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eemb study guide

by: Anahit Ghaltaghchyan

eemb study guide EEMB 3

Anahit Ghaltaghchyan

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Dr. Carlson
Study Guide
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anahit Ghaltaghchyan on Sunday June 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EEMB 3 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Dr. Carlson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see in EEMB at University of California Santa Barbara.


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Date Created: 06/12/16
Animal physio Diverse ecosystems are healthier Diverse ecosystems recover from disturbances faster Ecosystems provide us with resources Lecture 1 Characteristics of animals Common ancestors What traits do all animals share? Firstly, sponges ANIMALS Multicellular organisms but incredibly diverse Nutritionally, heterotopic metabolism Must consume organic compounds Lack ability to make them from inorganic molecules Digest internally, somewhat (highly variable in the animal kingdom) Feeding strategies Fiber feeders, herbivores, predators, parasites, detritivores Motion Motion is relative Locomote to get food Move environment “sit and wait” energy is expended sensory systems are unique as compared to plants -sensory structure variety nervous system to process and coordinate the sensory information and “organize” a response behavior- animal behavior is much more complex than plants need to look at what ALL animals share. Common ancestor? Most likely a colonial protest The metazoan lineage is monophyletic Choanoflagellida- links protists and animals. colonial and thought to be related to sponges Monophyly supported by Sequence similarities in 5S and 18S ribosomal RNA Sharing similar Hox genes A series of special cell-cell interactions A common set of extracellular matrix molecules such as collagen SPONGES Unique features Unique feeding systems Cell types are key feature Phylum Porifera Pore bearer 8000 described species. Estimates as many as 15,000 total three types desmosponges glass sponges calcareous sponges multicellular lack level organization that other metazoans have cells are totipotent – not differentiated and can alter form and function asymmetrical – yet have unified body plan. Water moving system Flagella (create current) , choanocyte, spicule, pore, osculum No true skeleton Spicules- supporting spines Not a skeleton, also can be some other fibers Made of different materials such as calcium carbonate or silica FEEDING- water filter Choanocyte- deeding, creates current Ameobocyte – contains enzymes Porocyte –line pores Sclerocyte- synthesize spicules Biodiversity Very diverse in color shapes, 8000+ species, predominantly marine. Found at all latitudes and in all marine environments from the deep sea to the intertidal zone. Body shape tends to correlate to habitat (current, pressure from water flow) Marine bioprospecting Pharmaceuticals from marine interverbrates - important argument for conservation of the world oceans Sessile- susceptible to predation Anti cancer drugs Halichondria okadai Halichondrin B Anti melanoma and leukemia In clinical trials now Irish sea- discodermia Anti cancer natural products, probably active against MRSA Barcoding project 5 sites at the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) about 640 bp 5/16 Phylum Cnidaria- contains over 10,000 species- long term view: coral reef bleaching Anthozoans- corals and sea anemones Svyphozoans- jellyfish Hydrozoans Cubazoans Next split after sponges, more complexity, true tissue layers seen (endo and ectoderm) yet no true mesoderm. Distinct organ system appears. Most are marine Carnivores (simple)-predators Very low metabolic rates- can survive in cold and nutrient poor water (polar) Some swim, some don’t ALL have  Radial symmetry  2 distinct tissue layers o epidermis and gastrodermis  a middle gelatinous later the mesoglea- in between the 2 living tissues  tentacles- surrounding the mouth  only a single opening to the digestive system (blind gut) o gastrovascular cavity  multiple purposes_ digestion, gas exchange, circulation  a diffusion based system  high surface area  surface area: volume and function relationship  lacking of circulatory system  extracellular digestion  cells in gastroderm contain digestive enzymes  epithelial cells with muscle fibers that allow movement  stinging cells- nematocysts- that account for stinging activity that is associated with these animals o cnidocytes. Cells are at the end of tentacles o eject a nematocyst o “threadbags” o can inject toxins into prey o very specialized cell type o varying levels of toxicity an advance in the nervous department unlike sponges, cnidarians have nerves and muscles first animal (metazoan) ………………….. ………………….. o 4 main groups o scyphozoans  the “jellyfish” or G: cup animals  thick mesoglea  large, effective swimmers  all marine  locomotion: simple nerve net. Sophisticated sensors?  Medusa and polyp o Hydrozoa o Contains the only freshwater o Sessil o Portuguese man of war/ “blue bottle” in Australia o Colonial organism o Four types of zooids  Pneumatophore  Dactylozoids  For defense  Fishing  10 meters long and covered in nematocysts o non toxic in California. Velelle o Members of anthozoa o G flower animals o Corals and sea anemones o Coral” reef building organisms o Living tissue around hard structures and polyp which combine with others (cup analogy) o Coral algal symbiosis: key species relationship in coral reef ecosystem  Most reef building corals contain photosynthesis algae, called ZOOCANTHELLAE that live in their tissues  Mutualistic relationship: coral provides the algae with a protected environment and compound they need for photosynthesis  Most reef building corals normally contain 1-5X1o^6 zoo of surface life tissue and greater than 10^10 algal symbionts UNIT AREA or VOLUME? Coral belaching: stress at high temperatures Loss of symbiotic zoo and or reduction in photosynthetic pigment in zoo.. residing within corals Zoo give coral their color, in their absence only the pale skeleton can be seen through the polyps transparent tissues Often leads of death, although some can recover algae start to grow on top of the dead coral.. “grief” heat stress and corals living near supper critical limits of temperatures vulnerable to global warming o Sensitive; small changes in temperatures triggers bleaching o Sea temperatures are +.7 C warmer than any other time o Rates to change in global temperature over the past century are 2 to 3 orders of magnitude than most of the changes seen in the past 420,0 years o Degree Heating Weeks DHWs o Monitor when sear surface temperature exceeds 1 C above the maximum summertime mean o Calculated over 12 weeks Adaptive bleaching hypothesis Premise; bleaching is a regulated mechanism that corals use to switch out symbionts in response to variable environmental conditions High risk ecological opportunity 5/18/16 purple shoes Protostome Animals I- Worms Lopho Body plans- just from having a gut ectoderm and endoderm to having a mesoderm and coel as well. Triploblastic, next tri[loblastic coelomate Evolution of true muscle ALL HAVE PARASITE MEMBERS Human health Parasites Symbionts Intimate and durable (ecological and evolutionary time) relationship Parasites benefit at the host’s expense A parasite deeds on a host without killing it Parasite strategy 1. Reproduce within the host 2. Get fertilized eggs or embryos out of the host 3. Contact and recognize a new, correct host 4. Get entrance into the host 5. Locate the new appropriate environment within the host 6. Hold on to the host 7. Withstand what is often an oxygen poor environment 8. Avoid digestion or attack by the host’s immune system 9. Avoid killing the host, at least until developed to the appropriate life stage 10. Very efficient at converting food to energy Diversity Phyla Playuhelminthes (flatworms, vivid colors, tropical ecosystems) o Flat, simplest animals with bilateral symmetry o 25,000 species o increasing physiological and ecological complexity o free living and over half are parasitic o most are flukes and tapeworms o tripoblastic  first to evolve a true mesoderm o aceolomates o having a primitive hut  lack of anus. One pharyngeal opening 1. diffusion is a significant force a. respire by diffusion b. no cell too far from the outside 2. flattened shape is functional necessity 3. high surface area to volume ratio 4. can support an active lifestyle 5. cephalization and sensory capability a. strong accordance of cephalization in anterior end b. eyespots are present. Orientation towards light c. sense pretty using chemoreceptors, mechanoreceptors and statocysts d. primitive NS i. but distinct “brain” (central ganglion_) with longitudinal nerve code planarians, turballaria, trematoda(all parasites, FLUKES, schistosomiasis ), , monogenea, cestoda – tapeworm  all internal parasites  vertebrate definitive host  highly specialized for the parasitic lifestyle o no mouth of digestive tract o greatly increased external surface area o scolex- the attachment structure o reproductive specialists o protoglottid  mature ones contain eggs  break off or burst in gut of host  eggs are shed in feces  white grains of rice  sushi Nemertean- ribbon worms I. 900 species II. soft bodies III. unsegmeneted IV. very long 30 m V. complete gut and anus VI. simplest circular system VII. recognized as simplest animal with true vascular system BUT NOT HEART VIII. carnivores IX. proboscis- special feeding organ a. hollow feeding organ b. ejected from the worm Body wall musculature and the rhynochoel act as a hydrostatic skeleton Some nemerteans are effective borrowers No burrowing flatworms Mechanical advantaged X. mostly marine a. a few freshwater b. a few terrestrial species c. very FEW parasites Annelida a. bodies are a series of repeating segments ganglion control each segment b. true coelom c. muscles d. expansion of diversity: FOUR CLASSES Annelid diversity 1. polychaete a. exlusively marine b. possess parapodia i. distinc thin flattened outgrowth of the body wall ii. important role in polychaete identification iii. locomotion 2. oligochaete- terrestrial ecosystem, earthworms, all hermaphroditic, 3. hirudinea (leeches) a. 500-60o sp. b. Ectoparasites- most commonly on the blood of vertebrates c. Posterior sucker d. Huridin release- keeps wound open. Anticoagulant opens so leeches can feed. Used in medicine to draw off excel blood 4. Pogonophora- tube worms a. MOLLUSCA Lophotrochozoa – 7 types of Mollusca, but will only focus on Chitons Bivalves Gastropods Cephalopods About 100,000 living species. Dissimilar body shapes. No typical mollusc DEFINING 1. Muscular foot, used for locomotion or clinging 2. Dorsal epithelium forms a mantle which secretes a calcareous shell from calcium carbonate 3. Visceral a (centralized organs) 4. Band of teeth (radula) sued for deeding but MISSING in BIVALVES Body plan 1. Shell, greatly 2. reduced coelom 3. Complete digestive system 4. Open circulatory system (except in cephalopods) Chitons – Poluplacophora  About 900 sp  Marine  Common in the intertidal zone  Restricted to living on hard substrata such as rocks  Have distinctive shells, 8 overlapping distinct shells  Girdles act as suction gap. Big foot in the back  Grazers  Adaptation for life in areas with heavy wave action Gastropods- Gastropoda  Visceral mass sitting atom a muscular foot  90-190 degree torsion of visceral mass and nervous system during embryonic development  operculum  terrestrial lifestyle  large class among molluscan species  most diverse groups of animals in form, habitat and habitat Nudibranchs  kleptocnide – sting predetors, yet slow moving. Biological sandbag  Bivalves – Balvalvia  freshwater marine  10,000 species  sedimentary lifestyle  body form o hinged shell with abductor muscle o lateral compression of body and foot o lack of cephalization o absence of radula (gills) o clams. Mussels, scallops, oysters o byssal threads  properties of which are changed due to ocean acidification. Causes to break cephalopods  fast moving, acting carnivores  complex behavior  extreme cephalization  only nautilus has an external shell  ability to learn and remember things  locomotion o bipedal locomotion with a hydrostatic skeleton o mimicry o skin color change Squid  largest fisheries in California  jet propulsion locomotion  vulnerable to predation due to loss of SHELL  photophores- bioluminescence  chromatophores  squid mating orgies o odor in egg mops o a lot of genetic diversity vampire squids Unique among molluscans Closed circulatory system Large differentiated brain Behavior. Memory, learning 5/27/16 Echinoderms- first deuterostome animals Many evolutionary paralleles with the protostomes Ecological Both colonized land, filter feeding food sources Anatomical Compartmentalization of body, feeding appendages, mechanism to move water or feeding, planktonic feeding larval stages Contain echinoderms, hemichordates and chordates Share part of our evolutionary lineage. Manu of great importance to ecosystems. Complex relationships to humans in terms of agriculture, fishing and medicine Sea urchins- calcareous outer shell, spines poking out Strictly marine. Highly represented in fossil records due to calcareous shell Calcified internal skeleton Water vascular system- series of fluid filled canals, connected to numerous Hydrostatic control feeding and locomotion appendages the tube feet 5 pointed radial symmetry in the ADULT. The larvae is bilaterally symmetric echinopluteus larvae Merow plankton Ocean change and stress on these organisms Generally lack respiratory system, only rudimentary circulatory system Sunflower star- pycnopodia- largest echinoderm with 24 arms. 1 M diameter, 15,000 tube feet. 1 meter/ minute movement. Active predator Pelmatozoa- the CRINOIDS- feathery Sea lilies and feather stars Only 80 extant species abundant as shown by the diversity found in the fossil records Sessile Eleutherozoa- rest, stars uchins, benthic lifestyles  mobile  class echinoidiea- sea urchins and sand dollars o lack arms but have 5 part radial symmetry o grazers o red urchins: important for California fishery o purple urchin genome sequencing project aristotles lantern  specialized feeding structure around the esophagus  composed of hard ossicles and muscles  used to scrape and capture prey control of sea urchins- predators? With sea otters- kelp is healthy Kelp supports other organisms, thus otters predatory relationship with sea urchins is important for the ecosystem Red urchin- important food source that is actually east to get and expensive Sand dollars0 irregular urchins Class holothuroidea Sea cucumbers  calcareous occicles are greatly reduced and embedded in body wall  very worm shaped  tentacles; tube feet are modified  no cephalization  evisceration – escape response o expulsion of GI tract through the anus o defense or seasonal atrophy o usually regenerate asteroidia- sea stars- predators Evert stomach onto or into prey secrete digestive enzymes and absorb nutrients regeneration of arm. Srap gene expressed really highly in the wound healing site. Ophiurodia – brittle stars PHYLUM Chordata-Lecture 8 Hemichordata- acorn worms Three principle clades Chephalocordata Urochordata Vertebrata What distinguished chordates? Very diverse. Range from sea squirts to mammals. Body form is very diverse. Complex body organization. Diversity of metabolic strategies Significance- notochord, development of new feeding strategies (jaws), mechanisms of locomotion evolve Defining characteristics Dorsal hollow nerve cord, notochord, post anal tail Lancelets Musculature of the body is divided up into V shaped blocks called myomeres/ swimming occurs via alternate contractions of myomeres on each side of the boyd. Notochord is not compressible so body shoes not “shorten”, b ut bends Urochordates 1. three groups, tunicates a. bodies covered by tunic b. sac like body, two siphons c. enlarges pharynx d. suspensions feeders 2. thalacians 3. larvacians larva has all the chordate features but some are lost when form into the adult ascidian genome project- Forward genetics 1. 80 % shared genes with us 2. simpler genome: seeing our ancestral genes Vertebrates- thought to have evolves from estuarine ancestors  hagfishes and lampreys (both jawless fish)  new dorsal vertebral column evolves in part of the notochord  slime substance – used as defense Vertebrates Specialized structures for: support, locomotion and feeding Large body size- homoeothermic Invasion of all habitats Aquatic and terrestrial forms Air breathers and water breathers New forms of locomotion Different reproductive strategies Evolution of internal fertilization Viviparous animals Eat large prey items- jaw and teeth Evolve true powered flight Major characteristics of vertebrates Anterior skill enclosing large brain Internal skeleton supported by vertebral column Organs in coelom Circulatory system What makes a vertebrate a vertebrate? Chordates with a spinal column- attachment of muscles to internal frame Vertebrates differ from other chordates by their vertebral column and head (craniate chordates)c Others, neural crests, internal organs, endoskeleton All non vertebrate deuterostomes are marine Evolution of jaw  first occurred in placoderms o early jawed fishes, now extinct, heavily armored  modification of anterior gill arches teeth, jaws and chewing=increased feeding efficiency (omnivorous diet intended for humans) class chondrichtyes  evolution of jaws  carilagunous fishes o skates, rays, sharks and chimaeras  increased mobility o no armor as in placoderms o fins ( 3 pair, pectoral and pelvic)  ancient lineage  skeleton is composed of cartilage  lack true bone, expect teeth may be calcified class osteichthys o ray finned o evolutionary novelty o swim bladder o internal skeleton is bone, a living tissue o ecology o freshwater skeleton o marine o estyuarine o salmon o swim bladder- ecologically significant for fish o early bony fishes evolved this sac structure to aid in respiration o supplementary gills o good for hapoxic environments o in most modern bony fishes, now solely a buoyancy organs o neutral buotancy o also aids in hearing underwater and sound generation sharks have no swim bladders – reason for locomotion being different for them locomotion tuna biologging evolution of the terapods o ancestral form? o Lungfish like animal o Exploited new food? o Most likely had a joint fin to aid locomotion on land Tetrapods- 4 major classes Amphibian, reptiles, aves, mamals Amphibian o Most basal tetrapods o Double life o Breathe through skin and lungs in some species o Always connected to water Challenges o Water loss o Dessication of body o Must reproduce in xeric environment o Adaptations o The amniote egg o Water tight skin o Kidneys that can concentrate the urine o Class reptillia o Successful amniote lineage Aves o Evolved from the dinosaur lineage o Evolved specialization for flight o Feathers o Light hollow bones o One way breathing system o Powerful flight muscles attached to breathbone o Radiation into numerous habitats o Diving o Aquatic forms o Birds that have lost flight Example- duck breast muscle is red due to a lot of myoglobin being used in the breast tissue for flight as opposed to chickens who have white breasts due to their lack of flight, but has red muscles in their thigh meat How did flight evolve? o Scales modified to feather o Convergent evolution o It’s the flight stroke that matters o Ground up or trees down hypothesis o Feathers are insulators? o Why? o Escape predators o Catch new prey o Free hind legs as weapons o Dispersal Mammalia o Ancestors- a mammal like reptile o Warm blooded- homoeothermic o More mitochondria- more metabolism which supports higher body temperature regulation o Features o Mammary gland o Sweat glands o Hair o Four chambered hearts Four major groups of mammals o Eutheria o Marsupials o Monotremes Marine animals regulation of body heat Blubber Body sizes Countercurrent heat exchangers in feet and flippers Multicellular Cell differentiation Cell specialization (division of  Increasing  Behavior Feeding  Evolution of body  Cephalization Skeletons of varying  labor) complexity  strategies plan complexity and nature (organized tissues) Sponges Totipotent  Oscum Not complex,  Filtration of  Water filtration  A loose aggregation  None  Amoeba­ like cells sprovide  “Poryfera” No distinct embryonic Spicules (calcium or  asymmetrical, yet  water of cells surrounding  some rigidity  Lack tissue­ level  cell layers  silica)flagellum very diverse. Vary  One way  water canal system nerves  organization  No true organs Choanocyte by habitat and  movement of  No mouth Spicules­ supporting spines,  No muscles  Pore pattern of water  water, waste  No symmetry  not a skeleton, also some  atrium Choanocyte­feeding,  movement  removal  fibers  current creating   Amebocyte­enzyme containing Choanocytes * Porocyte­line pores Sclerocyte­synthesizes spicules Cniderians­Anthozoa Yes.  Diploblastic­ have 2  Nerve net­ interconnectedness of Capture prey  Food digested  Bilateral symmetry o Hydrozoa germ layers, ectoderm nerve cells from sensory to  according to  extracellularly in Polyp or medusa  o Scyphozoa and endoderm,  muscle nerves  sensory  gastro vascular  o Cubozoa connected by  information  cavity.  o Anthozoa mesoglea.  Meduso vs  Polyp stage Protosome Finally 3 layers, endo  Muscle, primitive nervous  Muscle tissues  Movement  Parasitism  Worms, little body  Primitive  (lophotrochozoans) meso and ectoderm system  (longitudinal and  using muscles  Mouth to gut to  plan diversity.  nervous  worms Mouths, guts  circular)  towards food  anus Evolutionarily muscle system.  Three tissue layers Chemoreceptor and mesoderm layer  Cephalization  o Turbellaria s  No complete  o Trematoda  Parasitism  digestive tract in Roundworms have  o Cestoda  Gas exchange  parasites pseudocoelate  o Monogenea  across body  wall Circulatory  system  Coelom  Molluscs  Endo ecto meso  Mantle (cavity) Shell, greatly  Octopus,  o Polyplacophor Radula reduced coelom squids a Foot Complete digestive  Cephalization  o Bivalvia  Well defined digestive systems  system begins o Gastropoda and cardiovascular systems Open circulatory  (Cephalopoda o Scapopoda system (except in  ) o Cephalopoda  cephalopods)   No one body type  across classes o Muscular foot  o Mantle and shell o Centralized  organs o Band of teeth  (except  bivalves) Arthropods Segmentation Exoskeleton Jointed appendates Well­developed  sensory organs Open circulatory  system Reduced coelom Gas exchange  mechanisms Ectoderm­epidermis and nervous system Mesoderm­ becomes muscle, skeleton, circulatory and excretory system, along with most organs Endoderm­ becomes digestive system, gut lining and digestive glands Pseudocoelom­ when the body cavity is between the mesoderm and endoderm. No inner layer of mesoderm surrounding internal organs. Internal organs are only enclosed by pseudocoel   Know the unique identifying traits of each of the following: ◦ Polyplacophora: Chitons ◦ Bivalvia: Clams, oysters, mussels, scallops, etc. 1 Note that shell is divided mid­dorsal into left and right halves (contrast with brachiopods) 2 Why do scallops have eyes? ◦ Gastropoda: Snails, slugs, nudibranchs 1 Understand embryonic torsion­ Torsion is the rotation of the visceral mass, mantle, and shell 180˚ with respect to the head and foot of the gastropod. Brings mantle cavity and  anus to anteriod position above the head ◦ Scaphopoda: Tusk shells 1 Tentacles shared with cephalopods ◦ Cephalopoda: nautilus, squid, oyster, cuttlefish 1 Shells? Well developed eyes, brain, closed circulatory system. ◦ Ctenophora is the first phylum in the metazoan lineage to have a complete gut, a mouth  and an anus. ◦   ◦ The adaptive bleaching hypothesis  Cnidarian­bioengineers that form habitat for entire ecosystems  Mollusks­biofiltratiion of seawater  Mammalia­homeothermy Echinodermata­mostly marine


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