. Thus, a  bicameral parliament or bicameral legislature is a legislature which consists of two chambers or  houses (pg 49) Three Fifths Compromise: An agreement reached at the Constitutional Convention of 1787  stipulating that for purposes of the appointment of congressional seats, every slave would be  counted as three­fifths of a person. (pg 48) Judicial review: the power of the courts to render the final decision when a conflict of  interpretation of the Constitution or of laws arises between the courts and Congress, the courts  and the executive branch, or the courts and the states. (pg 53) Federalism: a political concept describing the practice whereby a group of members are bound  together by agreement or covenant with a governing representative head. It refers to a system of  government in which sovereignty is constitutionally shared between a central governing  authority and constituent political units (pg 56, 74) Separation of powers: an act of vesting the legislative, executive, and judicial powers of  government in separate bodies//the system of government in which a constitution divides power  between a central government and regional governments (pg 54) Checks and balances: The Constitution divided the Government into three branches: legislative, executive, and judicial. That was an important decision because it gave specific powers to each  branch and set up something called checks and balances (pg 94) Legislative: passes federal laws  Executive: enforces laws Judicial: reviews lower­court decisions Anti­federalists: a movement that opposed the creation of a stronger U.S. federal government  and which later opposed the ratification of the 1787 Constitution. The previous constitution,  called the Articles of Confederation, gave state governments more authority. Affordable Care Act= "ObamaCare", is a United States federal statute signed into law by  President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010. Full faith and credit: Article IV, Section 1 of the United States Constitution, known as the "Full Faith and Credit Clause", addresses the duties that states within the United States have to respect  the "public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state. (pg 77) Commerce clause: describes an enumerated power listed in the United States Constitution  (Article I, Section 8, Clause 3). The clause states that the United States Congress shall have  power "To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the  Indian Tribes." This clause was interpreted by the Supreme Court to favor national power over  the economy. (pg 81) Writ of habeas corpus: a court order to a person (prison warden) or agency (institution) holding someone in custody to deliver the imprisoned individual to the court issuing the order A court order demanding that an individual in custody be brought into court and shown the cause for detention. Habeas Corpus is guaranteed by the Constitution and can be suspended only in  cases of rebellion or invasion (pg 100) Representation: describes how some individuals stand in for others or a group of others, for a  certain time period. Representation usually refers to representative democracies, where elected  officials nominally speak for their constituents in the legislature. Supremacy clause: A clause of Article VI of the Constitution that states that all laws passed by  the national government and all treaties are the supreme laws of the land and superior to all laws  adopted by any state or any subdivision (pg 53) Magna Carta: meaning 'The Great Charter', is one of the most famous documents in the world.  Originally issued by King John of England as a practical solution to the political crisis he faced  in 1215, Magna Carta established for the first time the principle that everybody, including the  king, was subject to the law. Rule of law: the legal principle that law should govern a nation, as opposed to being governed  by arbitrary decisions of individual government officials. Guantanamo Bay Prison Facility: In Rasul v. bush (a landmark United States Supreme Court  decision establishing that the U.S. court system has the authority to decide whether foreign  nationals held in Guantanamo Bay were wrongfully imprisoned) U.S. Naval Station at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, had the right to seek release through a writ of  habeas corpus Political Science 100 Midterm You have the entire class time to complete all three sections of the exam. Use a blue book and  write in pen. You may write on the exam. Multiple Choice Questions: select the best possible answer. Please write your answers in  columns.   1. a 18. d 2. b 19. e 3. c 20. a … 1) In contrast to Charles Beard’s approach, some view the framers of the Constitution as  being motivated by:  a. Trust in a strong, centralized government b. Economic self­interest c. The dominant philosophical and moral values of the day d. Political party identification e. The obligation to expand the sphere of religious dominance across the continent 2) The result of the 1777 Continental Congress was a constitution (The Articles of  Confederation) concerned primarily with: a. Preventing domestic insurrection b. Limiting the powers of the central government c. Generating new tax revenues to help pay for armed resistance d. Regulating trade among the colonies as well as imports and exports e. Centralizing currency and monetary policy 3) It is possible that the Constitutional Convention of 1787 in Philadelphia would never  have taken place at all if not for a single event that occurred soon after the Annapolis  Convention. This event was: a. Shays’s Rebellion b. The Boston Massacre c. The Boston Tea Party d. The hanging in effigy of the tax man e. The assassination of Elbridge Gerry, governor of Massachusetts 4) Which branch of government has the power to create inferior (lower) courts, change the  jurisdiction of federal courts, add or subtract federal judges, and even change the size of  the Supreme Court? a. Judiciary  b. Congress c. Executive d. Bureaucracy e. Attorney general 5) The Federalists understood that temporary majorities could abuse their power in a  democracy, but Madison argued that such an outcome is less likely if the nation is a. Large with diverse interests b. Small with diverse interests c. Large with common interests d. Small with common interests e. Trained to have the same interests  6) The doctrine that allowed the national government to expand considerably the scope of  its authority through the Supreme Court’s expansive interpretation of delegated powers  was based on the ________ clause. a. Implied powers b. Original intent c. Full faith and credit d. necessary and proper  e. Reserved powers 7) The Tenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution states that the powers the Constitution  does not delegate to the national government or to the states are: a. Reserved to the states or to the people b. Reserved for county and city governments c. Not to be exercised by any governmental authority d. To be exercised only through specific legislation passed by Congress e. Relatively few and rarely exercised 8) Imagine you are a resident of California and have a California driver’s license. If you  decide to take a road trip to Arizona, which clause of the Constitution requires Arizona to recognize your California driver’s license? a. Commerce clause b. Supremacy clause  c. Full faith and credit clause d. Privileges and immunities clause  e. Necessary and proper clause 9) When the Supreme Court ruled that a state could not tax the Bank of the United States in  McCulloch v. Mary land, it said that when a state law conflicts with a federal law, the  state law should be deemed invalid. This ruling exemplifies application of the: a. Principle of stare decisis b. Establishment clause c. Supremacy clause d. Full faith and credit clause e. Privileges and immunities clause 10)Within the system of separated powers, the framers provided for supremacy by the: a. Judiciary b. Executive c. Electoral College d. Legislature  e. Bureaucracy  11)Suppose that a certain government may only increase taxes on its citizens if both  chambers in its legislature agree to the increase with a two­thirds majority. This  restriction on government power exemplifies a: a. Procedural limit b. Substantive limit c. Primary restriction d. Secondary restriction e. Tertiary restriction 12)In American representative democracy, citizens are considered to function as: a. Agents b. Delegates c. Principals d. Specialists e. Experts 13)Why did Alexander Hamilton and other Federalists argue that a bill of rights was not  necessary? a. Every state constitution already had its own version of a bill of rights. b. A list of vague rights would ultimately be too difficult for courts to interpret. c. The national government could not abuse powers not given to it in the first place. d. There was no need to include protections from government since the people  controlled their leaders. e. The founders thought the proposed bill of rights imposed too many limits on the  federal government. 14)Which of the following is an example of a procedural restraint that protects our civil  liberties? a. A person is presumed innocent until proven guilty. b. Congress shall make no law establishing a religion. c. Troops cannot be quartered in private homes without consent. d. Private property seized for public purposes must be fairly compensated. e. The federal government is prohibited from banning guns. 15)The incorporation of the Bill of Rights into the Fourteenth Amendment took place by: a. Action of state governments over time b. A single legislative action of Congress that was signed by the president c. Action of the U.S. Supreme Court over time d. A single major decision of the U.S. Supreme Court e. Executive order of the president 16)Why are there so few convictions of politicians and other public figures for libel? a. Public figures are rarely the subject of libel. b. The public figure must prove that the defendant deliberately promulgated false and  malicious information. c. Newspaper outlets retain high­ profile attorneys who are so skilled that the public  figures never really have a chance. d. It is incredibly difficult to determine what transpired in the spoken word unless audio  recordings are made. e. It is difficult to verify who a voice belongs to in an audio recording. 17)Thinking of the institutions responsible for advancing the civil rights of African  Americans, which of the following is true? a. Courts accomplished the work on their own. b. Congress accomplished the worn on its own. c. Bureaucrats accomplished most of the work. d. Congress and the courts were mutually dependent in advancing civil rights. e. Neither Congress nor the courts accomplished much in the effort to secure civil rights for African Americans. 18)Imagine your university wished to increase racial diversity among the student body.  Which of the following policies best reflects the current constitutional status of  affirmative action policies according to Supreme Court rulings? a. Your university may reserve 10 percent of new admissions for racial minorities. b. Your university scores new applicants on a 100­ point scale, and racial minorities  automatically receive 15 points. c. Race cannot be used as a factor in admissions decisions, even to promote diversity. d. Your university may consider race as a factor in admissions decisions as part of a  holistic review of each new applicant’s file but may not use quotas or automatically  award extra points to racial minorities. e. Your university may throw out the applications of all new applicants if not enough  qualified racial minorities apply. 19)The federal courts took the lead in combating segregation but faced a number of hurdles  in implementing their decisions until Congress passed the 1964 Civil Rights Act. Which  institution of the American political system best explains the difficulty the courts had in  enforcing their rulings on desegregation? a. Equal protection clause b. Judicial review c. Privileges and immunities clause d. Federalism e. Separation of powers 20)The power of eminent domain refers to: a. the right of the federal government to take any property it deems desirable. b. the right of state governments to take private property for public use with  compensation for the loss. c. the right of state governments to take private property for private use by elected  officials. d. the right of state governments to take public property owned by the federal  government for public use by state residents. e. the right of state governments to take private property for public use without  compensation for the loss. Short Answer Questions: Please respond in complete sentences. You must answer all three. 21)What two large sectors of colonial society were harmed by British policies? What were  some of these policies? What theory can be used to explain the behavior of these two  groups? ­ N.E. Merchants and Southern Planters. (Merchants, farmers; elite; MC with some  explanation of who these groups are) ­ Stamp Act and Sugar Act; Tea monopoly, a brief explanation of the polices was  helpful ­ Collective Action  (rationality principle, if explained) 22)What is the difference between civil rights, civil liberties, and “social rights?” Given one  example of each. ­ Civil rights: who, what and how of participation in the political system. (Legal or  moral claims against the government). Voting and equal protection ­ Civil liberties: Limitations on government/collective action (protections from citizens from improper government action). Ex Free Speech. ­ Social Rights: What an individual needs to live a full, autonomous life. Ex. Disability  Act. (Every person is afforded conditions under which they are able to meet their  needs. Ex. Food, shelter, medical care) 23)What is meant by substantive and procedural rights? Which one is more characteristic of  the Constitution and our political system? Does this create problems? ­ Substantive: Limits on what the government can do­the actual behavior that is  regulated. (Natural rights).  ­ Procedural: formal steps that are used to enforce legal rights. ­ Which is more characteristic? (answers vary) ­ Does this create problems? (Answers vary. A simple yes/no  was not a good  response.)  Identifications: provide a response that demonstrates a comprehensive understanding of the  term. This may include, but is not limited to, history, theory, problems, variations, trends,  competing viewpoints, etc. Please write in complete sentences. You must discuss all four terms. Separate but equal ­ Plessy ­ Brown ­ De jure (de facto, Civil Rights Act, 14  Amendment) The Establishment Clause ­ First Amendment ­ John Lock (Puritans, England had an official religion) ­ Separation between church and state (“wall of separation”) ­ Lemon Test (“viewpoint discrimination”) Affirmative Action ­ Compensatory action for past harm (or a variation of this statement) ­ Bakke and another case (or two AA cases) ­ 14  and/or equal protection  (discussion on “reverse discrimination” may be  acceptable) Bicameralism ­ Separation of the legislature ­ Explanation of the House and Senate ­ Faction ­ Checks and balances ­ Great Compromise ­ Gridlock ­ (There was a lot to write here. A solid discussion of 3 or 4 of these points would be a  full­credit response) Lecture Notes February 2­4 All movements, organizations, clubs use both selective and solidarity incentives to attract and  maintain membership.  The American Revolution was no exception. Selective Incentives Middle class wanted more voice in the affairs of the colony. Merchant class and Planters were opposed to British attempts to tax. Both groups thus had incentives to form a revolutionary coalition. Solidarity Incentives: 1.  Theory of Revolution developed by John Locke.  Adapted in Declaration by  Jefferson and others. 2. Contributions of Puritanism a. Economic liberalism b. Evangelical purpose, “City on a Hill” c. American Dream  (secularized by Franklin among others.) d. Focus on community e. Nature as a gift from God f. Popular sovereignty g. Spirit of Capitalism What is means to be an American became a narrative. American Creed:  the title of a resolution passed by the U.S. House of Representatives on April 3, 1918. It is a statement written in 1917 by William Tyler Page Individual freedom Egalitarianism:  a trend of thought that favors equality for all people. Egalitarian doctrines maintain that all humans are equal in fundamental worth or social status Laissez­faire Populism To be an American became different from being an Englishman Congress Members of Congress owe their primary responsibility to: their constituency (the district making up the area from which an official is elected) When a senator voted against a gun-control bill that he agreed with but that his constituency did not support, he exemplified a ________ style of representation. Delegate (A representative who votes according to the preferences of his/her constituency What is one way in which the founders made the Senate more distant from the will of the majority than the House? Senators have longer terms in office; they have the luxury of considering “new ideas” or seeking to bring together new coalitions of interests, rather than simply serving existing ones. The intent of the Constitution’s drafters—that the Senate should provider a balance to the more responsive House, with its narrower and more homogeneous constituencies Compared to the House of Representatives, the Senate serves constituencies that are: larger and more diverse, heterogeneous; better able than members of the House to serve as the agents of groups and interests organized on a statewide or national basis The franking privilege is an example of a tool that leads to: incumbency advantage (Members of Congress may send mail to their constituents free of charge to keep them informed of governmental business and public affairs) The right and power to decide if a bill will be submitted to the full chamber for consideration is known as: Gatekeeping authority (the right and power to decide if a change in policy will be considered) A group of senators or representatives who share certain opinions, interests, or social characteristics is called a(n): Congressional caucus (ex: liberal democratic study group, the conservative democratic forum) When members of the Senate prevent action on legislation they oppose by continuously holding the floor and speaking until the majority backs down, which tactic are they using? Filibuster, once given the floor, senators have unlimited time to speak, and it requires a cloture vote of three-fifths of the Senate to end a filibuster The President While the veto is regarded as one of the president’s most formidable powers, it is used relatively rarely. This is likely because: legislators will alter the content of a bill to make it more to a president’s liking in order to preempt a veto/one party almost always controls both chambers of congress and the presidency, so vetoes are rarely necessary If a president claims the power to take an action not enumerated in the Constitution, like suspending the writ of habeas corpus, he probably does so by claiming that his action is justified by the president’s________ powers. Inherent (powers claimed by a president that are not expressed in the Constitution but are inferred from it) The set of permanent agencies (such as the Office of Management and Budget) that perform defined management tasks for the president and comprise a major part of the so-called institutional presidency is known as the: Executive Office of the President (EOP) When Barack Obama chose Joe Biden as his vice-presidential running mate to offset his limited background in foreign policy, he exemplified using the vice-presidential pick as a(n): Electoral asset Even though the Demo crats had a good working majority in both chambers of Congress when Barack Obama was elected president, Senate Republicans pointed out that they could still block some of his appointments using a: Filibusters President Franklin Roosevelt’s speaking trips around the nation and radio broadcasts designed to promote his programs are an example of the presidential tactic often referred to as: “Going Public” When George W. Bush claimed the prerogative of not enforcing those portions of a bill that he deemed unconstitutional, he did so using a technique for extending executive power known as the: “Signing Statement” (an announcement made by the president when a bill is signed into law) How was Richard Nixon able to establish the Environmental Protection Agency without having to put a mea sure before Congress? Executive order (created the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) The Bureaucracy As bureaucracies develop, these organizations often approximate the shape of a: Pyramid The primary task of bureaucracy is: Implementation (the efforts of departments and agencies to translate laws into specific bureaucratic routines Policies having to do with banks, credit, and currency are generally referred to as: Monetary (regulate the economy through manipulation of the supply of money, the price of money (interest rate), and the availability of credit Which choice is an example of a powerful before-the-fact political weapon for controlling the bureaucracy? Appointment process; the adroit control of the political stance of a given bureau by the president and Congress, through their joint powers of nomination and confirmation, procedural controls; following from the institution principle, the general rules and regulations that direct the manner in which federal agencies conduct their affairs The policy of reducing or eliminating regulatory restraints on the conduct of individuals or private institutions is called: Deregulation (a reduction in the number of rules promulgated by regulatory agencies) The Federal Courts Cases involving disputes among individuals (or between individuals and the government) in which the losers may be required to pay monetary damages for their actions but not fined or sent to prison are classified as ________ law. Civil (a system of jurisprudence, including private law and governmental actions for settling disputes that do not involve criminal penalties) Under what circumstances is the U.S. Supreme Court able to claim jurisdiction over cases originally heard in state courts? Original jurisdiction The specific number of justices who sit on the United States Supreme Court is determined by: Congress set the number of justices at nine in 1869, the Court has reminaed same ever since. An individual who claims that she will be damaged by a bill passing through Congress calls into question which of the following standards? Once the president has formally nominated an individual for the courts, the nominee must be considered by the: Senate Judiciary committee and confirmed by a majority vote in the full senate Which of the following is a judicial philosophy whose adherents refuse to go beyond the text of the Constitution in interpreting its meaning? Judicial restraint Lecture outline for CA Government (Tuesday) Thesis: The current political landscape in California is shaped by distinct factors that can be attributed to the settlers of California, entrepreneurs, unique geography, and natural resources. Various political movements, both historical and current, continue to shape this dynamic state. All these factors can be demonstrated by the polices produced in the state. California, for better or for worse, is both a leader in policy and economy. I. Three factors contribute to a distinct political landscape in California. a. The Progressive Movement b. CA Constitution c. Political Culture i. Three Classifications 1. Individualistic 2. Traditional 3. Moralistic ii. California Specific d. Location/Geography II. Elections a. Primaries b. Direct democracy i. Recalls ii. Referendums iii. Initiatives 1. Principle-agent problems 2. Prop 13 3. Criminal Justice a. Realignment b. Prop 47 c. Three Strikes


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.