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POUL 3750 Exam Fall 2015

by: Kaitlyn Heerlein

20

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6

POUL 3750 Exam Fall 2015 POUL 3750

Marketplace > University of Georgia > Poultry science > POUL 3750 > POUL 3750 Exam Fall 2015
Kaitlyn Heerlein
UGA

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This is a sample exam from Fall 2014
COURSE
Nutrition
PROF.
Gene Pesti
TYPE
Study Guide
PAGES
6
WORDS
CONCEPTS
nutrition
KARMA
50 ?

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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaitlyn Heerlein on Friday June 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POUL 3750 at University of Georgia taught by Gene Pesti in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Nutrition in Poultry science at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 06/17/16
EXAM 1 Page 1 POUL 3750-2014 Key Please Put Your Name on the Back of this Exam Points Question (8) 1. Broilers have grown faster and have become more efficient in the past ~60 years. A 1940’s broiler took ~ 12 weeks to reach 4 pounds while consuming ~16 pounds of feed. Today’s broilers weigh 4 pounds in just 32 days while consuming about 6.5 pounds of feed. a) What was the biggest factor in this improvement? Genetics b) Starting broiler chicks were thought to require 1% calcium in 1940, and the same today. How much calcium did they consume per pound of gain in 1940? 0.04 pounds And today? 0.016 pounds [Show your calculations] (16 x 0.01) /4 = 0.04 (6.5 x 0.01) /4 = 0.016 ~0.02 c) Do you think broilers require a higher percentage of nutrients today? Why or why not? The modern birds are much more efficient at utilizing nutrients, this is probably related to their decreased maintenance requirements, and improved digestion and absorption of the diet. d) How and why are feed ingredients changing? Genetic selection and processing methods are changing ingredients. In many cases, feed ingredients are changing to more closely meet the nutritional requirements of poultry & livestock. EXAM 1 Page 2 POUL 3750-2014 Key (15) 2. From the answers below, fill in the blanks: The PROVENTRICULUS contains OXYNTICO-PEPTIC cells that secrete ACID and ENZYME PRECURSORS. The PROVENTRICULUS and gizzard are the sites of PROTEIN digestion at LOW pH to form PEPTIDES and some FREE AMINO ACIDS. The gizzard has a KOILIN lining that is not easily digested. Further along the GI tract in the DUODENUM at HIGH pH, the PEPTIDES are further broken down to form FREE AMINO ACIDS which are absorbed by active transport by at least 8 different specific carrier systems. LIPIDS mainly TRIACYLGLYCERIDES are broken down by LIPASE from the PANCRREAS to form glycerol and FREE FATTY ACIDS. The FREE FATTY ACIDS and fat soluble VITAMINS are solubilized by BILE from the LIVER and form MICELLES and pass into circulation as PORTOMICRONS. CARBOHYDRATES are broken down by enzymes into SIMPLE SUGARS such as GLUCOSE and fructose. These SIMPLE SUGARS are absorbed by active transport. CRUDE FIBER may be fermented in the CECA by micro-organisms forming volatile fatty acids which are then absorbed and provide some small amount of energy. ANSWERS – USE EACH ONCE acid glucose portomicrons bile high Oxyntico-peptic carbohydrates koilin proteins ceca lipase proventriculus crude fiber lipids proventriculus duodenum liver simple sugars enzyme precursors low simple sugars free amino acids micelles triacylglycerols free amino acids pancreas vitamins free fatty acids peptides free fatty acids peptides EXAM 1 Page 3 POUL 3750-2014 Key (3) 3. What are “Physiological Fuel” values? The energy that a bird can get from complete digestion, absorption and oxidation of nutrients (2 each) 4. What are the three classes of nutrients that supply energy? And what are their approximate physiological fuel values? Fats, 9.5 Kcal/g Proteins, 4.4 Kcal/g Carbohydrates, 4.0 Kcal/g (1 each) 5. What factors make up the proximate analysis of feed ingredients? Put a * next to the one that is not measured directly. Moisture, Crude Protein (N), Crude Fiber, Ether Extract (Lipids), Ash (Minerals), *NFE (Nitrogen Free Extract or Soluble Carbohydrates) (4) 6. What are the end products of metabolism in birds for: Carbohydrates CO 2 H O 2 Lipids CO 2 H O 2 Amino Acids Uric Acid, CO 2 H O2 Phytic Acid Inorganic Phosphorus (+CO &2 H O) 2 EXAM 1 Page 4 POUL 3750-2014 Key (4) 7. What is the cereal of choice for poultry in the United States, and why? (include in your answer what it has that other cereals do not)? Corn, based on cost and nutritional composition, and it contains yellow pigments (4) 8. What is the protein source of choice for poultry in the United States, and why? (Why must it be heated before feeding to poultry, and what happens if it is overheated?) Soybean meal, based on cost and nutritional composition, to destroy anti-nutritional factors (like trypsin inhibitors) (5) 9. What are the major differences in the digestive tracts of mammals and birds? Mouth - No teeth, few taste buds Esophagus - Diverticulum called the crop for storing feed Stomach - Combined Oxintico-peptic cells, grinding organ with stones Small Intestine - Largest segment, duodenum and ileum (no jejunum) Large Intestine - Smallest segment, excreta passes quickly with little time for water absorption EXAM 1 Page 5 POUL 3750-2014 Key The following economic analysis is based on responses reported in a breeding company management guide. (2 each) 11. Fill in the blanks: (3) 12. What level of dietary protein should be fed to maximize profits, and why? 21.5% protein maximizes net returns (2) 13. What biochemical phenomena is the theoretical basis for nutritional responses and requirements? Enzyme kinetics, the way enzyme catalyzed chemical reactions in the body work (2) 14. What economic law is demonstrated by these calculations? The law of “diminishing returns” or “diminishing marginal productivity” EXAM 1 Page 6 POUL 3750-2014 Key (2 each) 16. How is heat lost from a bird’s body? Briefly explain each phenomena: A. Radiation, loss from any object to another through a vacuum B. Convection, loss to moving air by contact C. Conduction, loss to everything but air by contact D. Evaporation, loss to water as it passes from liquid to the gas phase (3) 17. How is a bird’s surface area related to its heat loss and metabolic rate? They are directly proportional, more surface, more heat loss and the higher the metabolic rate to maintain the same body temperature (3) 18. How is a bird’s metabolic rate related to its surface area and maintaining it’s body temperature? They are directly proportional, more surface area the higher the metabolic rate to maintain body temperature (3) 19. How is a bird’s metabolic rate related to its’ body weight? Metabolic rate goes up with body weight at a decreasing rate. It is a slight curve that fits to a log function very well. (2) 20. What is meant by “social temperature regulation”? Birds huddle together to stay warm

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