CCJ 3651 Drugs and Crime Exam 1 Study Guide
CCJ 3651 Drugs and Crime Exam 1 Study Guide CCJ 3651
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This 24 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ryan Desjardins on Friday June 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CCJ 3651 at Florida State University taught by Mark Feulner in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Drugs and Crime in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Florida State University.
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CCJ 3651 Drugs and Crime Exam 1 Study Guide Review Questions Chapter 1 1.What are the three categories of psychoactive substances? Depressants Depressantscontrols the central nervous system and can reduce pain. Alcohol is the most frequently used drug in this category, and opiate derivative heroin (aka narcotics, composed of heroin, morphine, and codeine) is the most frequently used illegal drug in this category. Depressants can cause physical and psychological dependence and withdrawal resulting in physical and psychological stress. Stimulants Elevate mood and produce feelings of wellbeing by stimulating the Central Nervous System Caffeine and nicotine are the most frequently used drugs in this category, and the most frequently illegally used drug is cocaine. Cocaine and amphetamines some limited medical use Hallucinogens Alters perceptual functions Most frequently used hallucinogens are LSD and PCP. Both of these are produced chemically and neither have any legitimate medical function. 2.Why is our knowledge of those who use psychoactive drugs skewed towards compulsive users? They usually are the ones that get caught using drugs the easiest 3.Why have noncompulsive drugs users received little research attention? They are hard to find 4.What is the biological difference between legal and illegal substances? No biological difference between legal and illegal substances. 5.What is the most common substance use disorder in the United States? Nicotine dependence 6.Why are tobacco and alcohol 'gateway drugs'? Considered gateway drugs because the use of these two drugs usually precedes the use of any other recreational drug use. "There is a fairly consistent progression of adolescent substance use beginning with the licit drugs alcohol and/or cigarettes, moving on to illicit substances initiating with marijuana and progressing to cocaine and harder, more problematic drugs". 7.When can use of psychoactive chemicals be objectively labeled drug abuse? When the user becomes dysfunctional as a result of the drug use 8.What is the druguse continuum? Describes the use of psychoactive chemicals, licit or illicit, when the user becomes dysfunctional as a consequence. The sequence goes nonuse, to experimental use, to socially endorsed use, to recreational use, then finally to compulsive use. 9.What is the tripartite model of considering the question of drugs and crime? Created by Paul Goldstein in 1985. Includes 3 main categories Pharmacological Drug offenses that are psychopharmacology induced, aka the result of a response to the intoxicating effects of a drug EconomicCompulsive Crime driven by a need to buy drugs Lifestyle Drug use as part of a pattern of criminal behaviors not driven by or the result of drug use 10.What does this model fail to consider? The tripartite model fails to include drug users who are drawn into the drug subculture by the status it will give them and the excitement it can offer. 11.What has research determined about the link between drug use and nondrug crime? Drug use has no direct causal link to crime, however similar fluctuations between substance use and serious offending are shown over time 12.What drug is pharmacology most closely associated with violent crime? Heroin 13.What four indicators provide information on drug use? National Survey on Drug Use and Health, Monitoring The Future, Drug Abuse Warning Network, and Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring 14.What are the problems or limitations of each indicator? NSDUH Limitations include the fact that homeless people who do not use shelters, active military personnel, and residents of institutional group quarters, such as prisons and long term hospitals are excluded. MTF High school dropouts who are associated with higher rates of drug use are not part of the sampled universe Chronic absentees are less likely to be surveyed Conscious or unconscious distortions in self reporting information can bias results New trends in drug abuse such as the use of crack might not be initially detected because the survey is designed to measure only drugs that are abused at significant levels DAWN Variations among individual reporters regarding standard definitions and data collection procedures occur. Incomplete reporting Turnover of reporting facilities and personnel Reporting delays of up to one year (primarily for medical examiner data) ADAM These statistics only provide minimum estimates of drugs use for male arrestees Urine samples are only analyzed for 10 drugs Central booking facilities where the samples are selected serve different areas of a city or county, making the generalization about the wider population of arrestees unreliable 15.Why is it so difficult to determine the prevalence of heroin use? Standard usages of household surveys are inadequate Heroin use is rare in the general population, so only a small number of users would be included in a household survey Difficulty locating heroin abusers because many of them are not living in a stable household Heroin users might not accurately report their use because it is illegal 16.What is binge drinking? Classified as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least one day in the past 30 days Chapter 2 1.What is a theory? A theory is the basic building block for the advancement of human knowledge. In the physical sciences, theory can usually be subjected to rigorous testing and replication. 2.Why is it difficult to test a biological theory of drug abuse? It is difficult because drugs affect every individual person a different way. "One person's dysphoria may be another person's euphoria". 3.What nonbiological factors influence the effects of a drug? "Drug effects are strongly influenced by the amount taken, how much has been taken before, what the user wants and expects to happen, the surroundings in which it is taken, and the reactions of other people. All these influences are themselves tied up with social and cultural attitudes and beliefs about drugs as well as more general social conditions." 4.What makes up the central nervous system? The central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord. The brain functions to receive nerve impulses from the spinal cord and cranial nerves. The spinal cord contains the nerves that carry messages between the brain and the body. 5.How do psychoactive chemicals influence the brains communication system? Psychoactive chemicals produce pleasure by activating a specific network of neurons called the brain reward system. This system is activated when we fulfill survival functions, such as eating when we are hungry. In turn our brain rewards us with pleasurable feelings that teach us to repeat the task. Since drug use inappropriately turn on this reward circuit, people want to repeat drug use. 6.What is the role of neurotransmitters? When activated by electrical charges, neurotransmitters cross over the synaptic gap where they bind to receptors on the surface of an adjoining neuron, like a lock and key. Each neurotransmitter is different, and the electrical charges from the adjoining neuron are either inhibited or enhanced. The body uses these chemicals to trigger such effects as anger, to reduce pain and stress, or to regulate the operation of different organs. 7.Why are adolescents more vulnerable to drug abuse than adults? Adolescents brains are still developing and growing. Adding repeated drug use to that process causes the developing brain to identify the new chemicals as normal, and the brain grows and adapts to it. When those chemicals stop coming (drug abuse stops) the brain does not know how to react. 8.How is a human body similar to a car battery? Lungs air conditioner Liver fuel tank Kidney oil filter Heart engine Skin paint Digestive system combustion chamber Back bone chassis Wheels legs Eye gps navigator 9.Why is dopamine of particular importance? Dopamine has a big role in the regulation of mood and affect as well as motivation and reward processes. Reinforcing effects of psychoactive drugs in humans are associated with increases in brain dopamine, and it is necessary to sustain life. 10.What is the relationship between dopamine and psychoactive substances? Psychoactive chemicals release excess amounts of dopamine, triggering our brains reward system. 11.What is the role of monoamine oxidases (MAO)? MOA chemicals control neurotransmitter levels. They also break down neurotransmitters after they have performed their programmed task. 12.What happens when transporters are inhibited by psychoactive chemicals? When transporters are inhibited by psychoactive chemicals, an excess of MAO is produced, which results in a decreased amount of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, which finally results in depression. 13.What is the disease model of drug use? The disease model emphasizes the involuntary nature of drug use (based on craving) that has found support in lab experiments with animals. 14.What is the placebo effect with respect to drug use? A placebo is an inert substance triggering a drug like response. In respect to drug use, patients that expect a drug to diminish their pain can take a placebo and the mere expectation of that drug effect results in brain activity that causes the release of pain dampening chemicals, aka endorphins. 15.How does polydrug use complicate understanding the biology of psychoactive substances? Polydrug use means most drugs are taken at the same time as another drug. This complicates the understanding of the effects of each individual drug because since its usually paired with another, scientists can't study the effects of just that one drug. 16.What are the four possible neurological effect of mixing drugs? 1. Addictive: Two drugs that have similar actions are ingested, resulting in a cumulative effect. 2. Synergistic: Two drugs that have similar actions are ingested, but when taken together, one enhances the effects of the other. 3. Potentiating: Two drugs have different actions, but when taken together, one enhances the effects of the other 4. Antagonistic: Two drugs taken together, but one counteracts the effects of the other. 17.What is the bloodbrain barrier? This barrier acts as a gatekeeper, preventing certain substances from entering brain tissue, but readily admits psychoactive substances. 18.Why is a fetus particularly vulnerable to the effects of psychoactive chemicals? Fetus' are vulnerable because their bloodbrain barrier has not matured. 19.How does the half life of a drug affect withdrawal? The greater the half life, the less severe the withdrawal symptoms after use of the drug has been discontinued. 20.How does tolerance affect a drug user? Tolerance affects drug users by causing the user to progressively take larger doses to produce the same effects, and eventually as much as ten or more times the original lethal dose can be safely taken. 21.What is the relationship between homeostasis and tolerance? When tolerance develops with drug use, the failure to ingest enough of a drug on a timely basis will disrupt homeostasis and cause the onset of withdrawal symptoms. 22.What is reverse tolerance? In regards to alcohol, occurs when a heavy drinker develops liver damage and the liver no longer produces as great a quantity of the enzymes needed to break down alcohol in the body as it did before. 23.What form do withdrawal symptoms usually take? The addict can experience extreme anxiety, hyperactivity, shaking, cold sweat, and severe depression. 24.How can drug cues cause relapse? Since these drug cues can be environmental factors, the euphoric feeling of the drug high burns emotional memories into the brain, and when back in the same environmental factors, the brain instantly goes into withdrawal. 25.Why can cocaine substitute for sexual activity? The same brain regions that are activated by cocaine cues are also activated by sexual activity, and drugs can substitute sex through corresponding stimulation of these same pleasure regions. Chapter 3 1.What is the effect of endorphins on the central nervous system? Endorphins have the characteristics of morphine and when they reach their receptor sites relieve pain 2.What purpose do endorphins serve? Relieving pain. 3.How can use of opiates be explained by stress? Opiates create a feeling of euphoria and wellbeing, making people forget about the stress they are under. 4.Why do patients prescribed morphine for long term pain rarely develop a craving for the drug? Patients prescribed morphine for a long time rarely develop of craving because the point of the drug was to relieve pain, and over a long term usage it can cause an endorphin deficiency, meaning the user does not need it anymore. 5.How can heroin result in hypersensitivity to stress? Heroin use inhibits the release of stress hormones and stress related neurotransmitters. 6.Why cannot the chemicals need to produce heroin be outlawed? The same chemicals are needed to produce medicinal morphine 7.What is the difference between no. 3 and no. 4 heroin? No. 3 heroin is used for smoking, no. 4 heroin is used for injection 8.How can an endorphin deficiency explain heroin use? A person with an endorphin deficiency is unable to deal with stress and vulnerable to depressants that inhibit the release of stress hormones. 9.What are the four effects a user can experience from ingesting heroin? 1. The rush 2. The high 3. The nod 4. Being straightan addicts description of their condition when their not sick, 'how the heroin healed them'. 10.What is oxycodone (OxyContin)? "Hillbilly heroin". A synthetic version of morphine 11.How do barbiturates differ from heroin? Lawfully produced barbiturates are found in tablet or capsule form. 12.Why have benzodiazepines largely replaced barbiturates? Benzodiazepines are often prescribed for stress and anxiety, and are safer and have fewer side effects than barbiturates 13.How does alcohol differ from other depressants? Alcohol at low doses initially acts as a stimulant and reduced inhibitions 14.Why is alcohol likely to produce more intoxication in women than in men? Men are usually heavier than women, and women have less gastric acid and will absorb about 30% more alcohol than men 15.How does age affect the blood alcohol level? Older adults can get into trouble after drinking an amount of alcohol that would not be considered immoderate at a younger age. As people age, they lose muscle, bone, and lean body mass and acquire a greater percentage of body fat. 16.What is the relationship between genetics and alcoholism? Genetic factors influence the development of alcoholism. 17.Why is withdrawal from alcohol addiction potentially more dangerous than withdrawal from heroin? Alcohol directly affects the organs of the body, deteriorating them. 18.How does heavy drinking impact the liver? Chronic alcohol use leads to cirrhosis of the liver 19.What is fetal alcohol syndrome? Occurs when the mother drinks while baby is still in the womb, can result in a number of serious effects including mental retardation, growth deficiency, head and facial deformities, joint and limb abnormalities, and heart defects. 20.What are analogs and designer drugs? Designed by underground chemists to mimic controlled substances 21.What are the dangers of using Rohypnol, GHB, and GBL? Rohypnol used with alcohol can result in extreme intoxication, severely impaired judgements and motor skills, and can incapacitate a sexual assault victim who may black out and have little if any memory of the assault. GHB and GBL are CNS depressants that in high doses can produce unconsciousness and even respiratory failure. 22.Why is fentanyl more dangerous than heroin? Fentanyl compounds are quite potent and difficult for street dealers to cut properly, which results in overdose and death. Anyone with a basement lab and a chemistry degree could make his own synthetic heroin. Chapter 4 1.What physiological abnormalities can explain the use of powerful stimulants? Stimulation of neurotransmitters and/or an excess of MAO 2.What are the most commonly used stimulants? Nicotine and caffeine 3.How does cocaine affect transporter? Blocks neurotransmitter reabsorption by preventing reuptake transporters from performing their usual function. 4.How does the brain compensate for excessive dopamine? Decreases the number of dopamine receptors, and the remaining receptors become less sensitive. 5.What are the dangers of smoking coca paste? Coca paste has traces of a host of dangerous chemicals that can cause irreversible damage to the liver, lungs, and brain. 6.What is the effect of mixing cocaine with heroin? Mixing these two drugs produces an extremely intense activation of brain reward systems and is associated with a high fatality rate. 7.How does crack differ from cocaine hydrochloride? When freebase cocaine is heated (aka crack), the drug crosses the blood brain barrier in only a few seconds, providing an instantaneous high and intense gratification and a craving for more 8.What are the characteristics of cocaine withdrawal? Can result in formication 9.How and why is cocoaine used in medicine? Cocaine is used in surgery of the mucous membranes of the ear, nose, and throat and for procedures that require passing a tube through the nose or throat. 10.What are the dangers of cocaine abuse? Cocaine damages brain cells and large doses can cause irrational behavior 11.What are the danger of the illegal production of methamphetamine? When being produced, methamphetamines produce toxic fumes or explosions that a tiny spark or even the flip of a light switch could easily ignite. Also poses a serious environmental problem because outlawing of dumping chemical wastes into local streams or lakes or burying chemicals in ditches. 12.What are the effects of methamphetamine that are similar to those of cocaine? Accelerates the body's metabolism and produces euphoria, increases alertness, and gives the abuser a sense of increased energy. 13.Why does tolerance to methamphetamine develop rapidly? The brain compensates for the excessive dopamine caused by methamphetamine by decreasing the number of dopamine receptors, and the remaining receptors become less sensitive, so increased doses become necessary to achieve the desired effect. 14.What is the relationship between methamphetamine use and sexual activity? Methamphetamine use is associated with out of control sexual behavior 15.What are the dangers of methamphetamine use? Includes irregular heartbeat, meth mouth, and hypothermia with renal failure that can be fatal. Some users become hostile and aggressive and chronic users may also develop a drug induced psychosis. 16.What are Bath Saltz? Comes in powder and crystal forms like traditional bath salts, typically snorted Iin powder form or ingested as a pill but can also be smoked or injected. Similar to the high of ecstasy and stimulants such as cocaine. 17.How is nicotine similar to other stimulants? Nicotine is similar because it attaches to particular receptors triggering the release of stimulating neurotransmitters. 18.What are the dangers of smoking tobacco? Produces a rapid distribution of nicotine to the brain that dissipates in a few minutes, causing the smoker to continue dosing frequently throughout the day to maintain the drugs pleasurable effects and prevent withdrawal. 19.Why are smoking cigarettes harmful to participants in high energy sports? Nicotine constricts blood vessels causing the heart to work harder to maintain a sufficient level of oxygen. 20.What are the dangers of secondhand cigarette smoke? Responsible for 35500 nonsmoker deaths a year from heart disease. Can cause irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, and lungs, leading to coughing, chest aches, and excessive phlegm production. Chapter 5 1.How do hallucinogens affect the central nervous system? Hallucinogens excite the CNS, which overwhelms its ability to modulate sensory input. 2.Why can LSD cause a panic reaction? Can cause a panic type reaction when the user fails to comprehend that reality has not actually changed, but what they're seeing and feeling is merely a perception. 3.What determines whether an LSD trip will be a good one or a bad one? The difference between a good and bad LSD trip relies on the users attitude, current mood, expectations, and suggestions and attitudes of those around the user. 4.What are the effects of ingesting phencyclidine (PCP)? PCP can act as a stimulant or a depressant. It induces a feeling of 'flying with angels' and 'everlasting peace'. 5.What are the potential dangers of PCP use? It induces a schizophrenialike psychosis, which manifests agitation, excitement, mood, disorders, acute anxiety, paranoia, and violent behavior. 6.What are the effects of Ecstasy? Stimulant and hallucinogenic properties 7.What is the connection between raves and Ecstasy? Ecstasy is frequently used at raves 8.What are the dangers of Ecstasy? Large increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and myocardial oxygen consumption that can increase the risk of a cardiovascular catastrophe in people with preexisting heart diseases. Muscle tension, involuntary teeth clenching, nausea, blurred vision, feeling faint, tremors, rapid eye movement, and sweating/chills. 9.What is the primary legal use of ketamine? Ketamine is legally used in veterinary medicine to immobilize large cats or monkeys 10.What are the effects of marijuana? Starts off with restlessness, increased sense of well being and gregariousness, followed by a dreamy state of relaxation and frequent hunger. 11.What accounts for the relative mildness of marijuana withdrawal? The very long half life marijuana has. This means it works it way out of the body slowly over many days which obviates severe withdrawal symptoms. 12.What the four categories of inhalants? Volatile solvents, aerosols, anesthetics, and volatile nitrates 13.What are the effects and dangers of inhalant abuse? Effects are similar to those of alcoholfeeling less inhibited, disoriented, and uncoordinated. Dangers of long term use include damage to the organs such as the liver and kidneys and brain, however this is very rare. 14.What explains the popularity of the nonmedical use of prescription drugs? The popularity of these drugs stem from the incorrect perception that these are less dangerous, easier, and cheaper to attain than street drugs. 15.What are neuroenhancers? Neuroenhancers are like the study drugs we see today at universities, including Ritalin, Adderall, etc. 16.Why would high functioning persons use neuroenhancers? Neuroenhancers provide "high functioning, overcommitted people to become higherfunctioning and more overcommitted". They enhance focus and concentration, fight sleepiness, and improve memory. Chapter 6 1.What limits scientific testing in the social or behavioral sciences? Everyone is socially different and behaviorally responds differently to a multitude of different stimuli. This limits/makes scientific testing difficult because there is too many variables and not enough constants to make an accurate measure. 2.What has research determined with respect to the 'addictive personality'? The scientific research involving addictive personalities relating to drug abuse "has not been fruitful". 3.How is each of the first three stages of psychosexual developmentoral, anal, and genital linked to adult drug abuse? While the individual is experiencing these stages of development, corresponding psychic phenomena develop. For example, heroin and other powerful depressants suppress a sexual drive that is specific to the genital stage. Depressants help the person deal with guilt provoking feelings that were not fully resolved during that stage, meaning as an adult they turn to drug use to substitute for sex and to overcome the unconscious guilt provoking feelings they never learned in the genital stage. 4.How can depressants and stimulants enable a person to deal with guilt provoking incestuous feelings that were not adequately resolved during the genital stage? Stimulants enable the user to overcome genital stage based unconscious guilt provoking feelings, and depressants suppress the sex drive fixated in the genital stage region. 5.What is the connection between id, ego, and superego, and drug use? Drug abuse is connected to id because the craving for pleasure that needs to be immediately satisfied will cause the user to do anything to settle those cravings. Drug abuse is connected to ego is either ego constricting or ego expanding constricting meaning they take drugs to seek and be content with a quiet lonely life, and expanding meaning they take drugs to grow out of a self directed intensely competitive personality. Drug abuse is connected to superego with a dual purpose, drugs can reduce the anxiety caused by unresolved inner conflicts, and the deleterious aspects of drug abuse proves external punishment. 6.Why is drug use connected to adolescence? "Psychoanalytic theory views drug use as a symptom of neuroses that manifest themselves during adolescence." Meaning during this time in life, the brain is developing rapidly and different sections of the brain are growing faster and slower than others. Adolescents are more vulnerable to drug abuse than the adult brain as well. 7.What is the basic belief from which learning theory flows? A person is simply the sum product of his or her experience or learning, and learning is based on operant conditioning. 8.What is operant conditioning? Positive and negative reinforcement 9.What is the chronological order of positive and negative reinforcers? Positive reinforcers follow the behavior they reinforce, while negative reinforces precede the behavior they reinforce. A person works to receive a positive reinforcer and works to escape a negative reinforcer. 10.What is learned helplessness? Through inappropriate reinforcement, the drug abuser learns that he or she can neither escape nor avoid the stimulus leading to drug use. 11.Why is it important to separate drug use that is situational and transitional from drug dependence? It is important to separate these because it reminds us that because a young person has tried any illicit drugs does not mean that they will necessarily develop a pattern of long term misuse. 12.What are the three stages on the path to alcoholism? Goes through social drinking stages, heavy drinking stages, and dependent drinking stages to reach alcoholism. 13.What is the 'aging out' phenomenon? Deals with maturation, where after a certain life stage the use of drugs fades out, turns into sporadic use, or stops completely. 14.What is the relationship between drug use and age? Adolescents are the most likely to use drugs, while the older one gets the more mature they get, decreasing their use. 15.What are the five stages of heroin addiction? Experimentation, initiation, commitment, dysfunction, and maturation. 16.What are the typical steps involved in becoming cocaine dependent? Experimental use, compulsive use, and dysfunctional use. 17.What has research found in respect to crack cocaine? Research shows that crack cocaine presents a different progression because the speed with which this substance can lead to compulsive use. Crack users often report the inability to stop using. 18.If heroin users recognize the dangers involved, why do they continue to use heroin? They use it because it allows the addict to expand time and energy on achieving the goal of getting high. 19.According to the theory of anomie, what are the four ways to which people react to economic strain? They react with conformity, rebellion, innovation, and retreatism. 20.How does retreatism explain drug use? Retreatism abandons all attempts to reach conventional social goals in favor of a new, exciting, deviant adaptation. 21.How does the theory of differential association explain drug use? Differential association explains how criminal behavior is transmitted. It states criminal behavior is learned, and the principal learning occurs in intimate personal groups. The effectiveness of learning depends on the degree of intensity, frequency, and duration of the association. 22.How does social control theory explain drug use? Social control theory focuses on why, despite its reqrds, only relatively few people engage in deviant behavior; the answer is the strength of an individual's bond to society. 23.What is the relationship between subcultures and drug use? Subcultures are patterns of values, norms, and behavior which have become traditional among certain groups. Certain lower class subcultures negate middle class values and this serves as a severe handicap because middle class cultural characteristics are necessary to succeed in our society. The norms of some lower class subcultures are simply not conducive to conventional types of achievement, so they turn to drugs. 24.How does labeling impact the issue of drug use? Those who indulge in drugs earn the label of deserving punishment, and it creates the user to self identify with that, and continue doing the drugs. 25.What is the danger of a policy of 'zero tolerance'? While it may be politically viable, it can significantly limit a young persons social and economic options in a way that doesn't encourage conforming behavior as an adult. Key Terms Chapter 2 Agonists A synthetic substance that has a chemical makeup similar to that of another and stimulates receptor sites. Amygdala Part of forebrain that plays a role in emotional learning. AntagonistsTwo or more drugs that are taken together where one counteracts the effects of the other (1+1=0). Arousal Theory The theory that those whose central nervous system quickly habituates to incoming stimuli owing to a neurotransmitter malfunction are most apt to be reinforced for engaging in antisocial behavior and less likely to learn alternative behavior patterns. Axon The fiber like extension of a neuron by which the cell sends information to target cells. BloodBrain Barrier System that filters blood for toxins before it can enter the brain. Cell Body (Soma) Central structure of a neuron. Central Nervous System Brain and the spinal vertebrae that carry information to the brain. Dendrites A treelike extension of the neuron cell body. Along with the cell body, it receives information from other neurons. Dependence Stage of physical adaptation characterized by physical and/or psychological withdrawal symptoms when a substance is discontinued. Disease Model Explanation for drug use based on deficiencies or abnormalities in a person's physical or psychological makeup. Dopamine A stimulating (catecholamine) neurotransmitter present in regions of the brain that regulate movement, emotion, motivation, and feelings of pleasure; its absence results in Parkinson's disease. Endorphins Neurotransmitters produced in the brain that generate cellular and behavioral effects similar to morphine. HalfLife The time it takes for one half of a drug to be eliminated from the body. Intravenous Injection of a drug into a vein. KindlingRecurring drug reaction that occurs without continued ingestion. Monoamine Oxidases (MAO) Chemicals in the presynaptic terminals that control the level of neurotransmitters. Neurons Nerve cell for the transmission of information and characterized by long fibrous projections called axons, and shorter, branch like projections called dendrites. Neurotransmitters A chemical released by neurons at a synapse for the purpose of relaying information via receptors. Norepinephrine A neurotransmitter produced in the brain and in the peripheral nervous system that governs arousal and elevates mood. Parkinson’s Disease Neurological disorder caused by a dopamine deficiency and characterized by muscular rigidity and difficulty starting movements, tremors, and loss of balance. Polydrug UseUse of more than one psychoactive drug Potentiating Effects When two drugs have different actions, but when taken together each enhances the effects of the other. Synapses A gap between two neurons that functions as the site of information transfer from one neuron to another. Synergistic Effects Two drugs that have similar action Toleranceand frequent intervals, making the drug less effective; higher doses of a drug are required to produce the same effect. Transporters Neuron chemicals that carry a neurotransmitter back to its presynaptic terminal. Chapter 3 and 4 Alcohol Complex psychoactive substance that has both stimulating and depressing characteristics. Analogs Chemical compound that is similar to another drug in its effects but differs slightly in its chemical structure. China White Southeast Asian heroin of high purity Chipper Occasional user of heroin Cirrhosis Scarring of the liver, the result of alcohol abuse Delirium Tremens (DTs) A severe symptom of alcohol withdrawal. Designer DrugsAnalog of a restricted drug that has psychoactive properties Distillation Process used to extract alcohol from fermented grains or fruit EndorphinsNeurotransmitters produced in the brain that generate cellular and behavioral effects similar to morphine. FentanylPotent opiate agonist FermentationProcess by which yeast interactions with plant sugars to produce alcohol Fetal Alcohol EffectsA variety of conditions that result from a mother who drinks during pregnancy GBL aka gamma butyrolactone, a GHB precursor, colorless, odorless, virtually tasteless, and in very low doses a CNS depressant; In higher doses can produce unconsciousness and even respiratory failure. GBL was widely available as a dietary supplement In 'health food' stores until an FDA recall in 1999. GBL is used as an industrial solvent and tens of thousands of metric tons are produced each year. HighEuphoria or feeling of well being enjoyed by a substance user Kratom A mild depressant in dried tree leaves often ingested with tea Methaqualone aka quaaludes, Powerful hallucinogen MorphineOpiate derivative used to relieve pain Nod Heroin users description as being 'out of it', the state of unawareness, or escape from reality. Rohypnol A benzodiazepine (sedative) widely prescribed in Europe but not approved for use In the United States. Known to abusers as roofies or rope, it is often ingested with alcohol or marijuana, associated with cases of date rape. Rush How drug users describe a surge of pleasure that follows the intake of psychoactive substance Thiamine (vitamin B1)An essential nutrient required by all tissues including the brain Weekender Those who use drugs only on occasion, on weekends or at parties only to avoid addiction WernickeKorsakoff Syndrome A deficiency in thiamine (vitamin B1) ADHD aka attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, a development disorder often treated with amphetamine. AmphetamineArtificially produced central nervous system stimulant. Bath SaltzSynthetic central nervous system stimulants BZP A club drug with properties similar to amphetamine Caffeine Mild stimulant found in coffee and also used in some beverages Cocaine Powerful stimulant derived from the coca plant Coca Paste Product of the first step in extracting cocaine from coca leaves typically smoked with either tobacco or marijuana Crack Smokable form of cocaine Ephedra Plant species with stimulant properties Ephedrine Stimulant used in treating allergies and cold symptoms Formication Sensations caused by cocaine and amphetamine that insects are crawling under the skin Freebase Cocaine hydrochloride whose crystalline base is separated to enable smoking Gateway Drug Substances that presage use of other psychoactive drugs, like nicotine leading to marijuana. Kindling Recurring drug reaction that occurs without continued ingestion Magnon’s Syndrome see Formication MethamphetaminePowerful CNS stimulant NicotineTobacco plant alkaloid responsible for smoking's psychoactive and addictive effects Precursor Chemical Chemical that is critical to the manufacturing process and becomes part of the final drug RitalinStimulant used for treating ADHD StimulantPsychoactive chemical that activates the central nervous system and elevates mood Chapter 5 Amanita Muscaria Hallucinogenic mushroom Amyl Nitrite Volatile inhalant muscle relaxant AnestheticsAgent that causes insensitivity to pain Bad TripSlang for negative effects of hallucinogen ingestion BenzodiazepineDrugs that relieve anxiety or are prescribed as sedatives among the most widely prescribed medications, including Valium and Librium Cannabinoid Receptors Binding site for active ingredients in cannabis Club DrugsA term used to characterize psychoactive substances associated with dance parties or raves, in particular MDMA, known as Ecstasy. Depersonalization "Out of body" experiences or misperceptions of reality Dimethyltryptamine aka DMT, a hallucinogenic substance that occurs naturally in many plants Dissociative Anesthetic Anesthetics that distort perceptions of sight and sound and produce feelings of detachment. Flashback Recurring low intensity trips without having ingested LSD recently Hallucinations Perceiving sounds, odors, tactile sensations, or visual images that arise from within the person, not the environment. Hallucinogen Natural or artificial chemicals that can produce distortions of reality Hashish More potent form of marijuana Ketamine Surgical anesthetic related to PCP Lysergic Acid Diethylamide aka LSD, is a hallucinogen that can be produced artificially or from ergot Marijuana Cannabis Marinol (dronabinol) Trade name for THC, the active ingredient in marijuana that is used in medicine MDMA (ecstasy)Designer drug having hallucinogenic and amphetamine like characteristics MescalineHallucinogen found in the peyote cactus Nitrous Oxide 'Laughing gas' used as an anesthetic and abused for its intoxicating effects Peace Pill Phencyclidine (PCP) PeyoteCactus plant whose buttons have hallucinogenic properties Phencyclidine (PCP) aka Peace Pill, initially developed as a general anesthetic for surgery. PsilocybinHallucinogen found in certain mushrooms PsychedelicHallucinogen RaveLate night dance party at which club drugs are often used Rohypnol A benzodiazepine (sedative) widely prescribed in Europe but not approved for use in the USA. Better known as roofies. Synesthesia "Seeing" sound and "hearing" visual input Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)Active ingredient in marijuana Toluene Ingredient in solvents that causes intoxication when inhaled. Volatile Substances Nondrug chemical inhaled for its psychoactive effects Chapter 6 Addictive Personality A psychological vulnerability for drug abuse Adolescence/Adulthood A stage in life where the individual experiences a dramatic reawakening of genital interest and awareness and becomes capable of reproduction. Anal StagePeriod in early childhood when the anus becomes the center of erotic interest AnomieA condition characterized by estrangement from society, the result of being unable to achieve financial success through legitimate avenues Autonomy Independence of external restraint Behavior Modification Treatment approach based on learning theory BehaviorismMajor school of psychology based on learning theory Conformity A way people respond to anomie where most people scale down their aspirations and conform to conventional social norms. Dependent Drinking A type of drinker who is addicted to alcohol and suffers from many consequences, like the inability to function normally either socially, intellectually, or physically. Differential Association Explains how criminal behavior is transmitted, it complements learning theory. Disease ModelExplanation for drug use based on deficiencies or abnormalities in a person's physical or psychological makeup. Ego Psyche's contact with reality that maximizes gratification with a minimum of difficulties Electra Complex During the genital stage where girls experience strong attachment to their fathers. Excitement Thrills, Risk, Danger External Restraints Includes social disapproval linked to public shame and/or social ostracism and fear of punishment. Fate Being lucky Genital StageChildhood period when erotic interest is focused on sexual organs in anticipation of adulthood Heavy Drinking A type of drinker that uses alcohol to escape IdMass of powerful drives, wishes, urges that are energized in the form of the libido Innovation A way people respond to anomie where Merton defines as the use of illegitimate means to gain success, in particular professional and organized criminality, including drug trafficking Internal Restraints Includes what psychoanalytic theory refers to as the superegothese restraints provide a sense of guilt Labeling A usually negative view by society of certain individuals Learning TheoryConcept that behavior is shaped by its consequences LibidoEmotional energy; sex drive Negative Reinforcement Removal of a stimulus that increases the likelihood of a behavior Oedipus Complex During the gential stage when boys experience strong attachments to their mothers Operant Conditioning Repeated presentation of removal of a stimulus (reinforcer) following a behavior to increase the probability of the behavior. If the probability of a behavior increases after removal, negative reinforcement has occurred. Positive ReinforcementA stimulus that increases the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated Psychoanalytic Theory Belief that unconscious material controls conscious behavior Rebellion A way people respond to anomie where they reject the conventional social structure and seek instead to establish a new social order through political action or alternative lifestyle. Retreatism A way people deal with anomie which explains drug abuse; where the individual abandons all attempts to reach conventional social goals in favor of a deviant adaptation Smartness Ability to con others, shrewdness Social Control Theory Drug use is influenced by the strength of an individuals bond to conventional society Social DrinkingA type of drinker where alcohol is used to enhance pleasant social situations. Superego Psychic mechanism exercising a critical influence; a sense of morality that controls behavior Symbolic Interactionism Sociological perspective whose focus is on how particular people or behaviors are labeled. Toughness Physical prowess, daring Unconscious According to psychoanalytic theory, repressed feelings and experiences that exert an influence over the conscious behavior. Zero Tolerance A strategy that imposes sanctions for the slightest violation.
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