Pol101 - Quiz 2 Study Guide
Pol101 - Quiz 2 Study Guide POL1001
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Geena Notetaker on Wednesday June 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POL1001 at George Washington University taught by Mark Croatti in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Comparative Politics in Political Science at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 06/22/16
Japan Introduction - Opened to West 1853 - Went from being an isolated feudal society to one of the world’s richest economics and most stable democracies - Wide range of political forms - Shogunate imperial rule with an emperor supported (or controlled) by oligarchs, a kind of imperial democracy, military (some argue fascist) rule, and empire - 1945-1952 Japan occupied by U.S. led allied forces - postwar Japanese Constitution heavily influenced by the occupying forces, renounces war as a sovereign right of the nation and places sovereignty in the hands of the people - democracy largely imposed from outside - end Occupationviewed as an important U.S. ally in the pacific security guaranteed by U.S.-Japan Security Treaty - not function as a “normal” state in the realpolitik sense a state that wields power through military strength - had rely on economics and “soft” power in its foreign relations - close neo-corporatists-style working relationship between the gov and industry and a string emphasis on the importance of societal and workplace relationships - developed form economics greater degree of governmental intervention and planning than exists in the U.S. - loyalty to family and firm very strong - ever since caught up with Europe and north America economically struggled to adapt its political, social, and economic institutions to a changing global context - economy mired in a recession or near-recession that has continued for close to two decades The Japanese Nation - made up of 6,800 islands - 5 large islands where the majority of the population lives - Okinawa was returned only in 1972 home to the largest U.S. military in the Pacific - Japan has territorial disputes with Russia, South Korea, and China regarding the ownership of numerous small islands - 127th million inhabitants - 10 most populated country - also one of the most densely populated - experience over thousand earthquakes a year - several hundreds are large enough to feel - major earthquake 1923 destroyed most of Tokyo - March 2011 earthquake caused tsunami Fukushima Nuclear - Group of volcanic islands - Lack fossil fuels and other natural resources - Heavily dependent on coal, oil, natural gas, and mineral imports - Buddhist and Shintoist traditions relative open to other religions and beliefs some get married in a part Christian ceremony The Historical Roots of Japanese Political Institutions, Identities, and Interests A Period of Peace, Prosperity, and Isolation: The Tokugawa Era, 1603- 1867 - 1600 Ieyasu Tokugawa succeeded in military battles to unify a country that had essential been divided into 260 feudal fiefdoms each headed by a diamyo feudal lord - still technically ruled by the imperial family Japan’s emperors had become too weak to keep real power - next two-and-a-half centuries (1603-1867) Tokugawa shogunate ruled Japan from Edo (Tokyo) emperor maintained his residence in Kyoto - by 1720 Edo had a population of well over 1 million making it the largest city - isolated during Edo period - 1630s closed its ports to foreigners except the Dutch and Chinese who were granted permission to trade out of the port of Nagasaki in Kyushu - 1853 isolation Commander Matthew Perry streamed into Edo bay 4 armed ships carrying a letter to Japanese emperor from U>S> president Millard Fillmore - Perry’s voyage was to mark the beginning of similar demands by other countries and Japan’s forced acceptance of what are now known as “unequal treaties” trade agreements that gave Westerners extraterritorial rights and trade terms that were less negotiated than imposed Catching Up with the West: The Meiji Era, 1868-1912 and Taisho Democracy, 1912-1926 - Shogun’s acquiescence to American demands was viewed by some as a betrayal of the Japanese nation and led to national uprising - 1868 period of shogun rule was brought to an end in a process known as Meiji Restoration - era of immensely important period of institutional and cultural transformation - emperor moved imperial capital to Tokyo - reified the emperor as the divine ancestor of the Sun Goddess Amaterasu - profound changes with goal of achieving fukoju kyohei rich country, strong military - sought to modernize nation - brought in Western advisors and teachers and sent hundreds of Japanese abroad to study Western science, technology, political systems, constitutions, education, medicine, and culture - Confucian class-based society samurai at top hierarchy, followed by peasants, artisans, merchants, and eta, the outcasts - Samurai abolished during the Miji period Partly because of large financial strain it put on the state Part to restrain the potential for uprisings - Members of the Imperial court and daimyo became part of a new nobility that maintained certain privileges - 1889 new constitution was adopted that was heavily influenced by the Prussian (German) and British models U.S. constitution was rejected as too liberal Sovereignty of emperor sacred and inviolable - Imperial Diet (or parliament) was created with - popularly elected House of Representatives Suffrage limited to propertied males (about 1% of the population) until the right to vote was extended to all males in 1925 - House of Peers modeled after the Brit House of Lords Members came from members of the nobility - Emperor appointed cabinet ministers who had legislative supremacy over the Diet and could issue emergency decrees and enter into treaties - Only the emperor could amend the constitution - Military headed by the emperor - Weakness in the constitution was later used by the military to take control of power - Start WWII - Pop over 70 million - Developed major shipping industry and an elaborate rail system - Became a global exporter of silks and textiles - Experience with Mimpo Shugi Japanese call a democracy for the people as opposed to one of the people - Emperor was supreme Western style of democracy in which sovereignty rests with the people (Minshu shugi) considered inappropriate In Meji period, but esp. in the Taisho Era (1912-1926) political parties took root competing with each other in elections Japan as a Military Power and Colonial Force - Japan’s rapid industrialization during Meji Era was parallel by a strengthening of the Japanese military - Japanese tested military strength Sino-Japanese War of 1894- 1895 - Victory humiliating blow to China - Korea was made a protectorate of Japan - Taiwan, the Liaodung Peninsula to China, and the Pescadores were ceded to Japan - Russia, France, and Germany forced Japan to return the Liaodung Peninsula to China - Prevailed over Russia in the 1904-1905 Russo-Japanese War - Russia recognized Japanese paramount political, military, and economic interests in Korea - Russia forced to cede southern portion of Sakhalin and the adjacent island - Japan formally colonized Korea in 1910 - WWI joined entente powers declaring war Germany - China Introduction - one world’s most ancient civilizations - dating back more than 3,000 yrs - culture, language, political thought, and history appear quite different from those of any of the major Western countries - Imperial China Qing Dynasty agricultural empire when it met first serious waves of challenges from the West during the middle of the 19 cent - Emperor and mandarins (high-ranking officials) forced give up their treasured institutions grudgingly after a series of humiliating defeats at the hands of the Westerners - Different from other countries in the immense dimensions of the country - Political forces in China competed for power as the country faced international challenges since the middle of the nineteenth century - Different political forces Represented distinct interests Developed alternative identities Proposed competing institutions - After several decades of treading on the development route found self lagging behind not only the West, but neighboring countries in East Asia - Second wave of development closer other East Asian countries - Short-lived experiment with multiparty democracy in early years of the Republic of China (ROC) that replaced the Qing dynasty in 1911 testified to the weakness of the Western approach supporters unable to build strong institutions to consolidate democracy and develop the market - Bound adopt approach state play dominate development role - Kuomintang (KMT or nationalist) regime ruled from 1928-1949 German model - People’s Republic of China (PRC) communist regime 1949 ruled since - Global European and Japanese challenge forced the Chinese to adopt new institutions with greater governing capacity - Mao Zedong post-1949 period totalitarianism, followed by political reform under Deng Xiaoping, and then a consolidation staged by Jiang Zemin, Hu Jintao, and Xi Jinping - 3 decades of transition today’s China characterized by post- totalitarian politics and state capitalism partly converging on the route of authoritarian modernization that is a far cry from Mao’s radical socialism - Taiwan KMT and followers fled after 1949 - Less turbulent and more linear development toward Western liberal capitalism and an increasing attenuation of its authoritarian model - Led adoption of democratic institutions - Global competition first compelled the Chinese to establish a strong state for the initial push of industrialization on both sides of the Taiean Straits - Pressure then into tinker with market when the state proved ineffective at sustaining growth - Markets and private property then nurtured social demands for political tolerance and a cultural shift away from collectivism to individualism undermining authoritarian rule in both mainland china and Taiwan - ROC (Republic of China) Taiwan became a full democracy first popular presidential election in 1996 - Main land - 1980s rapid political and economic reform under Deng halted tragic Tiananmen incident 1989 - after protracted period of consolidation in which the paramount goal of the communist regime was maintaining political stability, amid hyper growth, and social mobilization - PRC’s trajectory upward got close to authoritarian modernization remained a gap Plethora of control mechanisms Characteristic of both post-totalitarian system absent from an authoritarian regime Historical Background - Imperia China static system dynasties came and went basic patriarchal structure china’s patriarchal social structure and absolutist- monarchial political institutions remain unchanged from the Han Dynasty (206 BCE to 220 AD) - Until its collapse at the beginning of the 20 cent - Confucius 500 BC emphasized social order, enshrined as the state ideology, and stressed filial piety and loyalty to the emperor as the ultimate virtue Sophisticated examination system recruited intellectuals into the government based on their mastery of Confucian classics - Tech innovation and successful human organization made it possible for the Chinese dynasty to expand into great empires that often dominated its neighbors - Until Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) Mongol rulers Middle Kingdom envy of many Europeans - Mid-19 cent Westerners began their exploitation of China’s vast markets on mass scale Brit opium dealers - Unequal treaties signed by Qing emperors with Western countries after humiliating defeats of the ill-equipped and poorly trained Chinese army in the hands of much more superior European military - Qing rulers not come up with an effective response to challenge posed by west dynasty able drag out decline for another ½ century before it was buried amid lost wars, unequal treaties, depleted national wealth, and a disintegrated social fabric - 258
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