POUL 3600 Final Study Guide
POUL 3600 Final Study Guide POUL 3600
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaitlyn Heerlein on Tuesday June 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POUL 3600 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Gene Pesti in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Poultry Production in Poultry science at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 06/21/16
POUL 3600 2016 Poultry Production Review Questions INTRODUCTION 1. What precautions should be taken when traveling between poultry farms? Appropriate Biosecurity measures 2. What were important scientific discoveries that lead to the, or allowed the, development of the modern poultry industries? Discovery of Vitamin A, Discovery of Vitamin D, Tests for diseases (ie Pullorum’s Disease), Mechanical Deboner 3. What roles did disease and war have in the development of the modern poultry industry? WWII Meat Rations 4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the contract system for producing poultry meat and eggs? Disadvantages - biosecurity risk Advantages - efficiency/ cost/ labor 5. What were the important factors that lead to the change from the contract system to company owned broiler egg production? Vertical integration was cheaper/ more efficient (??) 6. What were the important factors that lead to the change from the contract system to company owned commercial egg production? Same as above ? “RECYCLING” LAYERS 7. What are the advantages and disadvantages of force-resting programs for commercial layers? Adv. - dec. egg size, inc. quality (shell and interior) Disadv. - lose that # of eggs while the birds are force-resting 8. Describe typical force-resting programs? How are light, feed, water and temperature changed? What effects do they have? Decrease lighting and temp. To dec. the hen’s weight, feed is changed (less nutritirional value) 9. How is the decision to force rest, or not, made? Price of eggs, season of year 10. How is the decision of how long to force rest made? Season (price of eggs), feed cosst 11. How are egg numbers affected by force resting? Should go to zero, then 8-10% higher than before the molt 12. How is egg quality affected by force resting? Egg size reduces, interior quality improves, shell quality improves 13. How do seasonal egg prices affect the decision to force rest? Don’t molt hens when the egg prices are high (around Easter) 14. How do feed prices affect the decision to force rest? It costs more to raise new pellets, so higher feed prices favor molting 15. How do spent hen prices affect the decision to force rest? If spent hen prices are high, you may want to sell the spent hens, and start with new young birds. If prices are low, it would be better to molt the current hens. 16. Why is changing the hen’s body weight important to the success of force molting? Reduces during molt - I don’t know why--lose weight because they go off feed and that causes them to lay smaller eggs (=higher quality) HATCHING EGG QUALITY 17. How is the fertility of a flock of hens calculated? Fertility = #eggs fertile/#eggs set 18. How is the hatchability (HFE) of a flock of hens calculated? Hatchability = # hatched/#fertile eggs 19. How is the % hatch (HES) of a flock of hens calculated? % hatch = # hatched/#eggs set 20. What is meant by “apparent” fertility? Same at hatch set fertility? This is the fertility of all eggs set at the begining of incubation. 21. What is meant by “candling” fertility? Fertility of birds hatched after candling after week one and week two 22. How do fertility and hatchability change with the hen’s age? Decrease with hen’s age 23. How do early, middle and late dead change with the hen’s age? -Early dead decreases with hen’s age and then increases because chicks circulatory systems don’t develop well. -Middle dead stays relatively the same as hen’s age changes. -Late dead decreases and then increases with hen’s age because their respiratory system does not develop well. 24. How does the percentage of pips change with the hen’s age? Fertility increases and then decreases due to social problems and weight gain in males 25. How do farm and transfer cracks change with the hen’s age? Farm and Transfer cracks increase with hen’s age (as shell thickness decreases with egg size increase) 26. How does egg contamination change with the hen’s age? Contamination levels are higher in younger hen’s eggs. (But I don’t know why) 27. How does egg size change with the hen’s age? -Egg Size increases as Hen’s age increases 28. What strategies help minimize dirty eggs? Picking up eggs at least 4 times per day, not letting eggs sit in houses for long 29. How often should eggs be gathered? 3-4 times a day and ot at night. This way eggs can be removed and cleaned and begin cooling. 30. How does egg size affect chick size? Smaller egg = smaller chick, larger egg = larger chick 31. Why is egg size uniformity important? Selling to consumers (want uniform size & fit in carton) 32. Why are eggs fumigated versus being washed? Washing can remove the natural protection egg has against microbes/infection (?) 33. When do eggs sweat and how is it prevented? If the humidity is high and the interior egg is cooler than surroundings. Slow cooling and monitor humidity to prevent. 34. How should fertile eggs be stored? Storage long term is air cell down (air cell up in incubator) 35. What effects do low albumin quality and misplaced air cells have on hatchability? Decreased hatchability (? - someone elaborate) INCUBATION AND SANITATION 36. What temperature should hen’s eggs be incubated at? 65 F (for storage it should be 65) Incubation should be 98-99 F 37. What happens to the temperature in an incubator if the power fails? If air movement stops eggs at the top of the incubator can cook (this obviously decreases hatchability) 38. What is meant by “wet bulb” and “dry bulb” temperatures? Dry bulb measures air temperature, while wet bulb temperature helps to determine relative humidity. Together these determine grains of moisture in the air. 39. What factors affect egg drying losses during incubation? Egg size (surface area), shell quality 40. Why is air movement in an incubator important? If air movement stops eggs at the top of the incubator can cook (this obviously decreases hatchability) 41. How should eggs be set (orientation)? Eggs should be set air cell up 42. Why are eggs turned? To prevent chicks from sticking to the shell 43. How are eggs turned? Trays rotate to turn the eggs 44. How often are eggs turned? 4 times/day is adequate 6 times/day is recommended 24 times/day is common 45. When should eggs be transferred? End of 19 days is best for hatchability 46. How is egg transfer time determined? When 1% piped 47. How does egg size affect hatching time? Chicks from large eggs tend to hatch after one’s from small eggs. Small eggs heat faster so they hatch sooner. 48. How does packing eggs affect cooling time? Hatching time? Tightly packing eggs may delay cooling time by 3 or more days. 49. How does altitude affect hatchability? High altitude decreases hatch 50. What specific diseases are important in hatcheries? How can they be controlled or eliminated? Mycoplasm (caused by mold in hatchery) 51. What factors are likely to cause excessive “clear” eggs? Too many males, too few females, eggs held too long, salmonellosis 52. What factors are likely to cause blood rings? Improper turning, egg chilling, excessive fumigation, low ventilation 53. What factors are likely to cause excessive pips? Insufficient humidity 54. What factors are likely to cause early hatch and chicks stuck to their shells? Excessive temperature 55. What factors are likely to cause late hatch? Insufficient temperature 56. What factors are likely to cause excessive malformed chicks? Excessive temperature, improper turning, insufficient humidity, smooth trays 57. What factors are likely to cause abnormal, weak and small chicks? Excessive temperature, insufficient humidity, dirty incubator, small eggs 58. What factors are likely to cause labored breathing? Excessive fumigation, bronchitis or Newcastle 59. How is sanitation different from cleanliness? Sanitation is the act of ridding of pathogens, cleanliness is the absence of 3-D dirt 60. What are the requirements of good disinfectants? -Highly Germicidal -Non-toxic to man and fowl -Works with organics -Non-Corroding and non-staining -Penetrating -Smells Good -Cheap 61. What are the different disinfectants actions? -Fumigation of eggs -Antiseptic -Foot Baths -Egg Dipping -Equipment Sanitation 62. What are the typical uses of common disinfectants? Disinfecting floors and stainless steel surfaces, local antiseptic, HATCHERY DISEASE PROBLEMS 63. What is the difference between vertical and horizontal disease transmission? Vertical transmission is transmitted hen to egg, and horizontal transmission is transmitted bird to bird DISINFECTANTS 64. How is sanitation different from cleanliness? Sanitation is the act of ridding of pathogens, cleanliness is the absence of 3-D dirt 65. What are the requirements of good disinfectants? -Highly Germicidal -Non-toxic to man and fowl -Works with organics -Non-Corroding and non-staining -Penetrating -Smells Good -Cheap 66. What are the different disinfectants actions? -Fumigation of eggs -Antiseptic -Foot Baths -Egg Dipping -Equipment Sanitation 67. What are the typical uses of common disinfectants? -Is this not the same fucking question? BROILER HOUSING & FEEDING 68. What are the recommended steps for cleaning a broiler house? 1 - Wash House and Equipment with water 2 - Remove equipment 3 - Remove litter 4 - Wash everything with soap and water 5 - Let stand 1-2 weeks 6 - Apply Rodenticide 7 - Clean and disinfect water line 8 - Disinfect buildings and equipment 9 - Reinstall equipment 10 - Apply insecticides and floor treatments 69. What are the advantages and disadvantages of nipple waterers? Advantages: easy to clean & lowered house moisture or condemnations Disadvantages: slower growth 70. How do dietary protein and energy levels affect growth rate? When dietary protein level increases, growth rate increases. 71. How do dietary protein and energy levels affect feed efficiency? When dietary protein and energy levels increase, feed efficiency improves 72. How do dietary protein and energy levels affect carcass fat? When dietary protein level increases, carcass fat decreases. When dietary energy level increases, carcass fat increases. 73. How do dietary protein and energy levels affect carcass yield? Increasing protein, increases weight, which increases yields Energy: 74. How should dietary protein levels be determined? SHould be based on maximizing profits. 75. What are the advantages and disadvantages of sex separate rearing? Adv. - feed can be formulated to better fit each sex (M need less nutrients); can be grown to same size and not age Disadv. - everyone wants the faster grower males & would have to be compensated for slower growing females 76. What are the advantages and disadvantages of pelleting feed? Birds can’t pick and choose what parts of the feed to eat; it is more uniform 77. Why are enzymes added to poultry feeds? To help birds to use feed to the fullest extent? 78. What enzymes are added to poultry feeds? Phytase, 79. What are pro-biotics? live bacteria and yeasts that are good for your health, especially your digestive system 80. Why are probiotics added to poultry feeds? Improve gut health; improve FCR 81. How long should broiler be off feed and water before slaughter? 8-12 Hours 82. What happens if broilers are not off feed long enough before processing? DIrty birds with excreta on birds and leaking intestines 83. What happens if broilers are off feed too long before processing? Reduced weight and fragile intestines HEAT STRESSED & METABOLICALLY STRESSED BROILERS 84. What is ascities? Fluid in the visceral cavity LABORATORY 85. What samples should be taken and sent to a diagnostic laboratory upon a disease outbreak? -Fresh Dead (with symptoms) -Live with symptoms -Live with no symptoms 86. Why are un-hatched eggs “broken out”? -To determine when and why the chicks did not hatch 87. What problems may be discovered by “breaking out” eggs? -chicks stuck to shell, death caused by temperature or relative humidity inconsistencies HOUSING BROILERS 88. What are the goals of housing birds? -decrease spread of disease and control the environment birds are raised in 89. How does air speed affect broiler performance? Alters the wind chill effect and moisture level in the litter (?) 90. What are the sources of gasses in poultry houses? Brooders, birds, and microorganisms in the litter 91. What is meant by “effective bird temperature”? The temperature at which the birds efficiency is highest due to the right enviro. Temperature (.?) 92. What is a psychometric chart for? Looking at the relationship between dry temp, wet temp, relative humidity, and grains of moisture in the air 93. What is the objective of exhaust fans? To move air out of the house, 94. What are the 4 ventilation modes and when is each used? -Minimal Ventilation: For young birds, to supply O2 and remove harmful gases -Transitional Ventilation: Older birds and warm weather, to remove heat -Tunnel Ventilation: Older Birds, warmer weather, to cool with wind chill -Evaporative Cooling: Hot weather, to lower the house temperature 95. How does evaporative cooling work? Water is dripped down a corrugated material and then a fan is blown through it, creating a quick cooling effect. 96. When can evaporative cooling be used? During the day, when it is hotter than usual. 97. When should evaporative cooling not be used? Evaporative cooling should never be used at night. (hour before sunset, half hour after sun up?) POULTRY HEALTH 98. What is meant by “minimal infectious dose”? Smallest number of organisms capable of causing clinical disease symptoms 99. What factors alter the “minimal infectious dose”? Decrease: Age, ANy stressor (temperature, nutritional deficiency, other infection, crowding Increase: Age, exposure (vaccination), sanitation, balanced feed, anything that decreases stress 100. What are the 3 important considerations for preventing infectious diseases? Isolation; sanitation; vaccination 101. What the most common vectors for poultry diseases? 1 - Insects 2 - People 3 - Machinery 4 - Wild Birds 5 - Pets or other domestic fowl 6 - Rodents 7 - Wind 102. How is coccidiosis prevented in broiler breeders? -vaccinations and good litter management (?) 103. Define vaccination. A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease- causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as foreign, destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it later encounters (this is long but i pulled it from an old test key) LIGHTING MANAGEMENT 104. How is light measured (units)? Intensity is measured in foot candles 105. What happens if layers don’t receive adequate light? They do not begin laying/ #’s are very low because they aren’t stimulated 106. Describe a typical Canadian lighting program. The canadian programs call for the duration of light to be decreased to 6 to 8 hours after the initial 23 hours for the first week or so. The short duration should last 10 to 14 days and can then be increased gradually or all at once to 23 hours. 107. What are the advantages of Canadian lighting programs? Reduced metabolic disease and mortality, better feed efficiency LAYER MANAGEMENT 108. What are the advantages and disadvantages of giving layers extra floor space? Adv. - decreasing chance of cocci Disadv. - consumer perception 109. What do huddled and panting chicks indicate? Huddled - Too cold (or sick) Panting - Too hot 110. How is beak trimming done? When they are about 7 days old, the upper beak is burned off with a very not steel blade. About the width of a nickel should be left between the nares and end of the beak. 111. Why are layers, but not broilers, beak-trimmed? Layers and breeders are cannibalistic and will pick on each other and increase mortality. It also improves feed efficiency. 112. What are the general rules of lighting for commercial egg layers (also applies to broiler breeders)? 1. Do not decrease light unless you want to stimulate molt 2. Do not increase light on young birds unless you want to stimulate lay 113. What stimulates chickens to lay eggs? Light in relation to photoperiod? 114. What time of the year is most stimulatory to chickens exposed to natural day length? What time of the year is most inhibitory to chickens exposed to natural day length? Stim. - Spring/Summer when day length is increasing and longer Inhib. - Winder is most because the day length is shortest 115. Does day length change more/faster in Miami, Atlanta or Chicago? Changes more farther from the equator (so Miami least and Chicago most) 116. What happens if pullets are light stimulated too soon? Eggs will be small and will continue to be small throughout the flock’s life.
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