POUL 3750 Final Review
POUL 3750 Final Review POUL 3750
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POUL 3750-2015 STUDY QUESTIONS Be sure you understand the chapter vocabulary words INTRODUCTION 1. What is nutrition? the sum of the processes by which an animal ingests and utilizes all the substances required for maintenance, growth, production, and reproduction. 2. Why have nutritional requirements changed? as specific principles became better understood and the poultry industry became more sophisticated, the nutritionists goals have changed 3. How have nutritional requirements changed? genetics have evolved the birds so that they need less feed to grow at higher rates in a shorter period of time. 4. What do poultry nutritionists do? responsible for the mixture of ingredients that are offered to the birds for consumption interact with colleagues in ingredient purchasing, feed mill managers, production managers, and processing managers to see that their formulas produce birds with the desired characteristics interact nutritionists that work in the allied industries provide feed formulation services to poultry meat and egg producers BUILDING BLOCKS OF LIFE 5. What chemical elements are considered essential for birds? hydrogen carbon nitrogen oxygen sodium magnesium phosphorus sulfur chlorine potassium calcium manganese iron cobalt zinc selenium molybdenum 6. How are fats different from carbohydrates? fats:triesters of fatty acids with glycerol carbohydrate: aldehyde or ketone derivatives of polyhydric alcohols 7. How do the simple carbohydrates differ? the branching the number of carbons 8. How do cellulose, glycogen and amylopectin differ? the linkage in cellulose is very resistant to breakdown by most organisms, but the linkage in glycogen in animals and in amylopectin in plants is very easy for animals to break, making glycogen and amylopectin glucose residues very readily utilized 9. How are proteins formed from amino acids? peptide bonds have to be broken down for protein to be digested and then reformed for protein deposition in the birds’ body 10. How does carbon chain length and unsaturation affect the melting point of fatty acids? the differences cause fats like lard, tallow and rendering poultry fats to be solid at room temperature and so they are called greases 11. How do fatty acids form triglycerides? combining glycerol with three fatty acid molecules 12. What is lecithin? the name for a heterogenous group of compounds because of the possibility for various fatty acids to be present common feature is phosphate group bound to single choline molecule 13. Why do birds excrete uric acid? because they cannot produce urea like mammals because the water required to produce uric acid would weigh them down in flight 14. What is the disadvantage of excreting uric acid? they get less energy from their dietary protein 15. What makes phytic acid advantageous to plants? it binds to the cationic portions of proteins and amino acids DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION 16. What is the disadvantage of phytic acid for animals? the phosphorus in the phytic acid is not available for digestion and absorption 17. What are the adaptations of the birds’ gastrointestinal tract for flight? mouth: lightweight beak and no heavy lower jaw or teeth small intestine: relatively small compared to mammals and has quicker passage times 18. What tastes can birds sense? salt bitter acid 19. What is the function of each digestive organ? mouth: the organ of ingesting and swallowing esophagus: extends from the bird’s mouth and is divided into upper and lower regions by a diverticulum; the lining contains mucus glands which discharge into the lining and have a lubricating action; has a folded lining that allows food to pass without stretching crop: a diverticulum located at the place where the esophagus enters the birds’ thoracic cavity proventriculus: also called the “true stomach” of birds because it contains the secretory cells gizzard: massive muscle surrounding a chamber that is the site of food grinding and peptic hydrolysis of proteins small intestine: is relatively short compared to mammals and has quicker passage times; divided into two parts, the duodenal loop and the ileum ceca: paired, blind ended tubes occurring at the junction of the small intestine colon: is covered with villus-like projections that facilitate its’ role as an absorptive organ, mostly to remove water from the excreta cloaca: the common chamber where the digestive and uro- genital tracts converge pancreas: a three-lobed digestive gland located inside the duodenal loop in birds biliary system: 2 ducts, one draining the right side of the liver and one draining the left side, and there is a connector between the ducts inside the liver 20. What are the mechanisms of nutrient absorption? By diffusion down a concentration ratio By active transport by a carrier across cell membranes 21. Where in the gastrointestinal tract is glucose absorbed? mostly in the small intestine 22. How are amino acids absorbed? Amino acids are absorbed as di- and tri- peptides and as individual amino acids. 23. What factors affect fat absorption? Because the amino acids compete for the various carriers, high levels of some amino acids inhibit the absorption of other amino acids 24. What substances that aid digestion are recycled (absorbed and re- excreted into gastrointestinal tract)? Bile salts 25. What biochemical phenomena is the basis for the theory about? Important aspects of mineral and micro-nutrient absorption THE CONCEPT OF REQUIREMENTS 26. What is meant by “nutrient requirements”? the amount of a nutrient that is needed under a very specific set of circumstances 27. What models have been used to estimate requirements from response data? the broken line model 28. What common criteria are used to estimate nutritional requirements? 29. What law do producers use when attempting to maximize profits? Law of Diminishing Returns 30. How were the numbers in Table 4.1 derived? for each protein level fed, the equations were used to predict feed consumption and body weight. total costs and returns were then calculated from knowing the technical growth data and economic data 31. What is the law of diminishing returns? a point at which the level of profits or benefits gained is less than the amount of money or energy invested. 32. When the cost of protein increases, does more or less tend to be use in the least cost solution? In the maximum profit solution? No,protein is expensive and can increase to the point of 22% before the flat line and this is most likely where they will stop the increase of protein in the diet. In the maximum profit solution it is stopped at 2.925 Kg in the birds body weight. 33. Why does the vitamin manufacturer show the average animal response to be at a level above the NRC requirement in Figure 4.12? Making the right economic conclusion requires the right performance data. In this case the word “requires” does mean necessary and essential. Making the right economic conclusion is also dependent on having the right economic data. 34. How is the Respiratory Quotient calculated? the ratio of CO 2produced per mol of O 2 consumed by a bird. THE FIRE OF LIFE 35. What do high and low RQ’s indicate? high RQ values: indicate fat synthesis from carbohydrates low RQ values: indicate synthesis of carbohydrates from fat or high levels of protein oxidation 36. What RQ would you expect for a bird that is accumulating a large amount of fat? high 37. What are physiological fuel values? from knowing the heat of combustion of a compound, an estimate of energy that a bird or animal can derive from that compound can be made 38. Why are physiological fuel values different for mammals and birds? mammals have less energy tied up in urea when they excrete nitrogen than birds when they excrete uric acid 39. How do animals lose heat? panting METABOLIC RATE AND ENERGY NEEDS 40. How do birds regulate their body temperature? Opening wings, panting and fluffing their feathers. Huddling (social) 41. What is the thermo-neutral zone? A zone in which the rate of heat production is minimized. This is the birds comfort zone. 42. Why do broiler breeding companies recommend keeping their birds at 72 to 74 F during the growing phase? in order to save 1% in feed conversion ratio 43. How does the bird’s heat production change with environmental temperature? the higher the environmental temperature, the lower the bird’s heat production 44. What is meant by social temperature regulation? birds kept in large flocks like chickens, ducks, and turkeys can create their own microclimates by huddling together 45. What is the surface law? in animals of different body sizes, the metabolic rate is proportional to their respective surface areas 46. What are the major factors that determine metabolizable energy intake of layers? producers need to choose to feed the dietary energy level that produces birds with the growth rate, feed utilization efficiency and carcass composition that maximizes profits COMMON POULTRY FEED INGREDIENTS 47. What common cereals and protein supplements are fed to poultry? And what are the characteristics and advantages and disadvantages of each? Common Cereals o Corn o Grain Sorghums (milo) o Barley o Wheat Protein Supplements o Soybean Meal o Corn Gluten Meal o Canola Meal o Peanut Meal o Poultry By Product Meal o Fish Meal o Meat Meal o Meat and Bone Meal 48. What non-nutritive feed additives are commonly fed to poultry? pellet binders flavoring agents enzymes mycotoxin binders antibiotics antifungals coccidiostats worming agents antioxidants carotenoid sources 49. What is meant by “Proximate Analysis”? a routine method of analysis that gives generally useful information on nutritive values of food 50. What is meant by the “Weende Method”? Weende Proximate Analysis o Crude protein o Crude fat o Crude fiber o Ash o Nitrogen-free extract 51. Why is crude protein “crude”? It is the approximate amount of protein found in feed based on the nitrogen content (N times 6.25) -This measurement overestimates the amount of protein because some Nitrogen in the feed is not part of an amino acid. 52. What does crude protein include? Anything in the feed that has nitrogen 53. How is crude fat measured? it is based on ether extract 54. What does crude fat include? triacylglycerides, free fatty acids, cholesterol, vitamins ADEK, long chain alcohols, pigments 55. What does crude fiber include? cellulose, lignins, hemicellulose; mainly in plants 56. How is ash measured? Ash is any mineral left after burning for 2 hours at 600 degrees C 57. What does nitrogen free extract include? Consisting of carbohydrates, sugars, starches, and a major portion of materials classed as hemicellulose in feeds. 58. How is NFE estimated? When crude protein, fat, water, ash, and fiber are added and the sum is subtracted from 100, the difference is NFE. 59. What does petroleum ether extract that diethyl ether does not? phospholipids 60. What cereal makes good pellets? wheat 61. What causes variation in cereal samples? percent protein? 62. Corn and other cereals are poor sources of what amino acids? Lysine, tryptophan 63. Soybean meal is a poor source of what amino acids. 64. What cereals are high in yellow pigments? Corn 65. What cereals are low in yellow pigments? Wheat, rice 66. Why is some milo high in tannins? To deter wild birds. They should be avoided when making poultry feed 67. What effect does tannin have on the energy value of milo? 68. What cereal contains high levels of β-glucans? barley 69. What kind of wheat is usually fed to broilers? Layers? 70. Why are wheat middlings food for restricting the energy intake of broilers and layers? they are low in available phosphorus, which restricts energy 71. How and why are corn gluten meal and distillers’ dried grains with solubles different? Corn gluten meal has a lot of fiber and is typically only fed to cows. Distillers dried grains are good for most any animals. 72. What is the difference between 44 % and 48% soybean meal for poultry? 48% protein where the hulls are removed o Also called high protein 44% protein where the hulls are added back o Also called low protein o Has added fiber and is cheaper than 48% 73. What amino acid(s) are low in soybean meal? lysine 74. What solvent is used to extract lipids from soybean meal? ether 75. What is meat meal? A type of meat by-product, does not have bones 76. What is meat & bone meal? A meat by-product that contains meat and bones; has a higher amount of ash than meat meal 77. What is conglomerate meal? 78. What amino acids are high in feather meal? 79. What amino acids are low in feather meal? Methionine, lysine, histidine, and tryptophan 80. Where do tallow, lard, poultry grease and animal vegetable blends come from? “Used Restaurant grease is often mixed with animal/vegetable blends.” (p. 20-31) 81. Name 5 common mineral sources of dietary calcium? calcium carbonate, oyster shell, limestone, dicalcium phosphate 82. Name 2 common mineral sources of dietary phosphorus dicalcium phosphate, defluorinated rock phosphate 83. Where does oyster shell come from? from ancient oceans, oyster shell that has been compacted into rocks 84. Why are phosphorus sources becoming more expensive? 85. Why are some limestone and phosphate sources not well utilized by poultry? 86. Why is rock phosphate heated before feeding to poultry and animals? to remove the fluoride 87. Why are antibiotics added to poultry feeds? as a growth promoter? 88. What feed additives increase the bioavailability of the entire diet? 89. What feed additives alter water consumption? salt? MEASURING ENERGY IN FEEDS 90. What is meant by anabolic energy? the energy in feed content that is taken and deposited in tissues 91. How does the anabolic energy contents of protein, carbohydrate and fat compare to their theoretical ME values? Anabolism is the goal of digestion.. these values differ from the theortical ME values, but we use this system because it is the best available 92. What are the advantages and disadvantages of basing feed formulation on ME? Advantages o relatively easy to measure in birds o assays give consistent results Disadvantages o producers want to maximize net energy deposition, but the ME of feed ingredients does not always correspond to NE o 2 diets can have the same ME, but one can have more anabolizable energy if it has more protein 93. How does the proportion of substitution affect ME assays? 96. How does the ME of feed ingredients differ for chicks compared to mature birds? 97. What are the “endogenous losses” in feed energy assays? 98. What is meant by “Apparent” ME? calculated from it’s GE and it’s FE+UE AME = GE - (FE+UE) 99. What is meant by “True” ME? the ME is corrected for error 100. Why is the ME of fats different when fed as part of a mixed diet or as a single ingredient? 101. What is meant by the “Extra Caloric Effect” of fat the measured value of fates is sometimes in excess of the gross energy 102. How is the “Extra Caloric Effect” of fats explained? when more fat is fed, it is very efficiently deposited into tissues, and more protein is available to build tissue instead of being catabolized 103. What are the advantages and disadvantages of having a single value for the ME of ingredients for feed formulation as in the tables you examined in the laboratory? CARBOHYDRATES 104. How do the carbohydrates in some cereals, like barley and wheat, affect intestinal contents? they cause sticky droppings and low digestibility 105. What influences can barley and wheat carbohydrates have on growth rate and feed utilization? since they have low digestibility, the bird would probably not get much from these to contribute to growth rate 106. How may the problem of barley and wheat carbohydrates be overcome? exogenous enzymes can be used to increase digestibility LIPIDS 107. What are lipids? a wide variety of substances that vary from simple, short-chain fatty acids to large, very complex molecules 108. How do fats, greases and oils differ? fats - triesters of fatty acids with glycerol oils - fats that are liquid at room temperature greases - fats that are solid at room temperature 109. If a fatty acid is described as being 18:3, what does that mean? It has 18 carbons and 3 unsaturations (double bonds) 110. If a fatty acid is described as being ω-3,6, what does that mean? the “w” relates the double bond to the methyl end of the fatty acid, and there are double bonds at carbons 3 and 6 111. Why are fats and oils added to feeds? To provide energy Increase palatability Reduce dust Lubricant for machinery 112. How do vegetable fats differ from common animal fats? Vegetable fats - longer and more fluid; plants can make linoleic acid Animal fats - shorter and more saturated; composed of what they eat and synthesize 113. What is the advantage from blending animal and vegetable fats? 114. How is fat quality evaluated? Based on MIU - moisture, insolubles, and unsaponifiables 115. What are unsaponifiables? lipid/ether soluble compound; includes sterols, hydrocarbons, fatty alcohols, and vitamins 116. What is meant by “essential fatty acids”? fatty acids that can’t be synthesized; ex: linoleic and arachidonic acid 117. What are the properties of essential fatty acids? polyunsaturated monocarboxylic fatty acids, “omega 6 fatty acids” with only cis double bonds 118. What are the symptoms of essential fatty acid deficiency? enlarged liver, slow growth and reduced immune system 119. Is linoleic acid really an essential fatty acid? Why or why not? Yes, it’s produced by plants, not birds and birds use it to make arachidonic acid 120. What are the physiological roles of essential fatty acids in birds and animals? PROTEINS AND AMINO ACIDS 121. How do amino acids differ from one another? They differ in the R group 122. What are the essential amino acids? Arginine lysine leucine isoleucine valine threonine tryptophan phenylalanine histidine methionine 123. How would you estimate the essential amino acid requirement profile of a newly discovered species of birds? Look at their eggs 124. What criteria would you use to determine amino acid requirements? use protein requirements to estimate the amino acid requirement requirement at any age should reflect proteins being made for maintenance, growth, feathers, eggs, etc. 125. What criteria would you use to determine protein requirements? minimum amino acid requirements are sufficient for max growth rate higher levels of balanced amino acids are needed to maximize body weight, feed efficiency, and minimum carcass fat 126. What are the dietary indispensable amino acids? MATT HILL VP Methionine, arginine, threonine, tryptophan; histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine; valine, phenylalanine 127. What amino acids can birds synthesize from special substrates? glycine, alanine, serine, cysteine, selenocysteine, proline, aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamic acid, glutamine, tyrosine 128. What amino acids may not be synthesized by birds fast enough to support maximum growth rates under all conditions? proline, glycine, serine 129. How is the amino acids composition of a plant changed? through genetic selection 130. Why were ”animal proteins” considered superior to “plant proteins”? animal proteins have vitamin B12 131. What is meant by glucogenic amino acids? these amino acids can be converted to glucose through gluconeogenesis 132. What is meant by ketogenic amino acids? amino acids that form ketones 133. When birds need to make glucose by breaking down protein, what are common metabolic by-products? uric acid 134. What is meant by amino acid disproportion? amino acids are never supplied in perfect ratios of what the bird needs, so when they are fed diets based on practical ingredients, they are fed in disproportionate amounts 135. Is an amino acid disproportion necessarily bad? No, excess amino acids can be used to synthesize the dietary dispensable amino acids and used to provide heat 136. How is an amino acids deficiency distinguished from toxicity and antagonism? deficiency - severe (small chicks), mild (over consume to have adequate intake) toxicity - decreased feed consumption and growth antagonism - excess level of amino acids decrease growth, not increased enough to be toxic 137. What are three examples of amino acids antagonisms? adding excess leucine and isoleucine, increased need for valine adding excess lysine increases the need for arginine adding excess arginine increases the need for methionine 138. Which amino acid antagonism only happens in birds? Why? arginine because the birds can’t break it down 139. What are the symptoms of amino acids deficiency and antagonisms? decreased feed conversion and growth rate 140. What is meant by “Methionine Hydroxy Analogue” (MHA)? MHA is one of the forms of methionine that is added to feed-it is absorbed through diffusion, oxidized to the keto analogue, and aminated to the L-form to be utilized in the body 141. How is MHA used by birds? enters body by diffusion, protein synthesis occurs 142. How is D-Methionine incorporated into proteins by birds and animals? must be converted to L form to be used BROILER LAB-APPENDIX C 143. What deficiency(s) results in very dry droppings? low salt 144. What deficiency(s) results in slow growth? Na, riboflavin, methionine, protein 145. What deficiency(s) perosis? manganese 146. What deficiency(s) results in very dry droppings? low salt 147. What toxicity results in very wet droppings? high salt 148. What toxicity results in edema? salt 149. What dietary imbalance results in very fat birds? low protein, high energy 150. What dietary imbalance results in very lean birds? high protein, low energy 151. How can normal tibia be distinguished from ones with tibial dyschondroplasia and calcium and phosphorus rickets? (http://www.poultry.uga.edu/courses/legs/index.htm) abnormal tibias have cartilage plugs, larger growth plates and misshapen bones 152. What deficiency causes “beaded ribs” and soft bones and beaks? calcium 153. Where is the sciatic nerve in chickens? upper leg 154. What nutritional deficiency causes enlarged sciatic nerves in chickens? ribofalvin LAYER LAB-APPENDIX D 155. How does bird performance change with different levels of protein? 156. How does bird performance change with different levels of calcium? 157. How does bird performance change with different calcium particle sizes? 158. Why is egg specific gravity important? It tells us the relative thickness of the egg shell 159. How is egg specific gravity important? 160. What ingredients change when dietary protein level is changed? 161. How would you expect environmental temperature to affect responses to dietary protein? 162. How would you expect environmental temperature to affect responses to dietary calcium? METHYL GROUPS 163. What is meant by “labile methyl groups”? ones that can be easily transferred from one molecule to another; especially important in the formation of purines like uric acid and in the detoxification and excretion of heavy metals from the body 164. What are the dietary sources of “labile methyl groups”? Choline betaine folic acid Methionine 165. What vitamins transport “labile methyl groups”? Vitamin b12 166. What is meant by a “futile cycle”? A futile cycle requires energy, but creates no net product 167. Why are futile cycles important? They perform conversions in the body such as the conversion from methionine to choline 168. What dietary factors effect methionine requirements? When you add copper (growth promoter) to the diet, you need to add more methionine as well 169. What is homocystine? an intermediate between methionine and cysteine 170. How are choline and betaine different? Choline has four methyl groups attached to it-when it donates one it becomes Betaine 171. What are the signs of choline deficiency? slow growth rate perosis reduced liver fat in hens 172. What is meant by hydroscopic? ready absorption of moisture from the atmosphere 173. What are good sources of choline? soybean meal poultry-by-product meal distillers solubles canola meal fish meal meat meal peanut meal 174. What are the functions of choline in birds? impulse transport between nerves and muscles as part of acetylcholine make lecithin needed in intermediary metabolism involving donations of labile methyl groups 175. Why don’t hens need dietary choline? hens can apparently synthesize choline at a sufficient rate to maximize performance 176. What problems do excess choline cause in eggs? can cause a fishy taste in eggs 177. What vitamins and amino acids can spare the chicks’ need for choline? methionine, folate, and B12 (p.12-5) 178. What are good / poor sources of betaine? good sources o beets o wheat poor sources o corn o soybean meal FOLATE 179. What are good / poor sources of folic acid? good sources o green leafy materials o seed hulls o alfalfa o yeast o liver o whole soybean meal o whole soybean oil meal poor sources o seeds 180. Why do oral antibiotics increase the chicks’ folic acid requirement? they inhibit the formation of folic acid 181. What are the signs of folic acid deficiency in growing chicks? macrocytic anemia poor growth poor feathering perosis lack of pigment in dark feathered birds 182. What are the signs of folic acid deficiency in embryos and hatching chicks from deficient hens? high embryonic mortality around 20 days of incubation bending of the tibiotarsus syndactyly deformed beaks VITAMIN B 12 183. What are good sources of Vitamin B ? 12 fermentation products meat fish eggs milk liver 184. What other nutrients affect the birds’ Vitamin B requir12ents? methionine, choline, betaine, folic acid (p. 12-11) 185. What are the signs of Vitamin B defic12ncy? pernicious anemia in humans slow growth poor feathering gizzard erosion high levels of mortality perosis hatchability is reduced embryonic mortality around 17 days incubation VITAMIN D 186. What is the chemical name of vitamin D? Cholecalciferol (D3) 187. Why does vitamin D have2a very low activity for birds? Birds destroy vitamin D2 quickly 188. When is cholecalciferol a vitamin, & when not? It is not a vitamin when the chickens have access to natural sunlight, it is a hormone. It is a vitamin when it is supplied in the feed. 189. How is vitamin D absorbed and transported? It is absorbed in the lower half of the small intestines and absorbed in fat micelles. It is sterified into long chain fatty acids and then taken up by the liver and released with alpha 2 globin protein fraction of blood. 190. What is the biologically active form of vitamin D? 1,25-(OH)2D3 191. Where is vitamin D hydroxylated to become biologically active? Liver and kidneys 192. What factors regulate the process of vitamin D activation? Blood levels of calcium 193. What role does vitamin D play in metabolism? It is involved in the homeostasis of Ca and P. Stimulates active reabsorption of Ca and P from intestine Controls bone mineral turnover and rate of demineralization 194. What is the metabolic function of vitamin D? 195. What are the symptoms of vitamin D deficiency in chicks? decreased growth, rickets, difficulty walking, rubber beak and claws, distorted skeleton 196. What are the symptoms of vitamin D deficiency in hens? thin egg shell, decreased egg production and hatchability, difficulty using legs, rubbery beak, claws, beaded ribs and crooked backbone, osteomalacia 197. What is the effect of vitamin D toxicity? permanent deposition of minerals in the arteries, heart, lungs, and kidneys CALCIUM 198. Where does calcium occur in the body? most in bone and some in blood and tissue 199. What is the approximate calcium requirement of broilers? blood clotting and bone NRC ~10% ? 200. What is the approximate calcium requirement of layers? NRC ~3.7% ? 201. What are the metabolic functions of calcium? Readily binds proteins 202. What are the symptoms of calcium deficiency in chicks? retarded growth, decreased feed consumption, rickets, soft bones, enlarged bones with lameness 203. What are the symptoms of calcium deficiency in hens? slowed growth, decreased food consumption, rickets 204. What factors affect the hens’ calcium requirement? rate of lay - more Ca needed size of bird age metabolizable energy house temperature 205. How does particle size affect the hens’ calcium requirement? the bigger the particle, the lower the Ca requirement 206. Are there genetic differences in calcium utilization? yes, there are differences among breeds 207. What are good sources of dietary calcium? limestone, oystershell 208. What levels of calcium and phosphorus may be fed to cause calcium rickets? Low Ca and normal P 209. What are the symptoms of cage layer fatigue? some hens will keep producing eggs even though they do not have enough dietary Ca and their bones become brittle and break PHOSPHORUS 210. Where does phosphorus occur in the body? most in the blood, some in bone and tissues 211. What is the approximate phosphorus requirement of broilers? 2:1 Ca:P 212. What is the approximate phosphorus requirement of layers? NRC ~0.35% 213. What are the metabolic functions of phosphorus? Bone structure, ATP, nucleic acids 214. What are the symptoms of phosphorus deficiency in chicks? rickets 215. What are the symptoms of phosphorus deficiency in hens? osteomalacia 216. What factors affect the hens’ phosphorus requirement? hen’s don’t require much phosphorus 217. Are there genetic differences in phosphorus utilization? yes 218. What are good sources of dietary phosphorus? animal products, phytate P, wheat 219. What levels of calcium and phosphorus may be fed to cause tibial dyschondroplasia? Low Ca and medium to high P 220. What levels of calcium and phosphorus may be fed to cause phosphorus rickets? Medium to high Ca and low P 221. What other dietary minerals antagonize phosphorus and increase it’s requirement? Iron, Ca, Aluminum MANGANESE 222. What mineral deficiency causes “slipped tendon” and / or “star gazing” in young poultry? manganese 223. What mineral is necessary for the synthesis of chondroitin sulfate, a constituent of cartilage? manganese 224. What trace mineral is low in corn, but high in wheat? manganese PANTOTHENIC ACID 225. What vitamin name means “found everywhere” and what is a poor source of it? pantothenic acid corn is a poor source 226. What vitamin deficiency causes dermatitis and scaling around the corners of the mouth, eyelids, and on the tops of the toes, and poor and uneven feather development? pantothenic acid BIOTIN 227. What vitamin deficiency can be caused by feeding raw but not cooked egg whites? Why? biotin, because besides eczematous dermatitis, the raw egg containing diet caused alopecia, skin hemorrhages, and edema of the feet 228. What vitamin is necessary for fatty acid synthesis from carbohydrates or protein? biotin 229. What vitamin deficiency causes perosis and dermatitis very similar to pantothenic acid? biotin 230. What embryonic abnormality occurs from biotin deficiency? Webbed feet? ZINC 231. What mineral deficiency is very difficult to cause in chickens with galvanized feed equipment? Zinc 232. What mineral deficiency causes depressed growth, shortening and thickening of bones, enlarged head, and scaling of the skin in chickens (and humans as well)? Zinc 233. What mineral deficiency decreases egg production and hatchability and frizzled feathers in the chicks that do manage to hatch? Zinc 234. What mineral competes with Zn for absorption? Iron 235. What anionic compound binds Zn, lowering it’s’ availability? NIACIN 236. How was niacin deficiency discovered? Pellagra incidence in the US in the early 20th century (Joseph Goldberger) 237. What are the active forms of the vitamin that cures niacin deficiency? 238. What are some good & poor sources of niacin? Good-bran, yeast 239. Why do different species and even strains of the same specie have different niacin requirements? 240. What amino acid can be converted to niacin? Tryptophan 241. What are the symptoms of niacin deficiency? Enlargement of tibiotarsal joint Bowed Legs Poor feathering Dermatitis PYRIDOXINE 242. What vitamin is part of an enzyme cofactor that is involved in transaminations and decarboxylations? pyridoxine 243. What vitamin is found as an aldehyde in meat and liver (good sources) and as an alcohol in green leafy materials and whole grain (good sources)? pyridoxine 244. What vitamin deficiency causes epileptic-like convulsions, dermatitis, alopecia and changes in blood Fe and Cu? pyridoxine 245. What vitamin is antagonized by high dietary tryptophan levels and Vitamin B d12iciency? pyridoxine VITAMIN K 246. What vitamin was named for a word meaning coagulation? Vitamin K 247. What vitamin is antagonized in common rat poisons Vitamin K 248. What vitamin has different side chains in plants and animals, but does not require the side chain? Vitamin K 249. What vitamin requirement may be increased 10 fold by feeding antibiotics? Vitamin K 250. What vitamin deficiency causes death from slight bruising because of increased clotting time? Vitamin K IRON 251. What body mineral content is regulated by absorption? Iron 252. Sixty percent of what mineral is found in hemoglobin? Iron 253. What products are particularly poor sources of Fe? Milk, corn 254. What mineral forms insoluble phosphate salts in the gastrointestinal tract, increasing phosphorus requirements? Iron 255. What mineral detoxifies gossypol from cottonseed meal? Iron COPPER 256. What are the symptoms of Cu deficiency in chicks? lameness feathers fail to show pigmentation ataxia spastic paralysis anemia increased plasma cholesterol levels 257. What nutrients increase the birds’ Cu requirements? sulfate molybdenum methionine 258. Why is Cu added to feeds at high levels? it has shown to be an effective growth promoter 259. What body sterol is reduced by high levels of dietary Cu? cholesterol 260. What nutrient requirement(s) is (are) increased when high levels of Cu are added to the diet? methionine VITAMIN A 261. What vitamin deficiency causes night blindness / blindness? vitamin A 262. What vitamin deficiency causes slow growth and slow cartilage growth? vitamin A 263. What vitamin deficiency causes embryonic death at 2-3 days? vitamin A 264. What vitamin deficiency causes lack of skin pigmentation? vitamin A 265. What vitamin deficiency causes watery discharge from the eyes and nostrils? vitamin A 266. What vitamin deficiency causes uric acid deposits in the kidneys? vitamin A 267. What vitamin is found in fish oil, butter, and egg yolk, but not lard? vitamin A 268. How does the potency of β-carotene compare to Vitamin A? the potency differs for various species of animals and with various dietary levels of intake 269. Why is retinol a more effective source of Vitamin A than retinoic acid? because when birds are given retinoic acid they become blind, their eggs don’t hatch retinoic acid causes the males to become infertile THIAMINE 270. What was the first vitamin to be discovered (happened to be with chickens)? thiamine 271. What vitamin is not stored and is depleted very quickly? thiamine 272. What vitamin deficiency causes polyneuritis or “star gazing” that is easily and quickly reversible? thiamine RIBOFLAVIN 273. What vitamin deficiency is diagnosed by curled toe paralysis and enlarged sciatic nerves? riboflavin 274. What vitamin deficiency causes embryonic mortality at approximately 12 days of incubation? riboflavin VITAMIN E, SELENIUM & VITAMIN C 275. What vitamin was first called the anti-sterility vitamin? Vitamin E 276. What is the difference in activity between the α and γ forms of tocopherol? Alpha is usually standard and gamma is usually low 277. What are good / poor sources of Vitamin E? Good - plant material, corn, wheat, alfalfa, rice bran, polishings, whole soybean Bad - soybean meal 278. What is the metabolic function of Vitamin E? it’s an antioxidant 279. What is the metabolic function of Se? antioxidant 280. What is encephalomalacia? softening of the brain 281. What is muscular dystrophy? progressive atrophy of muscles 282. What is exudative diathesis? serus infiltrations sub Q 283. What deficiency diseases cause encephalomalacia? Vitamin E 284. What deficiency diseases cause muscular dystrophy? Vitamin E and Selenium 285. What deficiency diseases cause exudative diathesis? Vitamin E and Selenium 286. What is a biological antioxidant? Copper 287. What dietary factors increase the need for biological antioxidants? polyunsaturated fatty acids 288. What deficiency disease(s) is (are) made worse by feeding unsaturated fats? encephalomalacia, exudative diathesis, muscular dystrophy 289. What are some Vitamin E antagonists? polyunsaturated fatty acids and fat soluble vitamins 290. Why were animals in some geographic locations more susceptible to Se deficiency diseases? some regions don’t have as much selenium in the soil 291. What are the signs of simple Se deficiency? exudative diathesis, pancreatic fibrosis, muscular dystrophy 292. Is ascorbic acid a vitamin for chickens? No, they make their own 293. When may vitamin C be helpful for poultry feeds? when the grower is low on antioxidants ELECTROLYTE BALANCE 294. What mineral deficiency leads to cannibalism? Sodium 295. What mineral deficiency leads to corneal keritinization and decreased plasma fluid volume in chicks? Sodium 296. What mineral deficiency leads to a backward extension of the feet and retraction of the head while the bird is in a prone position? Chlorine 297. What mineral deficiency leads to poor hatch and late embryo mortality? 298. What mineral toxicity leads to excess water consumption and sometimes pendulous crop? Chlorine Miscellaneous Nutrients 299. What mineral is part of the thyroid hormone thyroxin? iodine 300. What mineral prevents goiter (enlarged thyroid gland)? iodine 301. What mineral deficiency slows metabolism and prolongs hatching times? iodine 302. What required mineral is deficient in the soils of large sections of the USA? 303. What vitamin(s) are directly involved in energy transfer within the body? 304. What vitamins compete with others for absorption, and may carry over from the egg to chick in large quantities? 305. What vitamins contain sulfur? Thiamin, Biotin
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