Sample Final Exam
Sample Final Exam GEOG 1103
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaitlyn Heerlein on Tuesday June 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG 1103 at University of Georgia taught by Barkan in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Cultural Geography of the United States in Georgraphy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 06/21/16
1 Heerlein Katie Heerlein GEOG 1103 Joshua Barkan 10 December 2014 Geography 1103 – Cultural Geography of the United States Final Exam Part I 1. Zelinsky’s “superorganic” conception of cultural regions and diffusion Zelinsky’s superorganic model views culture through a three dimensional image, analyzing the spatial dimension – essentially the actual location/region/space, “intrinsic component” – which is kind of an ideological evaluation of an area (includes religion, language, arts, etc.), and subcultural components – which are social things. Zelinsky said describes culture and superorganicism as “both of and beyond it’s participating members”. Basically he is describing culture as bigger than the actions of an individual within a culture. Zelinsky also writes about diffusionism. Diffusionism is how ideas spread throughout an area from the core. Zelinsky’s model of diffusionism in the United States starts at the port cities where settlers arrived and moved west as the settlers moved with the frontier. This is an excellent example of how modernization spreads, 2 Heerlein but also shows how uneven development can occur when ideas don’t spread equally from the core. 2. Capitalist World System These maps are visual representations of the transformations in the World Capitalist System over time. In the maps, areas are defined as core, peripheral, and semi-peripheral. Core countries (depicted in red) are the top Capitalist countries that use the peripheral countries for resources (ex The United States imports most things from other countries, including resources and labor). Peripheral countries (depicted in white on earlier maps, and yellow in later maps) depend mostly on core countries for their main source of capital. Semi-peripheral (depicted in light brown in earlier maps, and orange in later maps) countries are kind of a mix of both core and peripheral countries. The first map we have in this image is a map from 1800, most power lies in Europe, the core region on this map. The Eastern United States is represented as semi-peripheral. Some of Asia, South America, the African coast, and Canada are represented as periphery countries. 3 Heerlein The second map is a progression to 1900, where Europe, the United States, and Japan are represented as core Capitalist countries. Canada, Spain, Italy, and Australia are represented as semi-periphery regions. South America, Mexico, most of Western and Southern Asia, Oceana, and the African coastal regions are represented as peripheral regions. The third map is a progression to 2000. There is no “external area”, the United States, Canada, Western Europe, and Japan are represented as core regions, while the rest of Europe, Australia, Eastern Asia, India, South Africa, Mexico, and most of South America are identified as semi-periphery. Most of Africa, Asia, Oceana, Central America, and some of South America are considered periphery. These maps illustrate the progression of the World Capitalist system, rising with modernization and colonization of parts of the world untouched by capitalism. These maps are great illustrations of where the power lies and how it spreads in today’s capitalist world. 3. Self and Other In class we discussed this image as representative of Europe (or the western world) and the Americas. The painting shows a man (representing Europe) traveling/arriving on a foreign land, to 4 Heerlein discover a woman (representing the Americas) Europe is identified as intelligent, dominant, and “cultured” (this class has made me ridiculously cautious of using this term), while America is identified as young, submissive, and unknowledgeable. The paining is clearly from a Eurocentric point of view. This is a great depiction of power, meaning, and space while considering modernization through the “discovery” of new places. In this image, the European man is a representation of the “power” in this situation. The “space” is the expansion of the European empire into the land of the Americas. The “meaning” is the general assumption that the Americas were “undiscovered” and “uncivilized” before the white man on Europe arrived to colonize it. 4. Robert Moses and Jane Jacobs Robert Moses was the ringleader for the developmental movement in New York City between 1946 and 1954. He is legendary for the developmental steps he took to modernize the city. He built buildings, bridges, and highways on a budget to help New York advance as a hub in America. The advances made during his reign in New York City are of historic proportions. One of the rather unfortunate things that was caused by the wonderful developments by Robert Moses is the establishment of 5 Heerlein Title I and Title II. Title I and Title II are laws that were used to help develop the city. These laws essentially made it legal for developers to move people from their homes and into specified areas. In this case, blacks and Hispanics (minorities) were asked to leave their homes and move into specified ghettos. This movement was lead by working-class Jews and Italians. This is easily relatable to the HOLC map of Atlanta in a sense that is demonstrates how race can be a social construction as well as a structural construction while developing an area. Title I and Title II also lead to the uneven development of New York City. The “power” of race and class were exploited to develop the “space” of New York. Jane Jacobs was a leader in the activist movement that Moses had to face while trying to develop New York City. Jacobs is an activist against things like Title 1, essentially trying to prevent uneven development in large cities like New York and Chicago. She lead the “Stop the Lower Manhattan Expressway” committee against Moses’ decision displace people from their homes to construct an expressway through New York – basically speaking out against the use of techniques that would cause uneven development (creating ghettos as well as slum-clearing). She was arrested during one of her demonstrations. However, she was successful in stopping the development of the Lower Manhattan Expressway. The “meaning” she brought to the movement through 6 Heerlein criticism of Moses’ plans helped to dilute his “power” in the development in the city. 5. HOLC Map of Atlanta The HOLC, or Home Owner’s Loan Corporation map is a tool created by the United States Government to help prevent foreclosures. The map acts as a sort of security analysis of the city. The blue parts are considered highly desirable, and a better part of the city to give loans. Green is the second most desirable part of the city. The yellow parts are the parts of the city considered less desirable and more risky for loans, and the red part is considered the least desirable area, and the most risky area to support via loans. When looking at Atlanta’s HOLC map, you can tell that most of the inner city is considered undesirable and unreliable for loans. Historically, these neighborhoods are traditionally poorer African American communities. These maps, constructed by white people in the government, basically deem these neighborhoods unsafe because of the presence of African Americans. This is similar to Robert Moses and Title One in New York City. The neighborhoods mainly composed of minorities were forced into ghettos and their homes were knocked down so predominantly white neighborhoods could be built. 7 Heerlein The Atlanta HOLC map is a clear indication that race is a social construction as well as a structural construction. This is something we have discussed many times in class as a possibility for the development of a city. HOLC maps could also be considered a key tool in uneven development, the loss of loans in the red and yellow areas led to them being left behind when compared to the blue and green areas. Part II Essay Kruse and Mann both write about neoliberalism and the rise of privatization in the development and modernization of the United 8 Heerlein States, but have very different arguments. Where both arguments center around the economy, the reasoning differs, but both focus on the suburbs as a contemporary landscape. Neoliberalism is a set of ideas about capitalism that promote the free market and reduce government interference, increasing the private sector of government. The idea of neoliberalism emerged after the capitalist crisis of the 70’s. Neoliberalism basically increases personal liberty, deregulates taxes, or decreases taxes for the upper class and forces the lower class below the poverty line. This can happen because the reduction in taxes can cut public services that helped the lower class stay above the poverty line. A large part of neoliberalism is the privatization and downsizing of the government. This takes services that are commonly handled by the government and tax payers money and having private companies offer these services instead. For example, some things that are already privatized are the water we use (though still regulated by government standards), transportation systems (and example of this is MARTA), and Healthcare (although with the affordable care act this is a less viable example). Both Kruse’s and Mann’s arguments focus around suburbanization and people moving out and away from the city. Both arguments also follow capitalism out of the city and into the suburbs. Kruse and Mann both make economic arguments explaining the 9 Heerlein movement of capital in relation to the people, and how it is affecting the businesses and people. Kruse is the author of White Flight, a book that studies Atlanta and the patterns of it’s residents, following through the desegregation of the city. Kruse writes about the “white flight” to the suburbs. A great depiction of this is the HOLC map of Atlanta presented in the first half of this exam, the inner areas of the city are considered less desirable and less likely to be inhabited by people with money. This map also contributes to Kruse’s argument of race as a social construction in the city. The outer areas of Atlanta are more likely to be invested in. Kruse explains that white people left the city due to racism after the desegregation of the city. Businesses just followed the white people into the suburbs. Typically white people have money and resources to support businesses and capitalism. Mann is the author of Disassembly Required, a book about modern capitalism. He also writes about peoples migration into the suburbs rather than the city. Capitalism is more attracted to the suburbs because that’s where the people are, so that’s where the money is. Again, like in the HOLC map of Atlanta, money is more likely to be invested in the outer region of the city. Businesses move into the suburbs and are offered land and tax incentives to encourage movement. 10 Heerlein Both arguments are based around capitalism and suburbanization as a contemporary landscape. The arguments differ in the sense that Kruse uses race as a main social construct, while Mann uses capitalism as a main social concept. Both are very viable arguments for neoliberalism and the suburbs. **This has been such an interesting class, I didn’t expect to enjoy it as much as I did just because it isn’t one of my required classes for my major. Thank you so much for making this class so interesting and thought provoking. Thanks again, Katie Heerlein
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