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Psychosexual Adjustment Exam 1 Review

by: Donielle Rhone

Psychosexual Adjustment Exam 1 Review 50788

Marketplace > Middle Tennessee State University > Psychology (PSYC) > 50788 > Psychosexual Adjustment Exam 1 Review
Donielle Rhone
GPA 2.8

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About this Document

These notes are an outline of the powerpoint presentations and cover what's going to be on our first exam (minus some information from the textbook).
Psychosexual Adjustment
Dr Catherine Crooks
Study Guide
sexuality, sex, orientation, arousal, research, Gender, genderissues, genderrole, transgender, transexual, transvesdite, intersex
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Donielle Rhone on Tuesday June 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 50788 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Dr Catherine Crooks in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Psychosexual Adjustment in Psychology (PSYC) at Middle Tennessee State University.


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Date Created: 06/07/16
Psychosexual Adjustment Exam 1 Review – 06/08/2016 *Ch. 1 ­ Introduction **psychological orientation ­psychological & social factors have an impact on our sexual behaviors and  attitudes **sexuality and sex ­Is “sex” intercourse only? No. ­sexuality *all the sensations, emotions & cognitions that an individual associates  with physical sexual arousal and that usually give rise to sexual desire and/or behavior *sexuality has at least 4 dimensions: ­biological ­psychosocial ­ethical ­cultural *sexual behavior in the U.S. ­For centuries, sexual purity or virginity was the moral, religious  and social ideal. ­One of the oldest norms was assumed that sexual activity should  be postponed until marriage. ­It is questioned today regarding young adults and teens and their  views on premarital sex. ­survey of young adults (18­25): *90% are sexually experienced *college students: 74­88% of men and 69­88% of women  report being sexually experienced ­Men report higher levels of sexual activity than women ­Society still frowns on women having sex in a casual or  uncommitted relationship; men are generally not judged negatively for the same behaviors. ­Sexual behavior in U.S. varies across ethnic & racial  backgrounds. *Caucasian Americans & African Americans report more  sexual partners in their lifetimes than do Hispanic, Asian or Native Americans. ­major sociocultural influences *mass media ­tv & films: “Seinfeld” was first show to devote an  entire episode to masturbation; Ellen DeGeneres was the first openly gay character on primetime  show * magazines ­leading source of info about sex, especially for  female college students *advertising ­Does sex sell? Exs. of ads are particularly sexually  suggestive *music ­may distort viewers’ perceptions of normative sex  behavior and cause adolescents to overestimate their peers’ sex activity *internet ­over 8,000 chat rooms devoted to cybersex *religious influences ­ex: in the Judeo­Christian tradition, procreation  and childbearing are the justification for sexuality ­Some religions especially in Eastern cultures may  view sex as a source of pleasure and means to spiritual growth. *family ­Family is the primary socializing agent in all  cultures. Ch. 2 – Human Sexuality Research *sexology ­study of sexuality ­purpose is to understand, predict and control sexual behavior ­Alfred Kinsey *first person to do an extensive survey of American sexual behavior ­specific methods *case study *surveys (including computerized) *naturalized & laboratory observation ­direct observation studies *Masters and Johnson ­pioneered the application of controlled observation in sex research *photographic equipment *physiological recordings *genital measures ­penile strain gauge *measure changes in size of penis ­Penile Plethysmograph *measure changes in blood flow to penis ­Vaginal Plethysmograph *measures changes in blood flow to vagina *experiments ­systematic application or manipulation of one variable and observation of its impact on another variable ­independent variable ­dependent variable *correlational studies ­the extent to which 2 or more variables are related ­ex: high self­esteem and frequency of sexual activity are related ­Does this tell us the direction of the relationship or whether one causes another? ­non­experimental methods *case study ­an in depth study of a single subject of a small group *surveys ­face to face ­telephone ­paper & pencil ­computerized ­types of sex surveys: *Kinsey Reports *National Health and Life Survey *Youth Risk Behavior Survey ­problems of sex survey research: *difficult to secure representative sample *refusal to participate in all or some of study *self­selection bias *accuracy of responses *demographic bias *representative or probability sample ­subgroups are represented proportionately to their incidence in population *technologies in sex research ­computerized assessment of sexual behavior Computer assisted self­interview (CASI) *research in cyberspace *evaluating sex research – questions to ask: ­Why was the research done? Who did the research? What biases are there? ­Who were the subjects? How were they selected and assigned to groups? ­How was the research conducted? What methods were used? ­Where was the research reported? What additional support is there? *Ch. 3 – Gender Issues **gender issues ­Are differences between genders biological or are they imposed on the genders  by culture? ­It is an interaction: it starts with biology and is shaped by the environment. ­what’s in a name? definitions *sex ­biological sex includes genitalia, internal reproductive structures,  chromosomes and hormone levels *gender ­psychosocial condition of behaving feminine or masculine  (according to society) *gender role or sex role ­behaviors, personality characteristics and lifestyle that a culture or society expects of an individual based on sex *sexual orientation ­sexual preference **biological theories of gender identity ­shaping of gender identity is a complex play of many influences ­gender identity as a biological process *chromosomal sex ­determined at conception ­45 chromosome pairs are the same ­sex chromosomes different for males & females (X­female, Y­ male) *gonadal sex ­First 6 weeks after conception, a gene called “SRY” on Y  chromosome acts as a blueprint for a protein that facilitates genes to function. If gene is present,  it pushes the embryo in male direction. ­Recently a gene on the X chromosome (DSS) was found that  pushes undifferentiated tissue in female direction. This contradicts belief that human fetus is  inherently female. *hormonal sex ­Gonads (ovaries/testes) produce hormones and secrete them into  bloodstream. Ovaries: estrogen, testes: androgens *internal structures ­About 8 wks after conception, sex hormones place sex  differentiation. Males: vas deferens, seminal vesicles, females: fallopian tubes, uterus vagina *external genitals ­by the 12  wk, differentiation process is complete and the  penis/scrotum is recognized in males, clitoris and labia in females *Because the external genitals, gonads and some internal structures  originate from same tissue, they have homologous parts. *sex differentiation of brain ­Size: male brain approx 15% larger than female, women’s  neurons more tightly packed ­Hypothalamus (BST) *bed nucleus of stria teminalis; contains androgen and  estrogen receptors and plays a role in human’s sex differences and  sexual functioning *larger in hetero men than hetero women *same size in hetero females as in male to female  transsexuals ­Cerebral hemispheres *sex differences in use of verbal and spatial skills among  males and females *females score higher on verbal tests. **evolutionary theory of gender identity ­evolutionary perspective *There are certain sex­specific behaviors that assist with survival and  reproduction. *ex: reproductive success for men involves the insemination of  many females and this is why men tend to seek more sexual partners than  do women *Women must make an investment in motherhood which causes  them to be attracted to males who have resources for the care and  wellbeing of offspring. *Toys: boys like trucks, balls, etc. (spatial ability that might be  useful for hunting a moving target). Girls: dolls (adaptive role of caring  for an infant **social theories of gender identity ­social learning theory *gender role development occurs through 2 processes: children are (1)  punished for gender­role inconsistent behavior and (2) rewarded for gender­role consistent  behavior **transgenderism and transsexualism ­transgendered *umbrella term used to describe the full range of individuals who do not  conform to traditional notions of how a person of a given biological sex should  look, behave, or identify himself or herself *A transgenderist does NOT necessarily want to change his or her  physical body to fit with personal and/or societal role expectations.  ­transsexual *person whose gender identity is opposite to his or her biological sex  (gender dysphoria) *transsexuals may feel they are “trapped in the wrong body” * Transsexuals often undergo major surgeries so that physical body and  gender identity are congruent. ­transvestite *usually only applied to those who cross dress to achieve sexual arousal ­cross dressers *typically men who wear women’s clothing, jewelry or makeup  *are usually heterosexual ­transgenderism and transsexualism etiology *most transsexuals are biologically normal (XX or XY) * Exposure to inappropriate amounts of hormones of the other sex  prenatally which cause improper brain differentiation *The BST (in hypothalamus) is same size for genetic females and  transgendered male to female. *sexual differentiation of brain and genitals occur in discordant fashion *Social Learning experience: exposure to experiences that support  behaving in manner attributed to opposite sex *In our society, confusion or deep­seated dissatisfaction with one's  assigned gender is considered a psychological disturbance that is listed in the  Diagnostic and Statistical Manual­IV. The DSM­IV criteria for gender identity  disorder includes: –"strong and persistent cross­gender identification that includes the desire to be, or the insistence that one is the other sex –gender dysphoria, or "persistent discomfort" about one's assigned  sex or a feeling that one's gender role is wrong –Also, there must be no physical intersex problems, such as  pseudohermaphroditism or androgen insensitivity syndrome ­Intervention into gender identity disorder involves 4 basic steps: * counseling *hormone treatments to create the appearance of  appropriate secondary sex characteristics, such as breasts for a  male­to­female transsexual or facial and body hair for a female­to­ male transsexual *gender­role transition in which the client lives for a year  or two as a person of the preferred gender * Sex reassignment surgery ­For anatomical males, the penis and testes are  removed and a clitoris, vaginal lips, and an artificial vagina  are constructed. ­For anatomical females, the clitoris is augmented  into a penis and a scrotum with artificial testes is  constructed. **intersex *(old term is “hermaphrodite” or “pseudo hermaphrodite”) now called Disorders  of Sexual Development *46XX intersex ­chromosomes of a woman, ovaries of a woman, but external genitals that  appear male ­possible causes of 46XX intersex: * Male hormones taken or encountered during pregnancy *Male hormone­producing tumors in mother *Aromatase deficiency (an enzyme that normally converts male  hormones to female hormones) *Too much aromotase can lead to excess estrogen and too little to  46 XX intersex *46XY intersex ­chromosomes of a man, but external genitals are incompletely formed,  ambiguous, or clearly female ­Internally, testes may be normal, malformed or absent ­possible causes of 46XY intersex: * Problems with testes not forming properly and not producing  male hormones * Deficiencies in enzymes that produce testosterone *True Gonadal Intersex ­person has both ovarian and testicular tissue or person could have 1 ovary and 1 testis ­may have XX, XY chromosomes or both ­external genitals may be ambiguous * Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS) ­most common cause: hormones are normal but receptors to male  hormones don’t function properly ­AIS has also been called “testicular feminization”


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