Final Exam Study Guide CDFR 3306
Final Exam Study Guide CDFR 3306 CDFR 3306
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CDFR 3150 Introduction to Early Childhood Intervention
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Victoria Baumann on Friday June 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CDFR 3306 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Hedge in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Guiding Children's Behavior in Child Development at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 06/17/16
Time Out: The Ultimate Consequence What is time out? – This time is used to help the child/children calm down and make them see the connection between time out and their inappropriate behavior When should it be used? – However for children who repeatedly engage in negative behaviors such as punching, pushing and pinching (at times) timeout maybe appropriate; interrupts the pattern of negative behavior How does one prepare the group or individual for time out? – Teachers give children an opportunity to talk about time out in advance and participate in the planning for it (Duffy, 1996) – Time out is the spot where children go to feel better – Time out could be a part of a talk on emotions, how some people express emotions in different ways and how they need some time for themselves How do we implement timeout? – Child is warned, and if the behavior continues he or she is removed as suitable – Once in the time out area, the adult reflects on the child’s feelings and provides basic information so that he or she will know what to expect – When the adult talks to the child its not forced upon the child. If the child doesn’t respond you might just want to reflect on the child’s feelings and keep quiet. Continuously talking to the child or lecturing just makes it more frustrating for the child – Any attempts to hurt the adult have to be stopped. o Important so that the child doesn’t feel guilty later. o Also the adult is not antagonized in the process – If peers are curious, the teacher should not ignore that situation and remind children about their talk on time out and further explain that is his time out to feel better – Following the time out situation discussion should be held with the child. – The child who has completed time out should be should be acknowledged for calming himself down and finishing the task – Later the adult who implemented the time out should have a pleasant contact with the child Understand how time out is misused in many instances – It is no use if you use timeout for every infraction of classroom rule or event – It is not useful if one uses timeout as a threat o “Alan, are you itching for timeout? One more remark and you will be in time out. – It is not appropriate to use timeout to humiliate the child o “If you want to act like a kindergartener you can go and sit in the kindergarten classroom” – It is not appropriate to use timeout in lieu of helping children learn better alternatives to problem behaviors o “you both can’t play, go in timeout” – It is not appropriate to hold the child in time out for a unreasonable amount of time under the pretext of claming the child down – It is not appropriate to place children in time out because it is simply easy and one way of adult relief Understand and learn how to use personal messages, reflect on the use of personal message coupled with warning and follow up – Remind the children of the rule – Use Personal Message – Pause for few seconds – Warning – Rephrase this as an eitheror statement that repeats the rule and then tells the child what will happen if he or she doesn't follow it – Pause for a few seconds – Follow Through – Restate the warning and preface it with words such as “I told you….”. Then repeat the consequence as a statement and then begin that statement with “now” Helping children understand and Accept Limits What are consequences? Consequence – provide effective and immediate results compatible with longterm, positive outcomes Emphasize and clarify limits; they help children learn through experience which behaviors are useful and which are not Helps children reflect on the results of their actions Helps develop the personal responsibility necessary for self- discipline and moral autonomy 1. Be sure that inappropriate environment, expectations, or role models are not causing the problem, and that misbehavior hasn’t been reinforced accidentally 2. Make sure that the child is physically, intellectually, and emotionally capable of the desired behavior and has the necessary skills Types of consequences Positive: adding a stimulus Negative: removing an uncomfortable stimulus Review well different types of consequences and understand each well Piaget – The Moral Judgement of the Child – argues that the consequence should help the child understand how the misdeed affects others 1. Natural Consequences: the child experiences the direct result of his or her own behavior. Ex. a child who has a cold room as a result of breaking his or her own bedroom window 2. Exclusion: a child who hits another child is asked to find something else to do until the he or she feels ready to be appropriately 3. Deprivation: the child may not have access to materials that have been abused or misused until the child feel ready to behave appropriately 4. Restitution: the child pays for, or replaces, that which has been damaged or lost; the child assists a person injured through that child’s fault 5. Reciprocity: what the child has done to another is done back to the child. Piaget is very clear that this response doesn’t not mean an adult doing evil for evil, such as biting a child who bit another. He says the action is not only a poor model, but also absurd. Instead, he refers to a response such as not doing a favor for a child who is not helped with assigned chores. Thus, if the child doesn’t help you, you don’t help the child. Dreikurs – Children: The Challenge Natural consequences: those that automatically result from the child’s behavior with no intervention from an adult Logical consequences: those imposed by an adult, but linked to the child’s actions Punishment vs consequences – consequences, whether natural occurring or imposed, are directly related to the action. Children only come to understand the relationship between their actions and the consequences if they are truly related Children with Disabilities Inclusion – What does it mean?: classes encourage all children to contribute, which builds on talents and emphasizes strengths All students learning together with necessary supports and services All students’ unique needs are met in the same setting All students participate in all facets of school life Providing opportunities for friendships to develop Using innovative strategies for students’ varied learning styles Integrating related services in the regular classroom Understand various accommodations done for children with disability in the classroom Seating Arrangements (ADHD) When a child has difficulty paying attention it is better to seat the child in front of you so that the child can hear you and see you. Also, the child is within your reach Distractible children are not seated close to environmental sound source such as fans, radiators and so on Sometimes touch is very helpful for children who get distracted very easily Peer assistance is very helpful Activity Areas Identifiable boxes (visual coding) to place things Need physical boundaries for their work Children who need time to adjust to changes in materials can assist you in making those changes Organizational Strategies Teachers can have a system of checking off the completed items or tasks of the schedule so that the child has a visual tracking record Daily schedule for when homework assignments are collected and recorded can help students organize their materials Sometimes seeking help from others to check their schedule or work helps them eliminate their frustrations Review the concept of transitions and routines Routines o Create a predictable routine o USE visuals to teach children about daily routines o Teachers can prepare a visual calendar or a set of photographs for routines posted for the day or week Transitions are difficult for various reasons o Transitions require ending an activity that children have settled in and become fully engaged o Transitions require refocusing, which is difficult for some children o Transitions introduce ambiguity and reduce predictability o Some children may become fearful if they are not sure exactly of what is going to happen o Transitions are characterized by noise levels and hence it maybe difficult for some children o Individual Directions and Directions for the group is very helpful (Its time for change) Verbal Instructions o The visual calendar can be used here again to remind the child of the next activity o Present positive aspects about the change of activity o Other consistent cues o Turning off lights off and on to signal the end of free play and clean up time (effective for children with hearing disability) o Playing a song “Hi Ho, Hi Ho, It’s off to work we go” when transitioning to centers (effective for children with autism and visual disability) o Ringing a bell to signal the end of outside play o Singing a good bye song before departure o Vulnerabilities (Read each slide carefully on the topic related to Children from LGBT families).. You may choose to ignore the research aspect discussed on this topic. Classroom/center Create an environment where children can feel comfortable to discuss each of their family units without fear of teasing or recrimination Have photos and curriculum that reflect diverse family structures as a regular and ongoing part of the environment Read children’s books that include samesex families, and have them regularly accessible for children on the bookshelves Include a Unit topic and ongoing curriculum related to “Different Types of Families” (e.g., adoptive, single parent, foster, samesex) referencing all types of families makeup happy, successful home environments Welcome and encourage same sex parents and all parents to participate in school and to share things that are meaningful to their families Be thoughtful not to identify, or single out children reared by samesex parents. Let children or families identify themselves Vulnerabilities (How to support ELL Learners) Review and Learn strategies that are proven beneficial for ELLs/DLLs Parentese – drawnout speech that places emphasis on nouns and action words Total Physical Response – a method for teaching second language learners; when teachers use TPR, they teach children important vocabulary by providing child friendly definitions and pointing to object as they are discussed Provide a lot of nonverbal cues when you are speaking: gestures and facial expression What strategies can be employed to help children exposed to violence or loss and separation from their parents in the classroom? Children in foster care typically experiences a number of hardships; abuse or neglect, family poverty, and/or parental mental health problems When children have disagreements with peers or adults, they often feel anxiety and fear, reflecting on prior experiences of losing contact with family members Good at hiding their emotional responses Unpredictable emotional reactions expressed are related to earlier experiences of abuse and/or abandonment Critical that you provide them with experiences aimed at expressing their emotions in appropriate ways Songs: anger management, keeping the peace, and problem solving Class literature Class meetings Benefit from the security of predictable routines Helps alleviate some of the uncertainties in their lives Informing children about absences helps promote trust and build community Children undergo substantial changes when their parents first separate Changes cause children to be less secure in their attachment to others – often results in fear of abandonment Need help understanding the many possibilities that can cause a change in routine Need assistance finding constructive ways to pass time when they feel anxious or impatient Avoid parent bashing Taking a proactive and neutral stance on the behalf of the children sends a clear message to parents that your primary concern is the child, but that you are equally dedicated to supporting them so that they can support their child in the best way possible What factors can promote resiliency and self esteem in children Finding individual talents Confidence in the work Promoting selfworth Matching Discipline Causes to Discipline Approaches Understand the different causes of behavioral problem (physical, social and emotional immaturity) Immature means not fully grown – Being young could be the basic cause of the problem Being young places children at risk of behavioral problems : Some of the reasons lack skills (Gross motor and Fine Motor) have undeveloped communication ability exhibit childish social behavior The challenge is to find the cause of the behavior and match it with appropriate guidance Sometimes there could be multiple causes Cause : Physical Immaturity Can lead to: o Inability to sit still o Immature coordination Possible Solution: Active/Organized Play Playoriented activities are helpful for motor development. At the preschool and primary level teacher directed tasks or organized play could be equally effective. It can be used as a time for reflection and assessment The Direct Approach – Through description, modeling, and imitating the necessary steps children can readily learn a task (e.g. Hokey Pokey Dance) Besides being a vent to physical energy. This enables teachers to know if children are having trouble with following direction, producing desired moments (due to immature coordination especially gross motor) and the activity level of the children The Guided Approach – Activities are set up for children to explore things on their own (art activity, solving of puzzles or riddles) Allows teachers to understand children’s divergent thinking ability (cognitive ability), allows children to be creative and gives them freedom to exercise their energy and engage. Emotional/Social Immaturity Stems and surfaces in two different ways o Emotional Regulation – Not able to regulate and manage their own behavior o Perspective Taking – Inability to tune into others feelings Teacher Guidance is helpful and essential in both these situations. But how the teacher guides the children in both the situations might differ. Aggression Two ways of handling this situation o One on one interaction between the teacher and the child – Rehearse how to self regulate or control anger o Help children resolve the dispute between each other using the problem solving technique Analyzing Discipline Problems Review the least and most intrusive approaches to behavior problem (Review the slides well and read the chapter) (read the last chapter) Start asking yourself these questions in your search of finding a cause for a behavior problem Is this a Age Typical Behavior? Is it ok for a two year old child to wet his pants Is it ok for a two year old child not to share his/her toy Solution – As a teacher you need to be aware of the developmental level of the child Once you know that you are accepting of the child (developmentally or in terms of expectations) and the environment is appropriate one can look for other causes Is it a missing skill – Communication, lack of perspective taking or emotional regulation Solution – Demonstrate and Support developing skills (Use all the strategies that we have previously discussed in the class) What if a child equipped with requisite skills chooses not to use those skills in a particular situation? We know that for some children causeeffect relationship doesn't come easily (Lack of understanding) Solution – Related or natural consequence will be suitable What if a child has learnt a wrong behavior? Help the child unlearn that wrong behavior using effective role modeling After using all the strategies if nothing works for the child and your concern doesn’t cease? Take professional help and never lose hope.
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