POUL 1010 Exam 2 STudy Guide
POUL 1010 Exam 2 STudy Guide POUL 1010
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaitlyn Heerlein on Tuesday June 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POUL 1010 at University of Georgia taught by Davis in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Birds of our Lives in Poultry science at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 06/21/16
All of the topics to know are listed below. If you add any info in the blank spots, make it in a different color so it’s easily distinguishable Parrots -Clipping wing feathers (why do it and how) Done to prevent bird from escaping HOW TO DO -most common clip involves trimming the primary feathers -smaller bird: clip up to 7 flight feathers -heavier bird: 4-5 flight feathers -DO NOT clip only one feather-- makes the bird uneven -DO NOT clip all but one feather--lone feather may be damaged in cage, ect -Feather picking (causes, and telling the difference between mate vs. self inflicted) Behavioral- boredom, bad wing clipping job or continuation of nesting behavior environmental-anxiety, allergens, dry air (low humidity) medical- metal toxicosis, skin infections, vitamin A deficiency, too many vitamin supplements, internal parasites mate- head is missing feathers, shows dominance -Biting and screaming in parrots, why it happens Biting- something wrong, hormones, dominant position, accidental since feel with their tongues screaming- probably results in part from flock behavior -Behavior modification in parrots, general guidelines on what to do and what not to do what to do: 1. verbal command 2. use distractions 3. be fair 4. focus on the positive never punish after the fact be consistent You do not want to respond by yelling at the bird or tapping/hitting the cage. This encourages the bird by giving it a “drama reward”. don’t spray with water, they like water -Problems with seed-based diets seed diets are not optimal 1. excessive fat 2. low sodium 3. low calcium 4. low fiber 5. low in other vitamins and minerals Birds will also select out their favorite seeds and not receive a balanced diet -Potential advantages of a pelleted diet provide a complete and balanced diet all consumable Colored pellets reduce the “boredom” factor -General recommended feeding guidelines Strive to have 80-85% of your bird’s total caloric intake be from appropriate pellets The other 15-20% should be made up of fruits, vegetables, nuts, other human food -General characteristics of African greys, eclectus, amazons and cockatoos (THIS MIGHT NEED TO BE ADDED TO) African greys -Two sub species: Congo and Timneh -Congo had BRIGHT red tail -Timneh: darker color and maroon tail, smaller -Both have speaking abilities -makes great pet; little more high maintenance *DO NOT absorb calcium well (HYPOCALCEMIA) so need higher calcium diet Eclectus -REVERSE sexual dimorphism -Make good pets, fabulous speakers but DO NOT like being touched -Like to be around people -Feathers are more hair-like; DO NOT have barbs -Male beak is more candy-corn color; if unhealthy--the color bleeds out -Need a lot of vitamin A and fiber -Eat a lot of fruit from the wild Amazons -Green, short tailed; identified by head and neck colors -Largest genus of medium to large parrot (27 species, 42 subspecies) -Excellent speech and singing abilities, but varies based on species -outgoing, loyal, curious -prone to obsesity Cockatoos -Wide range of colors/sizes -Native to Australia -Some considered farm pests -PETS: noisy, sensitive, like to be held/petted, bonds strongly to one person -Signs that a bird may be sick Things to monitor: food consumption feces weight loss ruffled feather/ excessive sleep runny nares eye discharge or crustiness vomiting -Common problems encountered by parrot owners and household hazards escape feed and water bowl problems messiness boredom more than one bird problems (jealousy) -Two methods of bird sexing and advantages or disadvantages of each method DNA sexing- only know the sex and nothing else, noninvasive Laparoscopic-small incision and use camera to look at sexual organs, can help with knowing if mature or immature, invasive, can be dangerous to bird -Characteristics of pair bonded parrots Show togetherness -feed together, defend space together, preen one another, roost together -Reasons birds are placed in rescue facilities Abused owners didn’t realize how much responsibility bird was; bought without family, attacked family feather picking, loud Pigeons -Difference between pigeons and doves No scientific difference, birds addressed as doves are just typically smaller in size. -Large number of species but many endangered, geographic distribution ~300 species of pigeons have colonized every continent except Antarctica 71 species are rare/endangered currently 17 species in North America 4 of the 17 are nonnative -Passenger pigeon, Eurasian Collared dove, African Collared dove **need more info on the collared’s if anyone has some** Passenger pigeon: 3 billion in the 1800’s (most populous bird ever) Extinct by 1900’s in wild o Killed crops and animals indirectly o Squab considered delicacy o Shot at in shooting range o Fed to swine o Hunters killed 30,000 to get paid o Hunting to extinction o Developed a fatal flaw, babies would be so fat and well fed, parents would leave, the time when they left, the baby was vulnerable to predators and hunters Invasive: Eurasian Collared Dove · 1970s: introduced in the Bahamas · Populations have spread across the US and Canada · Competing with the native Mourning Dove Invasive: African Collared Dove · “Ringed turtle dove” · pets released · now hybridizing with the Eurasian collared dove · several feral -Domesticated and feral pigeons originated from the blue barred rock dove -will eat human food in cities -very adaptable ; every continent except antarctica -Nesting behavior 1. 2 white eggs 2. small eggs relative to body size 3. can have up to 8 clutches a year 4. male incubate during day, females incubate at night -Crop milk production, its composition, evolutionary advantage and nutrient value Crop Milk: produced by both parents under influence of hormone prolactin produced in the crop high in protein and fat (like cottage cheese) because it is dead epithelial cells makes babies grow rapidly composed of mostly water, protein, fat and other minerals Rapid development of the very altricial chicks is a result of both parents producing crop milk In Pigeon: 65-81% water/ 13-19% protein/ 7-13% fat/ 1-2% ash -Historical perspective (symbolism and dove releases at special events and use in wars both for messages and for espionage, famous pigeons, project sea hunt) 1. Commonly used as sacrificial animals in religious ceremonies 2. In hindi pigeons are represented as doves 3. Use in wars: 1. Franco Prussian War: Everyone was trapped so they used their homing pigeons to travel back to france to send an SOS message 2. Project Sea Hunt - Pigeons trained to recognize colors in the ocean which later was used to locate rafts/people stranded (orange, red or yellow) 1. Much more efficient than human searching (30% success rate for humans, 90% for pigeons 3. WWI & WWII 1. used pigeons as signals to get allies/enemies to engage in a cease fire 2. Cher Ami - save the lost battalian (77th Division) from friendly fire, last pigeon left 3. GI Joe - saved British Battalian from friendly fire in Italy, flew 20 mi in 20 min 4. William of Orange - saved the most amount of people by a single bird (D-Day) -The biological basis for homing ability •The sun compass **main contributing factor to homing ability** •Sense of time with the sun compass •Sensitivity to the earth’s magnetic field •Sensitivity to the force of the earth’s rotation Vision: pigeons have very good vision and have a much wider field of view than humans. -able to memorize what they see which really aids them as they get closer to home -Loft design (parameters to be concerned with) 1. Needed to provide a shelter from the environment and predators 2. Dry and well ventilated but not drafty 3. Easy to clean and access ( racing pigeons have a loft trap door- see slides) 4. 1 cubic ft. per pigeon 5. Breeding lofts - no trap doors but more nesting boxes -Essentials of feeding •Water –constant supply of clean water –conditions that increase water consumption •Feed –a diet should supply carbohydrates fats proteins minerals and vitamins Grit- source of mineral nutrition and also typically fortified with vitamins and micro-minerals assists in the grinding action of the gizzard for mechanical digestion -The information on permanent pigeon bands seamless bands placed on leg between 6-12 days of age Example Band ID: AU 97 ABC 1234 AU = who issued the band 97 = year issued ABC = Club it was from ATH = Athens 1234 = specific pigeon ID # -Pigeon racing (training, racing terms such as counter mark, liberator, club races, one loft races, etc) how is the winner of the race determined? Homing pigeons and illegal activity. Ton of info here I may type in later. He even drew a diagram in class •Local Club Racing - $ –Individual lofts are surveyed –Countermarks and racing clocks –Liberator –Winner: fasted flier (yards/minute) •One-loft Racing - $$$ –Test of breeding genetics alone –Winner: first bird back to loft •Auction of winner - $$$$ Illegal activity - prisoner smuggle stuff in an out of jails using pigeons Liberator - one who takes pigeons to starting mark and releases them Countermarks - 2nd band used to mark the time of the bird in club/local races WATERFOWL -Characteristics of 2 categories of ducks (dabbling vs. diving) -Mating behavior of ducks and the term philopatric -Difference between Branta and Anser species of geese -Counter current blood flow in the legs Dabbling: 1. Dabbles underwater for food, doesn't dive 2. Feet stick out of water and are more towards the center of mass 3. Spring off of the surface to engage in flight 4. Filter feeds Diving: 1.Dives for food (fish, shellfish) 2.Feet are located towards the back for a more streamlined dive (kind of like scuba flippers) 3. run to fly and some spend time at sea Mating behavior: monogamous for single mating season, referred to as seasonal monogamy Philopatric: return to nest at birth site Sexual dimorphism Branta: have bolder plumage (have black legs and beak), contrasts between pigments on feather plumage Anser: tend to be more uniform (snow geese) // lighter color legs and beak Counter Current Blood Flow in legs: blood flows both ways and is intertwined to prevent freezing… or overheating -Conflict between humans and urban Canada geese, resolutions Main problem → poop, aesthetics resolutions → repellents, exclusion, scaring, nest destruction, addling, oiling -Problems associated with mute swan becoming invasive, aggressive → will drive out native species -Why do geese fly in a V formation? The V shape is more aerodynamic and the geese expel less energy in flight. Have comfort seeing all the flock. decrease wind resistance -Reasons geese are raised commercially Feathers, eggs, meat, Ornamental Purposes, foie gras -Ducks & geese seldom affected by disease Hardly affected by disease, but usually carriers of disease -Threats to wild populations of ducks biggest reason is lack of cover.<<< what does lack of cover mean?? forestry?? <<yes, or underbrush (basically so predators can’t readily see them plus blocks harsher weather) destruction of wetlands -Conservation of waterfowl federal programs → duck stamp = $250 million in revenue hunter participation → hunters switch from lead shot, identify sex and species, set bag limits Habitat protection → wetland protection Gamebirds -Definition of a gamebird Game bird : bird under pursuit or taken in hunting: esp: wild bird hunted for sport or food -Ruffed Grouse is most widely distributed resident gamebird in North America and thrives in young forests while chucker partridge is the most commonly raised and kept gamebird by individuals in North America. -Reasons gamebirds raised by people· Why do people raise game birds? o Personal enjoyment hobby, show & exhibit o Preservation of threatened & endangered species o Full-scale commercial operations § Edible products § Flight -Males tend to be larger, cryptic coloration of females -Are not monogamous in mating, precocial chicks -What is a lek? lek is the area for their special dance - ground is booming ground An area where birds gather during the breeding season for community courtship displays to attract mates. -Generally female rears the young -North American Wild Turkey the largest North American game bird 5 recognized subspecies which vary slightly in color and size → rio grande, gould’s, merriam, eastern, osceola Habitat and habits native to eastern and southwestern states, origin of our domestic turkeys exceptional hearing and eyesight--can see colors, 10x resolution power of human eye 3 distinct habitats needed o winter--need adequate and reliable food source, cover from bad weather o nesting--close to permanent water source, edges o summer/fall--more open, proving low plant cover mix of open agricultural area and mature forest o crop fields, old fields, and timber that provide proper combination of food/cover/water o mature trees for roosting, corridors home range 1-4 square miles highly adaptable and appear to live well in suburban areas as long as habitat requirements are met o said to be established in NYC Central Park opportunistic omnivores with seeds/nuts/insects as primary food source polygynous reproductive behavior -- don’t form permanent pair reach sexual maturity at 1 year o females begin breeding, young males rarely breed due to harassment from aggressive mature males o immature birds called “jakes” and “jennies” reach full maturity at 2 years may live up to 6 years Near extinction and recovery (catch and release, captive breeding and release Wild Turkey Conservation o 1840-1900 → surplus of wild turkeys, overhunting and habitat destruction tanked numbers, cause for concern o Fish & Game Commission (1915) o Pittman-Robertson Wildlife Restoration Act (1937) o combined efforts of hunters, govt. agencies, conservation organizations o now → 7 million birds in 48 states o programs: Conservation Seed Program, Wild Turkey Woodlands, Private Land Partnerships, Riparian, Operation Appleseed, Guzzlers Gobblers pen-raised birds are poor choice for release o poor genetic quality, lack of survival skills, biosecurity risks trap & translocation o cannon/rocket netting, tracking through radio-telemetry promoting turkey habitats o timber management uneven-aged management → selective removal limit clear-cutting to 25 acres o protect mast-producing shrubs and trees o provide open space o plant food plots for supplemental feeding o prescribed burning Anatomical features of the head (snood, caruncles, etc.) · Snood Appendage that can swell up with blood for display · Wattle Red part under the chin · Caruncles Bumps on wattle · Beard Only bird with a “beard” Use as a keystone species · Keystone species- presence indicates healthy ecosystem and high-quality forest -Why trapping and relocation of wild game birds is better than releasing domestically raised game birds when reintroducing/replenishing game birds in an area. risk of disease and infecting entire population….is this correct? Wild game birds tend to mate more frequently than domestically raised game birds. So when reintroducing a population, more offspring are desired to repopulate the area. Family names for ducks, swans, geese, and turkeys (drake, hen, duckling, etc.) Duck: Drake, hen, duckling Swans: cobb, pen, cygnet Geese-gander, goose, gosling Turkeys-Tom (gobbler), hen, poult The dove is the leading gamebird that is hunted, but considered a song bird in some states -Unique thing about woodcock vision Eyes located very high on the head, so they have a 360 degree vision field -How do species become endangered? habitat destruction (loss of food & shelter, fragmentation, urbanization, farming), introduction of exotic plants & animals, contaminants (pesticides, lead shot, DDT and thin egg shells), hunting (poaching, baiting), human- caused catastrophe, predation from domestic animals Factors that predispose species to endangerment animal is considered dangerous, climate change, specialized diet (panda), specialized habitat (snail kite), small geographic range, human competition for resources, have something of value (pets, pelts, & potions) regulations o Endangered Species Act of 1973 designed to protect critically imperiled species from extinction as a “consequence of economic growth and development untendered by adequate concern and conservation” and also “the ecosystems upon which they depend” -Invasive species non native species that has no natural predators and outcompetes native species -Where threatened birds reside and current threats to birds -Game Management Practices: what is game management and why do we need it? o artificial influence on wildlife habitat and wildlife populations o management of natural resource so that it can be sustained over the long-term o conservation practices o some historic names → Theodore Roosevelt, Aldo Leopold key game management practices o hunting restrictions limited or closed seasons, bag limits, hour restrictions, sex-specific harvest ban on mass killing methods 1918 ban on market hunting o hunting preserve concept/benefits of game bird hunting preserves spawned by need for improved wildlife habitat, increased hunting opportunities more “sporty” than open hunting on farm land cover habitat much better developed set own season and bag limits know that birds are there less impact on wild populations o refuges, wetlands preservation U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service National Wildlife Refuge System 632 management units (96,013,646 acres) 75,000,000 visitors each year 1,340,000 volunteer hours ($23,025,000) 490 refuge enforcement officers Georgia has 8 refuges (456,108 acres) Baskett Slough National Wildlife Refuge Dallas, Oregon 2,492 acres to provide wintering habitat for dusky Canada geese U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge established in 1936 to preserve the 438,000 acre swamp in 1974, the interior 353,981 acres of the refuge were designated a National Wilderness Area refuge is presently 402,000 acres home to turkey, waterfowl species o hunting licenses, stamp, and tag sales earmarked to defer conservation costs 1934 Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act o catch & release banding and tracking species population monitoring migration and distribution studies o captive breeding and reintroduction reintroduction to native habitat multi-agency, multi-state research effort -- became the largest wildlife study in the history of North America state agencies from 8 states, federal agencies, universities, timber and paper companies studies to evaluate population trends, survival, mortality, productivity, and home range look at reasons for low productivity 1 chick per adult reaching maturity enhance fertility of captive-bred birds for quicker population growth prior to release -Land management practices and low-cost habitat improvements for game bird conservation land management practices o prescribed burns o grazing management -- “clump” creation o wetlands preservation o predator control particularly with captive bred birds for reintroduction o cover management create brush piles in pastures, clearcuts, and other open areas to provide escape cover cut and leave large trees on field edges to provide nesting cover and winter protection establish living brush pilesedges for wildlife where two habitats meet → increased diversity (edge effect) provide sunlight for soft-mast producing plants (nuts & berries) managing edges retain forest strips along streams allow brushy edges and native vegetation to take over fencerows, roadsides, field borders low-cost habitat improvements o fence livestock from woody areas to provide critical winter cover o place artificial nesting structures o open dense forest with selective logging improving game bird forage o plant winter food plots near existing winter cover o annual grain food plots o crop residues o strip cropping o establish watering sources o leave food trees and shrubs when thinning dense forests Soft billed birds -The term soft billed bird what it means. generalized term that is a bit of a misnomer, does not actually mean the bills of the birds are soft but rather refers to the diet of the birds (they eat ‘soft’ foods such as insects, flowers, fruits, easily digestible plant material, etc. but no hard foods like seeds or nuts) -Toucans, Toucanets, Aracari tend to be sexually monomorphic, nest in hollow tree cavities and have long bills used for obtaining food in the wild and thermoregulation, but these bills are light weight and not that strong. inside of the bill has ridges feather-like tongue for food manipulation, enhanced sense of taste bills are light-weight because they are mostly hollow, foam packing coated with a layer of keratin (fingernail material) -Toucans unique tail vertebrae structure -caudal vertebrae allows toucans to hide its beak in its tail ball-n-socket joint -Pet considerations for Toucans (cages, diets, availability) need a lot of space and can be messy due to activity levels (although will only defecate in one area), so prepare to dedicate a portion of your home to these birds so they can fly and get exercise -Hemochromatosis disease characterized by iron overload--too much iron in the diet leading cause of death of these birds in captivity NEED a specialized diet low in iron, includes special pellets and distilled water -Mynahs are known for their talking ability and are relatively rare in captivity no bird can speak clearer or mimic sounds better than a mynah love attention but are independent → this means you should talk to them and give them verbal/visual attention, but no need for physical contact or petting live 15-25 years large cage with lots of perches as these birds fly and hop but do not climb also susceptible to hemochromatosis, so need specialized diet low in iron complemented with fruits, steamed veggies -Starlings as pets and as pests and the introduction of European starling to U.S. can be very beautiful in color kept as pets 2000 years ago, strictly old-world birds usually travel in pairs, small groups, and flock for feeding (fantastic aerodynamic flock patterns) starlings originally from Europe, introduced to U.S. quickly became urban pests → noisy at dusk and dawn, roosting in urban trees w/ lots of droppings and mess, attracted to airfields due to grasslands and flocks have crashed planes, agriculture damage due to consumption of fruit crops -Finches have beak structure for eating seeds and typically exhibit female mate choice. songbirds with short, stout, conical bills for eating seeds originate from Africa, Asia, Australia most live in grass or bush land, coexist in small flocks female like the redheads → means they are getting enough of the red pigments in their diet, good fitness, good breeding -Many finch species readily breed in captivity and Zebra finches are used for research. we have successfully sequenced in the entire Zebra finch genome breed opportunistically, sexually mature in 70-80 days which is very fast! exist in wild of flocks of 100 or more birds best kept in large flight cages in groups breed readily when kept in single pairs -Finches with red and yellow feather colors often vary in appearance based on their diet
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