MC 101 Test Two Notes
MC 101 Test Two Notes MC 101
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayla Peel on Monday June 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MC 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Chris Roberts in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Intro to Mass communications in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 06/13/16
MC 101 TEST TWO NOTES Test Two Date: Tuesday June 14, 2016 Tuesday June 7, 2016 First Amendment: “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.” Speech Protection Political Speech Artistic Speech Commercial Speech Indecent Speech More Protection Less Protection Alien & Sedition Acts o Get stuff from book Who’s the Press? o No real definition; whoever is conducting any journalistic activity The Balancing Effect: how we balance free speech against other things that matter to us in society. o Political Speech “The Congress shall have power to prohibit the physical desecration of the flag of the United States.” – proposed amendment Tons of protection; ton of freedom o Public Airwaves Internet protection o Security Prior Restraint: when the government says you’re not allowed to say/print something. o Public Endangerment There are times when your speech can cause physical harm to those around you. o Time, Place, and Manner The Key Areas of Media Law 1. Personal Rights Defamation: Get definition from book Libel and Private Figures 1. Published 2. Identified 3. Inaccurate 4. Hurt Reputation Libel and Public Figures 1. Published 2. Identified 3. Inaccurate 4. Hurt Reputation 5. Reckless disregard for truth and/or actual malice NY Times vs. Sullivan “Fair Comment”: You have the right to state your opinion; its ok to criticize Privacy 1. False light 2. Publication of private facts 3. Intrusion 4. Misappropriation 5. Intentional infliction of emotional distress Pornography vs Obscenity Porn is usually legal whereas obscenity if not legal Wednesday June 8, 2016 2. Intellectual Property Rights Fixed form of an idea 3. NewsGathering Rights Sunshine law= open meetings Meetings of the government should be made public Freedom of information act Public access to government documents, etc. Shield laws Rights of reporters to not reveal confidential sources. Media Theory: A History o Starting with WWI propaganda American and German world war one posters both suggesting that God was on their side. Models of Mass Communication Hot Media vs Cold Media Require you to stay focused Not as demanding for focus Media Effects: o Direct Effects (Very Powerful) Aristotle Pictures in our heads* The first model “Vaccine” theory (or hypodermic needle, or bullet) theory: We shoot you with a message and you instantly think about it. No one today thinks this is accurate. o Limited Effects (Don’t really affect us at all) Opinion Leaders, or The twostep flow: we influence other people and they influence us right back. They get this influence information from the mass media. o Mixed Effects (Sometimes affect us and sometimes don’t) Media affect different people in different ways at different times. Media are gatekeepers. Decide what is going to be shown and what is not. Gatekeeping Today (not what they used to be) o Dirt pictures o Killings o Etc. Media set agendas. We help decide or do decide what to talk about. We don’t tell them what to think, but what to think about. Media confer status. We decide what is important and what is not important “dominant” culture Uses & Gratifications Surveillance Divert Ourselves Socialization Spiral of Silence: we want to be in the majority, so we’re quiet when we’re in the minority. “Personal Relationship”: a fan’s “relationship” with a media figure. Parasocial Interaction* Cumulative Effects Theory: over time the effects build up. Repeated. Social Learning Theory: we learn how to act in society by watching mass media figures. Thirdperson Effect: the idea that media affect others more than it does you. Consistency Theory: we choose media that are consistent with our beliefs, and that reinforce our beliefs. Dissonance: when things are not consistent Cognitive Dissonance: competing idea in your heads can make your brain hurt. We like harmony in our thought lives. Individual Differences Theory: because people are different, we can use those differences to create shared meaning. Cultivation Theory: we are cultivated to think that the world is meaner that it really is. Television: 1 in 10, weekly Real Life: 1 in 100, yearly Thursday June 9, 2016 The “W’s and H” list o What’s your problem? o Why not follow the rules? o Who wins, who loses? o What’s it worth? o Who’s whispering in your ear? o How’s your decision going to look? Law is not the same as Ethics o Legal/Ethical Speed Limits o Illegal/Unethical Child abuse o Legal/Unethical o Illegal/Ethical Rosa Parks Codes of Ethics Some Ethical Approaches o Virtue Golden Mean – Aristotle Avoid extremes and seek moderation o Categorical imperative Absolutist Immanuel Kant o Do only what you want to be a “universal law.” Treat people as ends and not as a means. o Utility Utilitarianism John Stuart Mill o Do the “most good” or the “least harm” – but don’t treat people as a means to an end. o Veil of ignorance John Rawls The veil of ignorance as a matter of justice. What is News? o Impact The more people affected, the bigger the impact. o Timeliness Stuff that happens right now is news, not things that happened a while ago. o Currency News about the news Related to time in some ways and related to impact in some ways o Prominence The more prominent people are likely to make news. o Proximity The closer you are to something, the bigger the news. Local news is more important o Conflict Not getting along is good news. o Bizarreness EX: Naked man bites a dog o The More news values in a story, the more newsworthy. It is often difficult for a journalist to determine the truth of a story. o Information changes over time. o “News is the first rough draft of history.” A History of News o Colonial Period: 16901780 A Zenger of a decision Published accurate but offensive to the government in New York Tried for libel British Government Impose the Stamp Act o If you are going to publish a newspaper, you have to pay a tax. o Partisan Period: 17801830 Press was free. There was not objective journalism here Were very politically focused, bought by the wealthy o Penny Period: 18301890 The Sun Owned by Benjamin Day Sold for a penny o People could afford it so they bought it. Advertised to make money Inverted pyramid style of writing Most important to least important. Moses Yale Beach The Associated Press o Yellow Journalism: 1890? The yellow kid; one of the first cartoon strips Objectivity o Put information out there that is as truthful as it can be and let the audience make the decisions themselves. o Originally: Economics. o Today: Ethics, economics, etc. o Bias? Yes, they like: Change Ethnocentrism Hey, Mabel (interesting stories) Open government Monday June 13, 2016 Readership for newspaper is down o Our age group is not reading them o Revenue fell 60% since 2005 News hole: The available space for news/editorial content around all those ads. What makes newspapers special: Diverse content o Strong ties, weak ties o The “Wall” Publisher Makes major decisions Oversees editorial and business divisions Editorial Writes and edits Produces news, features, and graphics Business Sells advertising Prints and distributes newspapers Who’s Who in the newsroom? o Publisher: Head honcho, sets policy, financial decisions o Editor in Chief: Cover, content, overall direction o Managing Editors: Production, graphics, proofing o Senior Editors: Plans features, sections, Web, editorial page o Line Editors: Work directly with reporters, edit, write, plan o Staff writers/photographers: the worker bees o Copy desk: Final edits on stories, headlines o Art Director: Cover, photo/graphics direction o Artists/Designers: Graphics, page design, layouts o Clerks: answer phones, make lists, etc. Ownership o Privately Owned o Publicly Traded A Brief History: o Newsreels Residual news o New media scare old media when radio came out, newspapers became scared o Edward R. Murrow Broadcasting in 1940 near Trafalgar Square, London o TV News: 1950s Camel News Caravan o TV News: 1960s Finally, able to provide live news 1962 – Telstar 1 is first commercial satellite. TV started to use it soon. o TV News: 1970s Video tape o TV News: 1980s First cable news channel (CNN) First efforts to try and go online (viewtron) o TV News: 1990s Fox News Channel 1997 News Industry Players o Anchor o Correspondents – out there gathering the news o Videographers – job to shoot video and nothing else o Field producers – original reporting, behind the camera o Consultants – people hired to say what they want to see o Technical specialists Media bias? o Conservative: some say media have a liberal bias because they are antibusiness, probig government, antifamily, antireligion and antiRepublican. o Liberal: Some say media have a conservative bias because they are big business and big business is inherently conservative. o Centrist o YES Controversies o Pseudoevents: fake, madeup Created just to draw cameras What will be on the test: Newspaper eras Writing styles (inverted pyramid) Jobs Time/place/manner Theories Associated press Objectivity was created to make $ Hot vs Cold Media Ethics First amendment is not absolute (balance) Media Laws Five Freedoms Categories of Media effects (3)
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