Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide SOC 1001
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Edelstein on Saturday March 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 1001 at George Washington University taught by Dr Osborne in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 95 views.
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Date Created: 03/21/15
Sociology 1001 Spring 2015 Exam 2 Study Guide Social Interaction a term sociologists use to refer to the ways in which people respond to one another whether facetoface or over the phone or on the computerinternet Social Structure the way in which a society is organized into predictable relationships Herbert Blumer Sociologist 196979 said that the distinctive characteristic of social interaction among people is that quothuman beings interpret or de ne each other s actions instead of merely reacting to each other s actionsquot l in other words our response to someone s behavior is based on the meaning we attach to his or her actions Reality is shaped by our perceptions evaluations and de nitions Meanings usually re ect the norms and values of the dominant culture and our socialization experiences within that culture lAs interactionists emphasize the meanings that we attach to people s behavior are shaped by our interactions with them and the larger society The nature of social interaction and what constitutes reality varies across cultures Elements of Social Structure lAll social interactions occur in a social structure including interactions that rede ne social reality We can break down any social structure into six elements that make up social structure and are developed through a lifelong process of socialization Status any of the full range of socially de ne positions within a large group or society from the lowest to the highest 0 Ascribed Status assigned to a person by society without regard for a person s unique talents or characteristics l takes place at birth race gender and age 0 Achieved Status comes to us largely through our efforts our occupations are achieved statuses We must do something to acquire an achieved status 0 Master Status a status that dominates others and thereby determines a person s general position in society 0 Our society gives so much importance to gender and race that they tend to dominate our lives so our ascribed status tend to determined our achieved status Social Roles a set of expectations for people who occupy a given social position or status ex We expect cab drivers to know how to get around a city Each distinctive social status whether ascribed or achieved comes with particular role expectations Role Con ict happens when incompatible expectations arise from two or more social positions held by the same person lfulfillment of the roles associated with one status may directly violate the roles linked to a second status lalso occurs when people move into occupations that are not common among people of their ascribed status Role Strain a term used by sociologists to describe the difficulty that arises when the same social position imposes con icting demands and expectations Role Exit developed by Helen Rose Fuchs Ebaugh 1998 to describe the process of disengagement from a role that is central to one s selfidentity lFour stages of role exit 1 Doubt the person experiences frustration burnout or unhappiness with an accustomed status and the roles associated with the social position 2 Search for Alternatives a person who is unhappy with his or her career may take leave of absence an unhappily married couple may begin what they see as a temporary separation 3 Action Stage or Departure a clear turning point that makes people feel it is essential to take nal action and leave theirjobs end their marriages or engage in another type of role exit 4 Creation of a New Identity participating in a role exit like going from high school to college l leaving behind the role of offspring living at home to the role of a somewhat independent college student living with peers in a dorm Groups any number of people with similar norms values and expectations who interact with one another on a regular basis lgroups play a vital role in society s social structure because so many of our social interactions take place within groups and are in uenced by their norms and sanctions Primary groups a small group characterized by intimate face toface association and cooperation These groups play a pivotal role both in the socialization process and in the development of roles and statuses Secondary groups formal impersonal group in which there is little social intimacy or mutual understanding l they often emerge in the workplace among those who share special understandings about their occupation lngroups any group or category to which people feel they belong comprises everyone who is regarded as we or quotusquot Outgroup a group or category to which people feel they do not belong Reference Groups any group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating themselves and their own behavior Two basic purposes they serve a normative function by setting and enforcing standards of conduct and belief and may help the process of anticipatory socialization Coalition a temporary or permanent alliance geared toward a common goal can be broad based or narrow and can take on many different objectives Social Networks a series of social relationships that links a person directly to others and through them indirectly to still more people they are one of the six basic elements of social structure and can center on virtually any activity Strati cation and Social Mobility in the USA Social Inequality a condition in which members of society have different amounts of wealth prestige or power think occupy wall street l some degree of social inequality characterizes every society Strati cation a structured ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in a society this involves the way that one generation passes on social inequalities to the next which persuades groups of people arranged in rank order from low to high Strati cation ultimately leads to social inequality Income salaries and wages Wealth an inclusive term encompassing all a person s material assets including land stocks and other properties Closed System hereditary ranks that are usually religiously dictated and tend to be xed and immobile closed Open System based on achievement allows movement in and out Class System based on both social factors and individual achievement Class set of people who have similar status in terms of wealth income education and occupation people can form exogamous marriages marrying within their social category or endogamous marrying within social category Meritocracy personal effort or merit determines your social standing it is an ideal not necessary reality Consistency or lack thereof of an individual s rank across factors High rigid less mobility Low more exible more opportunities this can lead to frustration Social Mobility ability to change positions within a social strati cation system lupward mobility downward mobility lntergenerational Mobility between generations of a family lntergenerational between members of the same generation Systems of Strati cation Distinguishes between achieved status and ascribed status Ascribed Status a social position assigned to a person by society without regard for the person s unique talents or characteristics Achieved Status a social position that one earns through his or her efforts 1 Slavery most extreme form of legalized social inequality for individuals and groups lenslaved individuals are owned by other people who treat these human beings as property as if they were household pets or appliances a Varies in practice b Now universal declaration of human rights prohibits slavery in all forms Yet more people are enslaved today than ever have been at any point in world history 2 Castes hereditary ranks that are usually religiously dictated and tend to be xed and immobile closed system Socialization process in which people learn the attitudes values and behaviors appropriate for members of a particular culture happens through human interactions that begin at infancy and continue through retirement Personality referring to a person s typical pattern of attitudes needs characteristics and behavior Con ict nature vs nurture is personality formed through social interactions or the way one is born and how they inherently are sabele Case Study secluded in a dark room for six years had no developmental skills couldn t speak afraid of strangers children need socialization in the form of love care and affection Minnesota Twin Family Study follows 137 sets of identical twins reared apart at birth to determine what similarities they show in personality traits behavior and intelligence Similar temperaments voice patterns nervous habits hereditary Different attitudes values and chosen mates and drinking habits environmental Our concept of who we are emerges as we interact with others Self a distinct identity that sets us apart from others Cooley LookingGlass Self we learn who we are by interacting with others view of ourselves comes from direct contemplation of personal qualities and our impressions of how others perceive us Three phases 1 Imagine how we present ourselves to others 2 Imagine how others evaluate us intelligent attractive shy etc 3 Develop a feeling about ourselves respect or share from the impressions Mead Stages of Self model of the process by which self emerges in three stages 1 Preparatory imitate people around us understand symbols 2 Play pretend to be other people 3 Game grasp our social positions Generalized Other attitudes viewpoints and expectations of society as a whole that a child takes into account in hisher behavior Mead Theory of Self the self begins at the privileged and central position l Signi cant Others as we get older we care about others more than just ourselves think babies as most sel sh individuals who are most important in the development of self many young people find themselves drawn to the same work that their parents engage in GOFFMAN Presentation of Self many of our daily activities involve attempts to convey impressions of who we are Early Life lmpression Management the individual learns to slant hisher presentation of self to create distinctive appearances and satisfy certain audiences Dramaturgical Approach people resemble performances in action clerk may try to appear busier than heshe is if a supervisor is watching Face Work feeling the need to maintain a proper image of the self if we are going to continue the social interaction PIAG ET Cognitive Theory of Development four stages in the development of children s thought process 1 Sensorimotor children use their senses to make discoveries 2 Preoperational children begin to use words and symbols to distinguish objects and ideas 3 Concrete Operational children engage in more logical thinking learning that even a formless lump of clay can be shaped into something that is real 4 Formal Operational adolescents become capable of sophisticated abstract thought and can deal with ideas and values in a highly logical manner Piaget said that interaction is key to development saying that as children grow older they pay attention to much more with regards to how others behave and why they behave in these ways Agents of Socialization 1 Family where the lifelong process of learning that begins shortly after birth starts Family members constitute an important part of newborns and children s social environments administering their needs by feeding cleaning carrying and comforting Exposure to cultural assumptions with gender and race occurs through family members Gender Role expectations regarding the proper behavior attitudes and activities of particular genders Parents play a critical role in guiding children into gender roles deemed appropriate in society 2 School schools have an explicit mandate to socialize people especially in the USA Schools foster competition through builtin systems of reward and punishment like grade evaluations Samuel Bowles and Herbert Ginits Schools ful ll functions of teaching children the values and customs of the larger society and reinforce the divisive aspects of society 3 Peer Group peer groups increasingly assume the role of Mead s signi cant others 4 Mass Media and Technology television and the internet are increasingly important critical forces in the socialization of children in the USA Young people imitate what they see through the media in their behavior whether this is good or bad 5 Workplace allows one to learn how to behave approrpriately in a professional environment There is a change in socialization in the workplace from an afterschool job to fulltime employment Rite of Passage means of dramatizing and validating changes in a person s status These can mark separation or incorporation l worldwide social phenomenon that mark stages of development in the course of life and indicate that the process of socialization continues through all stages of life Life Course Approach sociologists who look closely at the social factors that in uence people throughout their lives from birth to death including gender and income recognizing that biological changes mold but don t dictate human behavior Anticipatory Socialization the process of socialization in which a person rehearses for future positions occupations and social relationships A culture can function more efficiently and smoothly if members become acquainted with the norms values and behavior associated with a social position before actually assuming that status Resocialization the process if discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as a part of a transition in one s life Total Institution an institution that regulates all aspects of a person s life under a single authority such as a prison the military a mental hospital or a convent Goffman39s Four Traits of Total Institutions 1 All aspects of life are conducted in the same place under the control of a single authority 2 Any activities within the institution are conducted in the company of others in the same circumstances for example army recruits or novices in a convent 3 The authorities devise rules and scheduled activities without consulting participants 4 All aspects of life in a total institution are designed to ful ll the purpose of the organization So all activities in a monastery might be centered on prayer and communion with God Role Transitions Through Life We don t experience things the same way at different points in life How we move through our life course depends on our personal preferences and circumstances l Midlife Crisis a stressful period of selfevaluation experienced by men and women when they realize they have not achieved basic goals and ambitions in life and have little time left to do so The Sandwich Generation adults who simultaneously try to meet the competing needs of their parents and their children caregiving that goes in two directions
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