POUL 1010 Final Study Guide
POUL 1010 Final Study Guide POUL 1010
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaitlyn Heerlein on Tuesday June 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POUL 1010 at University of Georgia taught by Davis in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Birds of our Lives in Poultry science at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 06/21/16
Be familiar with: Ratites -The geographic origin of each ratite Ostrich - Africa Emu - Australia Rhea - South America Kiwi - New Zealand Cassowary - NE Australia, New Guinea -Unique physical characteristics of each ratite covered in class Flightless, lack of keel bone and sternum, 2-3 toes Ostrich: Largest egg, powerful kicks, legs, 7-9 ft. tall Emu: about 5.5 ft. tall, no ceca, eats plants, very small wings relative to size. Rhea: attack everything, feed on vegetation, run 30-40mph Kiwi: about size of football/hen, relatively huge eggs (25% of body mass), tiny wings and tail Cassowary: spongy head, sharp talons, claws on wings, smart -The role of the male ratite in reproduction Incubate eggs and to take care of offspring -The commercial aspects (products) associated with emus and ostriches Feathers, Leather, Meat, Oil Raptors - Worldwide distribution of raptors 300 species throughout the world except Antarctica and a few isolated islands About 53 species rare/endangered - Although many raptors are threatened only two species extinct. Guadalupe Caracara Reunion Kestrel - Raptor diversity in body size and prey consumed Size: California Condor 20 lbs. & 9+ ft. wingspan Sharp-shinned hawk 3 oz. & 20 in wingspan Prey Size: Golden Eagle - Coyote & Pronghorn American Kestrel - Grasshoppers - Specialized anatomy of raptors Beak shape, mandibular notch, feet and talons, eyes, nictitating membrane, supraorbital ridge Raptors are reverse sexually dimorphic -Be familiar with the basic physical characteristics and/or hunting techniques of: osprey, Secretary birds, everglade kite, goshawk, coopers hawk, sharp-shinned hawk, and red- tailed hawk, Harris hawk, gyrfalcon, merlin, American kestrel, and peregrine falcon Everglade Kite - eats almost exclusively apple snails, equipped with slender curved beak and delicate feet with long slender talons Osprey - eats fish from lakes, rivers, and coast, equipped with strong feet and specialized toes. Plunge diving hunting Secretary bird - Long legs, feet adapted for walking/cannot hold food with feet Kites - medium sized hawk, steer with tail while gliding, lack of orbital ridge, hunts insects and reptiles in trees and eats while in flight, hovering hunting Goshawk - Accipiter, largest, very vicious, kills animals for fun, not just for food, persecuted by pigeon handlers, Ambush hunting Coopers and Sharp-shinned - watch bird feeders to get birds, Accipiters, ambush hunting Red -tailed hawk - uses up drafts to soar, Buteo, in GA, soaring and perching hunting, and pair cooperative hunting Harris Hawk - Buteo found in South West, polyandry, Cooperative Hunting Gyrfalcon - arctic falcon, aerial pursuit Merlin - small falcon, eats mice and small birds, population went down from rat poison, aerial pursuit, stores food in tree American Kestrel - small falcon, population went down from rat poison, see UV to track urine pattern of small rodents, perch and hovering hunting Peregrine Falcon - almost extinct from DDT brought back to big cities, ledges made perfect homes and pigeons made easy prey, aerial pursuit hunting - New world vultures vs. old world vultures - Turkey vulture’s sense of smell Old World Vultures: Large, broad wings, featherless necks, weak feet and talons, perforated nostrils, use sight to find food, play a key role in the ecosystem by eliminated carrion and diseases spread by other scavenger animals In Nepal, Pakistan, and India almost died off from Diclofenac and led to a rabies outbreak now that substance is banned and populations are better New World Vultures: NOT GENETICALLY RELATED TO OLD WORLD VULTURES, also plays a role in the ecosystem by eating carrion like Old World Vultures, Large, broad wings with weak feet and talons, featherless necks, perforated nostrils with no septum, rely on sense of smell to find food. Turkey Vultures find food by smell, (can smell 2-3 mi away) other vultures use sight or follow Turkey Vultures - Accipiter vs. buteos Accipiters - hawks, short, rounded wings, long tails DASH AND GRAB TECHNIQUE OF HUNTING mostly living in forests, hunting low to the ground, long tails used as rudders, use lots of energy while hunting Buteos - hawks, large, wide winged, short tailed take advantage of updrafts to soar into the air, cover large area while hunting - Eagles Largest hawks, heavy bodies, large feet, mixed diet - Falcons vs. hawks Different Orders of Raptors Hawks: Accipitriformes (see accipiter vs. Buteo) Falcons: Falconiformes (usually don’t build nests, same egg appearance, extreme sexual dimorphism, long pointed wings, pronounced mandibular notch, usually in open areas) - Reproduction- elaborate displays, female anatomy, slow reproduction rates, eyries, Double clutching, imprinting, silicide, reverse sexual dimorphism Females choose male (tiercel), based on fitness, which is often tested through elaborate courtship displays -Raptors typically only mate for a season, but it varies among species, some will do what they want, and other mate a lifetime. -Female birds only have a single left ovary with its oviduct, though there are several species that are an exception to this. -Many raptors have more than one brood in a season, called “double clutch” -Are indeterminate breeders? -When eggs are taken into captivity, we fear they will imprint on humans, so they use puppets to stop this -Raptors are altricial They are asynchronous layers, which often leads to siblicide because older chicks will kick out younger chicks. Usually only 1 lives -Eyes are nestlings removed from the nest and raised in captivity - What determines the carrying capacity for raptors in a given location? Nesting Sites and available food. - Threats to raptor populations Being shot (1000s every year), habitat fragmentation, and low carrying capacity due to limiting factors. Lack of food and nesting sites - Causes of death in raptors (adults vs. juveniles) -Pesticides like DDT and others can halt reproduction and can cause thinning of eggshells to where parents crush their eggs. Accidents with cars and power lines account for millions of bird deaths per year. Bacterial, fungal, viral and parasites (respiratory disease)- 5% Accidents #1 KILLER OF ADULTS (cars, power lines, wind turbines, etc.) Starvation #1 KILLER OF JUVENILES #2 killer - man (esp. pigeon owners) - Hunting techniques, killing methods and mantling -Sharp shinned hawk, goshawk, and coopers hawk will conceal him or herself and then quickly dash and grab their prey. -Red tailed hawk and American kestrel will perch and watch for prey and then soar down and attack -Buteos like the red tailed hawk will soar and cover more territory and then rapidly dive and kill. -Falcons like the Peregrine will stick to aerial attacks and dive to kill, often other birds in mid air -Osprey and Eagle will plunge dive feet first to catch prey Mantling: hiding prey that is caught by spreading out the wings and tail so that another raptor will not see the caught prey and come and take it. - Requirements/procedures for becoming a falconer Three classes of licenses: Apprentice (<2 years experience), general (between 2-5 years), master (over 5 years experience) Fill out application for natural resources department for state, must build hawk house and acquire equipment, both get inspected. Master falconers must sponsor apprentice falconers until their sponsor approves them. - Sources of raptors for falconry Two sources: Capturing in wild- Eyes would be getting an egg from the nest before it hatches. Bird matures trusting you & will stay with you (pro) but you must teach it to hunt (con). Can be taught to hunt risky prey Passage would be a grown falcon trapped. Bird already knows to hunt (pro) but will only hunt what it knows & at best will tolerate you (con). May only be with you for one hunting season Buying from breeder. - The basics of how raptors are trapped for falconry Only certain times of year when trapping is allowed. There are several kinds of traps (which you need a permit for: Bal-Chatri trap, Swedish Goshawk trap, and the pigeon harness.) - Falconry equipment such as perches, hoods, bells, Jesse, bewit, lure, leash, scales - How is training a raptor for falconry accomplished, stages of training a raptor for falconry, training an eyes vs. a passager for falconry - Game hawking -Training is accomplished through persistence. Use of rewards. Steps for wild adult bird (passager) 1. Feeding and manning the bird 2. Flying to the fist 3. Lure training 4. Entering - Flying from the fist, crow hawking Flying from the fist: dangerous, called drive by falconry. Pull up in vehicle, let falcon go attack the bird of choice Crow hawking: flying from the fist is the method used in crow hawking, except crows will gang up on your bird and kill it Chickens - Geographical origin of chickens, reason for domestication - Egyptians - mass production of chickens Spread throughout the world via commercial and military contact China and Egypt were early mass producers Persians, Greeks, and Romans helped to globalize the chicken Origin: Thailand, Vietnam, China, Western India, and Cambodia Domestication: practical - egg and meat production, entertainment - cockfighting - Introduction of chickens in the Americas By 1600s all over world Introduced as backyard flocks in America (eggs mainly) Araucana chicken - came from Polynesia from colonizing Hawaii, New Zealand, and Easter Island Pizarro found chicken ingrain in Native American culture - Define or describe: bantam chicken, American Standard of Perfection, broiler vs. layer, dual purpose (utility type) chicken Bantam chicken - Cute, miniature version of chickens - Some breeds come in both bantam and standard sizes, others just come in bantam American Standard of Perfection - Published by American Poultry Society to make chicken show judging fairer - Also used by breeders Broiler vs. Layer - Broilers= meat birds · Grow rapidly and quickly · Do not lay many eggs - Layers · Small and skinny · Lay lots of eggs - Dual purpose/utility chickens do both - Differences between Asian and European breeds of chickens Asian - Pea combs - Feathered shanks - Red earlobes - Heavy → Ideal for meat - Develop slower - Lay fewer eggs European - Single comb - Bare shanks - White earlobes - Weigh less --> lay more eggs - Develop quickly - The role of women in the early poultry industry Women cared for flocks What they sold they could use for pocket money (egg money) - Jesse Jewel and Cecile Steele Cecile Steele Pioneer in poultry industry Thought ordered 50 chicks and got 500 (385 survived - made profit) Delmarva poultry industry Sold for $0.62 a lb. and made a bunch of money By 1927 ordered 25,000 chicks - how region made money Jesse Jewel Owned a feed mill/seed store in Gainesville, GA Farmers couldn't buy feed so he gave them chicks and feed to farmer and bought them back for a profit Decided to have a hatchery and processors closer to home Brought vertical integration to industry Set mold for today's industry uses - History of broiler chicken production in Georgia and the scope of the poultry industry in When boll weevil destroyed cotton N. GA took up poultry farming Used as a front for moonshine during prohibition - hide why needed a lot of corn By 1930's county agents, banker, and feed dealers were pushing poultry farming During WWII took over Delmarva's market SE is the new home of poultry industry #1 BROILER STATE Georgia today - Efficiency of today’s chicken in converting feed into meat compared to other farm Animals and the reasons for this increase in efficiency 5 weeks to 5 lbs. - 1.7 lbs. of feed per 1 lb. of gain 300 eggs per bird per year and 3 lbs. of feed per doz. eggs Broilers: 1.7 feed conversion Egg: 3.00 feed conversion Pork: 4.00 Beef: 8.0 Colleges work with industry to develop - New disease prevention and control methods - Improved husbandry/management techniques - The nutrient requirements for max performance (more is known about the chicken than any other animal in the field of nutrition) Improved genetics - Broiler: w. Plymouth Rock (confirmation) and Cornish (size) - Egg: White leghorn Genetic selection - get bigger because more food so become altricial and grow and mature faster so bigger birds in shorter amount of time - Nutrition, genetics, disease prevention and husbandry better understood in chickens than in any other species - Use of chickens in medical research Nutritional Research - Vitamin D, Vitamin K, Vitamin B12 - The fact that the price of chicken meat decreased from the 1920's to the year 2000 - Chicken production and hormones Stupid myth Would have to continually inject them for no results, hormones would break down in stomach - Avian flu Highly pathogenic version not even in this country - in countries where keep chickens with them at all times and will eat dead birds even if diseased dead birds Difficult to be transmitted to humans Cooked poultry kills virus None of our poultry is imported If bird gets it the entire area is shut down and no bird is allowed to leave area Further pursuits - Be familiar with the wide variety of opportunities available with avian related jobs and the immense scope of the bird industry 606,000 jobs Food production: eggs or broilers Fishing: fly fishing lures Hunting Preserves Raising Bird for game Bird Breeder: exotic DVM Designer of cages, toys, perches, food, feeders Nutritionist for birds Bird magazines Advertising Photographers Writers Development and production of vaccines Human and animal health Pharmaceuticals Gene transfer research (insulin) More jobs with birds than any animal except humans 1 in 4 adults are bird watchers - most popular past time worldwide Employment: trillion $s a year $107 billion added to the economy More jobs with birds than any animal except humans - Endangered species recovery programs in general and the basics for these three specific programs: California condor 9.5 ft. wingspan Live up to 40-50 years Only have one chick every 2 years Mid 80s only 22 left Captured and put in captive breeding - A second egg would be produced if first was taken away helped increase numbers 3 populations established in California, Arizona and Baja Now there are 586 in the wild Prone to lead poisoning (Arizona) Can’t all live in the same place do to pandemic bird flu Peregrine falcon Made endangered list in 1970, removed in 1998 1930-60à DDT killed a lot of them. Only 39 breeding pairs at one point Collected eggs and started breeding them in captivity with artificial insemination At first, releasing back into the wild was not successful Could not fight in the wild and would get eaten Thrive in big cities Today there are thousands around the US Whooping crane 1940s --> 15-16 individuals Today, 389 in the wild and 170 in captivity International crane foundation started the preservation Used model species (sand hill crane), artificial incubation, costumed rearing, and established both resident and migrating populations Resident population -Florida population only has 11 left - Did not mate or reproduce Migrating population -From Florida to Wisconsin -People and power lines kill a lot - The importance of some basic bird biology for these further pursuits For the cumulative portion of the final - Focus on things that were mentioned over and over (examples would be sexual dimorphism, imprinting or altricial and precocial chicks). My suggestion would be just to look over the study guides for exam 1 and 2 concentrating on things that still applied to the material in this last section.
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