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Psychosexual Adjustment Exam 2 Review

by: Donielle Rhone

Psychosexual Adjustment Exam 2 Review 50788

Marketplace > Middle Tennessee State University > Psychology (PSYC) > 50788 > Psychosexual Adjustment Exam 2 Review
Donielle Rhone
GPA 2.8

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About this Document

These notes cover what's going to be on exam 2 (minus the book and Kinsey’s continuum of sexual orientation).
Psychosexual Adjustment
Dr Catherine Crooks
Study Guide
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Donielle Rhone on Wednesday June 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 50788 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Dr Catherine Crooks in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Psychosexual Adjustment in Psychology (PSYC) at Middle Tennessee State University.


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Date Created: 06/08/16
Psychosexual Adj. Exam Review 2 – 06/16/2016 Ch. 6 – Sexual Arousal and Response *sexual arousal **Sexual arousal in humans is influenced by many factors. -hormones -sensory processes -intimacy levels -thoughts -emotions -memories -the physical bases of sexual response – brain *the brain is the center of the experience of sexual arousal or pleasure-thoughts, emotions & memories are mediated through the brain *no single sex center in the brain; cerebral cortex and limbic system seem are important in initiating, organizing & controlling sexual arousal and response -limbic system: amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, cingulate gyrus *neurotransmitters -dopamine -serotonin -hormones *both sexes produce male & female hormones *testosterone in both sexes comes in 2 forms: attached (bound) and unattached (free) *men: -95% is bound and 5% is unattached normal range; 300-1200 ng/dl of blood -male sex hormones – androgens -Main androgen is testosterone -Testosterone is produced by the testes (95%) and adrenal glands (5%) *women -97-99% bound; 1-3% unattached normal range: 20- 50 ng/dl; so do women have lower/weaker sex drives? -Main females sex hormone is estrogen (produced in ovaries) -Recent studies suggest that some women have a Grafenberg spot (G-spot), an area of erotic sensitivity on the front wall of the vagina *The area swells during sexual arousal and if further stimulated, can lead to a very intense orgasmic experience. Further research is necessary to prove the existence of a G-spot. *oxytocin -produced by hypothalamus -influences sexual response & emotional attraction -sexual arousal and the 5 senses *touch -the dominant “sexual sense” -primary erogenous zones -secondary erogenous zones *vision -usually the second dominant “sexual sense” -self-report: males report more arousal by visual stimuli than females -males & females have equal physiological signs of arousal *smell -most primal of senses -smell sent directly to limbic system -pheromones *evidence that humans do secrete pheromones but insufficient evidence to determine whether these act as sexual attractants *taste -plays a minor role *hearing -plays a variable role **models of human sexual response -Masters and Johnson divided the sexual response cycle into 4 phases: *excitement *plateau *orgasm *resolution *A person experiencing sexual arousal perceives no break or gap between the phases. *The phases blend together to form a continuum *The changes that take place in women and men during sexual arousal are due to 2 major processes, vasocongestion and myotonia -vasocongestiona *engorgement of blood vessels from an increased blood flow into the genital organs and nipples of both sexes, as well as the female breast *congested tissue becomes swollen, red and warn, and these areas feel full. The organs containing erectile tissue, the clitoris, labia, vaginal opening and penis, swell noticeably -myotonia *the increased muscle tension of myotonia leads to voluntary & involuntary muscle *During sexual arousal, myotonia becomes widespread and produces facial grimaces, spasms in the feet & hands and the spasms of orgasm *contrary to Master’s and Johnson’s research, sexual response does not necessarily follow a clear pattern *different among individuals and in different situations **issues & controversies in sexual responsiveness -Aphrodisiacs are substances that allegedly intensify or extend sexual arousal and activity. *exs: alcohol, marijuana & cocaine *alcohol -depressing effect on higher brain centers which reduce inhibitions such as fear & guilt -increased levels of alcohol reduces sexual arousal & pleasure in men & women -Anaphrodisiacs are substances that inhibit sexual behavior. *exs: drugs (opiates, tranquilizers, blood pressure medication, antidepressants & antipsychotics, etc. *birth control pills -reduces blood levels of free testosterone *nicotine -constricts blood vessels, slows vasocongestive response, reduces circulating testosterone, etc. *Ch. 7 – Love and Communication **attraction -physical traits *facial features *gender specific traits -age *in heterosexuals, women tend to prefer men about their own age or a little older *young men tend to prefer women ranging from a little younger to a little older than they are *As men grow older, they often prefer women progressively younger than themselves. The more financially successful older men are, the younger the women they prefer. -Lesbians prefer partners about their own age. -Gay men like heterosexual men tend to prefer partners progressively younger than themselves. **gender differences -Do likes or opposites attract? *We are usually attracted to those who are similar in age, intelligence, education, ethnicity, religion, attitudes, socioeconomic level and smoking & drinking habits to ourselves. -unrealistic beliefs *cause problems in finding a mate and in maintaining a relationship -the one and only -perfect partner -perfect relationship -love is enough **intimacy -is physical closeness plus emotional, intellectual, social & spiritual bonds -involves the sense that a partner understands and appreciates oneself -feelings of closeness, interdependence, warmth, affection, caring & trust -provides the foundation for social life and contributes to intra- and interpersonal wellbeing -intimacy contributes to physical & emotional health by enhancing our social support system **love -Love is difficult to define because it means different things to different people. -exs: passionate love, companionate love, etc. -Sternberg’s triangular theory *3 components: passion, intimacy, commitment -passion builds than fades -intimacy & commitment continue to build -variations in components yield different kinds of love *intimacy alone = friendship *passion alone = infatuation *commitment alone = empty love -theoretical views of love: *behavioral view -a learned response continued by reinforcement & punishment *psychoanalytic view -sexuality is a basic human urge and people express love through sexual experience *humanistic view -humanists value love for the emotional satisfaction and human growth it provides *cultural and gender views on love -attitudes on love are greatly influenced by culture & gender -Do men and women have different views on sex and love? *Both men and women value love and affection in sexual relationships. *However, surveys find that it is easier for men than women to have sexual intercourse for pleasure and release without an emotional commitment. *Women report that love is a necessary component of sexual relationships. -Do heterosexual and homosexuals have different views on love and sex? *Homosexuals, like heterosexuals, seek out loving, trusting and caring relationships. *Like heterosexual men, gay men are more likely to separate love and sex. *Many lesbians postpone sexual involvement until they have developed emotional intimacy with partner. *Falling in love with same-sex person often supplies the key element necessary to establish a gay or lesbian identity. -falling in love *neurochemical processes -when we are attracted to someone, certain neurotransmitters (norepinephrine, dopamine, etc.) are released. *proximity -we tend to develop close relationships with people we see frequently *similarity -people who fall in love often share common beliefs, attitudes, interests & intellect *attractiveness -we are attracted to people whom we find physically attractive -Cross-cultural studies show that heterosexual men worldwide place greater value than do women on mates who are both young and physically attractive. -seems to play an important role in early stages of relationship *reciprocity -when someone shows they like us, we tend to like them back -“Like who likes you.” *Chapter 8 – Sexual Behaviors **Sexual fantasy and masturbation are the most frequent sexual behaviors we engage in over the course of a lifetime. **masturbation -voluntary, intentional, self-stimulation (often to orgasm) of one’s own genitals or other sensitive areas of the body -more men than women masturbate, and they do so much more often *one survey found that men masturbate almost 3x as often as women *college students: 50% of men masturbate 2 or more times/week; 16% of women masturbate 2 or more times/week -Masturbation is a normal part of any relationship and does not mean there is something wrong with relationship or partner. **fantasy -The NHSLS (Nat’l Health and Social Life Survey) revealed that 54% of men and 19% of women fantasized about sex at least once a day. -Women report softer, more romantic fantasies that are not so focused on explicit sexual encounters. -Men report fantasies that tend to focus on body parts and sex acts, as well as explicit images related to sexual intercourse. -Those who engage in more frequent sexual activity and those whose sexual lives are more satisfying and happy tend to engage in more erotic fantasizing. -Fantasies are an important part of partnered sexual expression. In one survey, 84% of the respondents indicated they fantasized during intercourse. **pleasuring one’s partner -feelings, desires and attitudes strongly influence choices about sexual activity -mutual consent and open, honest communication *important aspects of any sexual relationship -don’t just view sexual encounters as competition or as a performance; focus on the opportunity to share sexual pleasure and intimacy -keys to satisfying sexual relationship: *know your own sexual preferences and communicate these clearly to your partner *be open to learning about your partner’s needs and desires *focus on the pleasure and fun of sex and not just the performance *foster an atmosphere of mutual respect, honesty and equality *avoid sending mixed messages – be aware of nonverbal messages that may contradict verbal messages **oral sex -Couples may opt to have oral-genital contact individually or at the same time, an activity commonly called “69”. Either partner may be on top of the other or they can lie side by side. -most common techniques *Cunnilingus -oral stimulation of the clitoris, labia and vaginal opening  *Fellatio –oral stimulation of penis and scrotum *Coitus, the term for sexual intercourse, is taken from the Latin word core, which refers to the "going together" of the penis and vagina *Vaginal Intercourse: there are two basic varieties of coital positioning: face-to-face and rear-entry -1) male superior or missionary (male on top) -2) female superior -3) rear entry *anal sex -is stereotypically associated with gay male sexuality, yet both the Kinsey Reports and the NHSLS found that such behavior was not limited to gay men  -one study of college students – 32% of women had engaged in anal sex -anal activities include: *oral-anal contact (anilingus, which is commonly referred to as "rimming") *insertion or stimulation with the fingers ("fingering") or the whole hand (“fisting”) *gradual insertion of the penis (anal intercourse) *insertion of an object, such as a dildo -risks *Anal intercourse is risky for transmission of HIV because of tearing of tissue. It’s very important to practice safe sex with ANY type of intercourse, especially anal sex. *NEVER insert penis or finger into anus and then vagina - can cause bacterial infections *Chapter 9 – Sexual Orientations -sexual orientation *the desire for intimate emotional and/or sexual relationships with people of the same gender/sex, another gender/sex or multiple genders/sexes *past Kinsey data - 90% of people is U.S. identified as being exclusively heterosexual *asexual -person who is not sexually attracted to anyone or does not have a sexual orientation -many asexual individuals have deep and meaningful relationships with others exclusive of sexual intimacy *bicurious -a curiosity about having sexual relations with a same gender/sex person *bisexual -a person emotionally, physically, and/or sexually attracted to males/men and females/women -this attraction does not have to be equally split between genders and there may be a preference for one gender over others *demi-sexual -a person who doesn’t feel sexual attraction until they have formed a deep emotional bond *gay -term used in some cultural settings to represent males who are attracted to males in a romantic, erotic and/or emotional sense -2% of females & 4% of males identified as being exclusively gay -59% of women and 44% of men reported being attracted to same sex but had not engaged in sexual acts with same sex *gender-queer -a person who identifies as gender-neutral, third gender or androgynous *homosexual -a person primarily emotionally, physically and/or sexually attracted to members of the same sex *lesbian -term used to describe female-identified people attracted romantically, erotically and/or emotionally to other female- identified people *pansexual -a person who is sexually attracted to all or many gender expressions -gender and sex are insignificant or irrelevant in determining whether they will be sexually attracted to others *queer -an umbrella term which embraces a matrix a sexual preferences, orientations and habits of the not-exclusively-heterosexual-and- monogamous majority -queer may include lesbians, gay men, bisexuals, transpeople, intersex persons and many other sexual or gender minorities *sapiosexual -experiencing sexual attraction to individuals on a cerebral rather than physical basis -someone who is attracted to another person’s display of intelligence *What determines sexual orientation? -psychoanalytic theory *All infants are polymorphously perverse (capable of erotic attraction to anyone) *Boys become fixated at this phase if poor relationship with father an overly close relationship with mother; girls have an overly close relationship with father and fixated in “penis envy”. -default theory *unhappy heterosexual experiences can cause a person to become homosexual -seduction myth * people become homosexual, because they have been seduced by older homosexuals *Research indicates, however, that sexual orientation usually est. before school age and that first sex experiences are with someone close to their own age. *Sex orientation is just one of many learned behavioral patterns (e.g., accidental stimulation of infant’s genitals by same sex caregiver, attention from same-sex person, negative social messages about heterosexual relations -biological theories *prenatal hormone levels -all of the biological studies suggest that prenatal hormonal influences pay a role in brain development and sexual orientation -handedness *Correlation between handedness and homosexuality which indicates that prenatal development contributes to sex (handedness est. before birth) *In a meta-analysis of over 25,000 subjects, homosexual participants had 39% greater odds of being left- handed than heterosexual. *Gene for handedness and sexual orientation is expressed at the same time. This is probably related to testosterone (as it increases, the gene for homosexuality is also expressed). -finger length *Women’s index fingers about the same length as their ring fingers but men’s ring fingers are often considerably longer than index. *Lesbian’s finger length more likely to follow typical male patterns. In men, homosexual males with at least 2 older brothers have finger length ratios similar to heterosexual women. *Researchers attribute this patterns of finger length to atypical hormone patterns during fetal development *Second & fourth digit length affected by androgens during development. -Birth order *homosexual men had a greater number of older brothers than did heterosexual men and each additional older brother increased the odds of homosexuality. *Hypothesize that may be due to a maternal immune response to successive pregnancies of males (mother develops antibodies to H-Y antigen produced by a gene on the Y chromosome.) This H-Y antigen influences sexual differentiation in brain. Male antibodies are produced which block masculinization brain.


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