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chapters 11-13

by: ky blanchard

chapters 11-13 PSYC 3339

ky blanchard

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chap 11-13
Intro to Clinical Psychology
Study Guide
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This 44 page Study Guide was uploaded by ky blanchard on Thursday June 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 3339 at University of Houston taught by Dr,S in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 1014 views. For similar materials see Intro to Clinical Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Houston.


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Date Created: 06/23/16
•   Question 1  2 out of 2 points 6. Which of the following statements most accurately summarizes the results of the  thousands of psychotherapy efficacy studies that have been conducted? Selected  B) Psychotherapy works.  Answer:  Answers:  A) Psychotherapy doesn't work.  B) Psychotherapy works.  C) Psychotherapy with female clients works; psychotherapy with  male clients doesn't work.  D) It is not possible to determine whether psychotherapy works.  •   Question 2  2 out of 2 points 12. According to surveys of clinical psychologists since 1960, the popularity of  psychodynamic psychotherapy Selected  Answer:  A) has generally decreased.  Answers:  A) has generally decreased.  B) has remained constant.  C) decreased through the 1960s and 1970s, but increased in the  1980s, 1990s, and 2000s.  D) has increased.  •   Question 3  2 out of 2 points 5. The extent to which a psychotherapy works in "real­world" settings such as clinics,  private practices, and hospitals is best described as the _____ of that form of  psychotherapy. Selected Answer:  B) effectiveness  Answers:  A) efficacy  B) effectiveness  C) evidence  incorrect •   Question 4  2 out of 2 points 47. Rollo May, Victor Frankl, and Irvin Yalom are most closely associated with _____  psychotherapy. Selected Answer:  B) existential Answers:  A) psychodynamic  B) existential C) behavioral  D) gestalt  •   Question 5  2 out of 2 points 48. _____ was founded by Fritz Perls, and it emphasizes a holistic approach to  enhancing the clientÕs experience. Selected Answer:  A) Gestalt therapy  Answers:  A) Gestalt therapy  B) Motivational interviewing C) Psychoanalysis  D) Existential therapy  •   Question 6  2 out of 2 points 29. _____ is the defense mechanism in which the ego projects an id impulse onto other  people around us. Selected Answer:  C) Projection Answers:  A) Displacement  B) Repression  C) Projection D) Reaction formation  •   Question 7  0 out of 2 points 40. According to the humanistic approach, conditional positive regard from others  brings forth _____. Selected Answer:  D) self­actualization  Answers:  A) reflection  B) conditional positive self­regard  C) genuineness  D) self­actualization  •   Question 8  2 out of 2 points 20. Free association Selected  Answer:  C) all of the above  Answers:  A) is used by psychodynamic psychotherapists as an effort to access  the unconscious.  B) involves asking clients to say whatever comes to mind without  censoring themselves at all.  C) all of the above  D) none of the above  •   Question 9  2 out of 2 points 4. The tripartite model, a theory related to the measurement of psychotherapy outcome,  was created by _____. Selected Answer:  B) Hans Strupp  Answers:  A) Hans Eysenck  B) Hans Strupp  C) Dianne Chambless  D) Bruce Wampold  •   Question 10  2 out of 2 points 7. Despite the overwhelming evidence offered by efficacy studies, Selected  Answer:  D) all of the above  Answers:  A) there is a gap between those who conduct efficacy research on  psychotherapy and those who practice it.  B) the studiesÕ results are not always heeded by those who practice  therapy in the real world.  C) some practicing clinicians complain that researchers who conduct  the studies do so in an artificial, contrived, and irrelevant manner.  D) all of the above  •   Question 11  2 out of 2 points 8. Integrative approaches generally produce greater reductions in symptoms than  manualized treatment protocols. B.  False Answers:  A.  True B.  False •   Question 12  2 out of 2 points 39. An individualÕs _____ is how the person actually is at present; the _____ is what a  person could be if he or she fulfilled his or her potential. Selected Answer:  C) real self; ideal self Answers:  A) actual self; fulfilled self  B) fulfilled self; actual self C) real self; ideal self D) ideal self; real self •   Question 13  2 out of 2 points 36. _____, according to humanists, is essentially the warmth, love, and acceptance of  those around us. Selected Answer:  C) Positive regard  Answers:  A) Reflection B) Genuineness  C) Positive regard  D) Congruence  •   Question 14  2 out of 2 points 28. Displacement is a defense mechanism characterized by Selected  Answer:  B) redirecting the unconscious wish toward a safer target. Answers:  A) doing the opposite of the unconscious wish. B) redirecting the unconscious wish toward a safer target. C) attributing the unconscious wish to others rather than to the self.  D) denying the entire conflict surrounding the unconscious wish such  that the individual never becomes aware of it. •   Question 15  2 out of 2 points 24. Ron is a psychotherapy client who senses that certain unconscious material will soon be exposed. This makes him anxious, so he abruptly changes the subject and then misses his next appointment. Ron's psychodynamic psychotherapist is likely to understand  Ron's actions as _____. Selected Answer:  B) resistance  Answers:  A) insight  B) resistance  C) displacement  D) transference  •   Question 16  2 out of 2 points 10. The term common factors refers to the idea that Selected  Answer:  B) various forms of psychotherapy work about equally well because of  fundamental, shared components.  Answers:  A) intelligence tests by various authors (e.g., Wechsler, Binet) are  based on the same underlying factors.  B) various forms of psychotherapy work about equally well because of  fundamental, shared components.  C) the techniques used by behavioral, humanistic, psychodynamic, and  cognitive psychotherapists are essentially similar.  D) projective and objective personality tests share essentially the same  structure.  •   Question 17  2 out of 2 points 3. A(n) _____ statistically combines the results of many separate studies to create  numerical representations of the effects of psychotherapy as tested across massive  numbers of settings, therapists, and patients. Selected Answer:  B) meta­analysis  Answers:  A) tripartite model  B) meta­analysis  C) effectiveness study  D) outcome evaluation  •   Question 18  2 out of 2 points 16. Chiles et al. (1999) conducted a review of over 90 studies of the effect of  psychotherapy on medical costs and found that, in comparison to clients receiving no  psychotherapy, clients receiving psychotherapy Selected Answer:  D) none of the above Answers:  A) had higher medical costs.  B) spent more days in the hospital. C) all of the above D) none of the above •   Question 19  2 out of 2 points 27. Which of the following best defines a defense mechanism? Selected  Answer:  A) an attempt to manage conflict between the id and superego  Answers:  A) an attempt to manage conflict between the id and superego  B) the client's unconscious tendency to interact with the therapist as if  the therapist were very similar to an important person in the client's  personal history (mother or father, for example)  C) a verbal or behavioral "mistake" that, according to psychodynamic  psychotherapists, communicates an underlying unconscious wish  D) an attempt to say whatever comes to mind, without censorship, no  matter how nonsensical, illogical, or inappropriate  •   Question 20  2 out of 2 points 41. Which of the following approaches to psychotherapy places the strongest emphasis  on empathy provided by the therapist? Selected Answer:  C) humanistic Answers:  A) cognitive  B) psychoanalytic  C) humanistic D) behavioral  •   Question 21  2 out of 2 points 21. When a patient is asked to engage in _____, the therapist presents the patient with a  word, and the patient is to respond with the first word that comes to mind. Selected Answer:  A) word association  Answers:  A) word association  B) fixation  C) projection  D) free association  •   Question 22  2 out of 2 points 30. Of all defense mechanisms, _____ is typically considered to be the most mature or  healthy by psychodynamic psychotherapists. Selected Answer:  C) sublimation  Answers:  A) displacement  B) repression  C) sublimation  D) reaction formation •   Question 23  2 out of 2 points 22. According to the psychodynamic approach, the actual plot of a dream as the dreamer remembers it is the _____. Selected Answer:  A) manifest content Answers:  A) manifest content B) latent content C) dream work D) projection •   Question 24  2 out of 2 points 13. A survey of clinical psychologists (Norcross & Karpiak, 2012) found that the format of psychotherapy that was practiced by the highest percentage of clinical psychologists  was _____. Selected Answer:  B) individual Answers:  A) marital/couples  B) individual C) family  D) group  •   Question 25  2 out of 2 points 1. The most common professional activity of clinical psychologists is _____. Selected Answer:  C) psychotherapy  Answers:  A) personality assessment B) intelligence testing  C) psychotherapy  D) teaching  •   Question 26  2 out of 2 points 2. The primary finding of Hans Eysenck's 1952 review of psychotherapy outcome  studies was that Selected  Answer:  A) psychotherapy was of little benefit, since most clients got better  without it.  Answers:  A) psychotherapy was of little benefit, since most clients got better  without it.  B) psychotherapy was beneficial when practiced by therapists with  doctoral degrees, but not beneficial when practiced by therapists with  master's or bachelor's degrees.  C) humanistic psychotherapy was significantly more effective than  psychodynamic psychotherapy.  D) cognitive psychotherapy was significantly more effective than  behavioral psychotherapy.  •   Question 27  2 out of 2 points 50. Positive psychology Selected  D) all of the above  Answer:  Answers:  A) emerged in the 1990s under the leadership of Martin Seligman.  B) emphasizes human strengths rather than pathology.  C) acknowledges the inherent potential of individuals to develop and  maintain positive attitudes.  D) all of the above  •   Question 28  2 out of 2 points 32. _____, according to psychodynamic psychotherapists, is the therapist's unconscious  tendency to interact with clients as if the client is very similar to an individual from the  therapist's own personal history. Selected Answer:  B) Countertransference  Answers:  A) Transference  B) Countertransference  C) Interpretation  D) Fixation  •   Question 29  2 out of 2 points 37. Jill is a 13­year­old girl whose mother loves her "no matter what." According to  humanistic psychotherapists, Jill's mother Selected Answer:  D) none of the above Answers:  A) has placed excessive conditions of worth on her daughter. B) has provided her daughter with conditional positive regard.  C) Both A and B  D) none of the above •   Question 30  2 out of 2 points 43. According to the humanistic approach, it is important for the therapist to  communicate _____ to the client, which is described as the ability to sense the client's  emotions compassionately and without judgment. Selected Answer:  C) empathy  Answers:  A) genuineness  B) congruence  C) empathy  D) conditions of worth  •   Question 31  2 out of 2 points 35. Humanistic psychotherapists believe that individuals are born with a tendency  toward healthy growth. The term that best describes this tendency is _____. Selected Answer:  C) self­actualization  Answers:  A) transference  B) insight  C) self­actualization  D) unconditional positive regard  •   Question 32  0 out of 2 points 38. According to the humanistic approach, _____ is the root of psychopathology. Selected Answer:  A) reflection  Answers:  A) reflection  B) incongruence  C) fixation D) positive regard  •   Question 33  2 out of 2 points 42. According to the humanistic approach, there are three essential therapeutic  conditions that characterize successful therapistÐclient relationships. These three  essential therapeutic conditions include _____. Selected Answer:  A) empathy  Answers:  A) empathy  B) conditional positive regard  C) interpretation  D) all of the above  •   Question 34  2 out of 2 points 33. According to psychodynamic psychotherapists, fixation at the oral stage can result in problems related to _____ later in life, fixation at the anal stage can result in problems  related to _____ later in life, and fixation at the phallic stage can result in problems  related to _____ later in life. Selected Answer:  C) dependency; control; self­worth Answers:  A) dependency; self­worth; control  B) control; dependency; self­worth  C) dependency; control; self­worth D) self­worth; control; dependency  •   Question 35  2 out of 2 points 26. According to psychodynamic theory, the _____ is the part of the mind that generates defense mechanisms. Selected Answer:  A) ego Answers:  A) ego B) superego  C) id  D) none of the above •   Question 36  2 out of 2 points 23. According to the psychodynamic approach, the process by which the latent content  of a dream is converted into manifest content is called _____. Selected Answer:  D) dream work  Answers:  A) displacement  B) interpretation  C) free association  D) dream work  •   Question 37  2 out of 2 points 44.The quality of _____ describes a match between a therapistÕs real and ideal selves. Selected Answer:  A) genuineness  Answers:  A) genuineness  B) congruence  C) empathy  D) conditional worth •   Question 38  2 out of 2 points 49. _____, developed by William Miller, is a contemporary application of the principles  of humanism. Selected Answer:  C) Motivational interviewing  Answers:  A) Existential psychotherapy B) Quality of life therapy  C) Motivational interviewing  D) Behavioral consultation  •   Question 39  2 out of 2 points 17. The primary goal of psychodynamic psychotherapy is Selected  Answer:  A) to make the unconscious conscious.  Answers:  A) to make the unconscious conscious.  B) to replace illogical or irrational thoughts with more logical,  rational thoughts.  C) to use reinforcement or punishment to change target behaviors.  D) to enhance self­actualization.  •   Question 40  0 out of 2 points 45. According to Carl Rogers, the therapist's _____ determine(s) the success of therapy. Selected Answer: B) ability to reflect the client's emotions  Answers:  A) mastery of the techniques of interpreting the client's transference B) ability to reflect the client's emotions  C) skill in applying positive reinforcement  D) attitude toward the client •   Question 41  2 out of 2 points 19. The term _____ succinctly captures the primary goal of psychodynamic  psychotherapy. Selected Answer:  B) insight  Answers:  A) self­actualization  B) insight  C) shaping  D) congruence  •   Question 42  2 out of 2 points 15. Researchers have measured the outcome of psychotherapy by Selected  Answer:  D) all of the above  Answers:  A) assessing the reduction in spending on medical services when  psychotherapy is provided.  B) using PET and fMRI scans to view changes in the brain  subsequent to psychotherapy.  C) surveying clients about their experiences in psychotherapy.  D) all of the above  •   Question 43  2 out of 2 points 14. According to a survey of experts in the field of clinical psychology (Norcross,  Hedges, & Prochaska, 2002), which of the following is likely to happen in the near  future? Selected  Answer:  A) a rise in the use of cognitive and behavioral approaches to  psychotherapy  Answers:  A) a rise in the use of cognitive and behavioral approaches to  psychotherapy  B) a decline in the use of evidence­based forms of psychotherapy  C) a decline in the use of eclectic/integrative approaches to  psychotherapy  D) a rise in the use of classic psychoanalysis  •   Question 44  2 out of 2 points 25. According to psychodynamic theory, the _____ is the part of the mind that generates all pleasure­seeking, selfish, indulgent, animalistic impulses. Selected Answer:  C) id  Answers:  A) ego  B) superego  C) id  D) none of the above  •   Question 45  2 out of 2 points 46. In humanistic psychotherapy, _____ takes place when a therapist responds to a client by rephrasing or restating the client's statements in a way that highlights the client's  feelings or emotions. Selected Answer:  B) reflection Answers:  A) emotional consequence  B) reflection C) congruence  D) countertransference  •   Question 46  2 out of 2 points 9. The "dodo bird verdict" refers to the finding that Selected  Answer:  D) various forms of psychotherapy are about equally beneficial  Answers:  A) behavioral psychotherapy is more beneficial than cognitive  psychotherapy.  B) psychodynamic psychotherapy is more beneficial than humanistic  psychotherapy.  C) behavioral psychotherapy is more beneficial than all other forms  of psychotherapy.  D) various forms of psychotherapy are about equally beneficial  •   Question 47  2 out of 2 points 18. Prior to Freud, Selected  Answer:  A) mental health professionals did not acknowledge mental activity  occurring outside our awareness.  Answers:  A) mental health professionals did not acknowledge mental activity  occurring outside our awareness.  B) the idea of the unconscious was popular among psychiatrists.  C) the influence of the unconscious was linked to depression and  anxiety.  D) all of the above  •   Question 48  2 out of 2 points 11. According to surveys of clinical psychologists since 1960, the most commonly  endorsed psychotherapy orientation Selected  Answer:  A) was the eclectic/integrative orientation until 2010, when the  cognitive orientation was most commonly endorsed.  Answers:  A) was the eclectic/integrative orientation until 2010, when the  cognitive orientation was most commonly endorsed.  B) has consistently been the behavioral orientation. C) has consistently been the psychodynamic orientation.  D) was the psychodynamic orientation until the 1980s, and has been  the behavioral orientation since that time.  •   Question 49  2 out of 2 points 31. Juan has formed a psychotherapy relationship with his clinical psychologist in which Juan unconsciously and unrealistically expects the psychologist to behave like Juan's  mother. Juan's situation best illustrates _____. Selected Answer:  C) transference  Answers:  A) reflection  B) resistance  C) transference  D) allegiance effects  •   Question 50  2 out of 2 points 34. _____ is a pioneer of the humanistic approach to psychotherapy. Selected Answer:  D) Carl Rogers Answers:  A) Sigmund Freud B) B. F. Skinner C) Donald Meichenbaum D) Carl Rogers  Question 1 2 out of 2 points 6. Which of the following statements most accurately summarizes the results of the thousands of psychotherapy efficacy studies that have been conducted? Selected Answer: B) Psychotherapy works. Answers: A) Psychotherapy doesn't work. B) Psychotherapy works. C) Psychotherapy with female clients works; psychotherapy with male clients doesn't work. D) It is not possible to determine whether psychotherapy works.  Question 2 2 out of 2 points 12. According to surveys of clinical psychologists since 1960, the popularity of psychodynamic psychotherapy Selected Answer: A) has generally decreased. Answers: A) has generally decreased. B) has remained constant. C) decreased through the 1960s and 1970s, but increased in the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s. D) has increased.  Question 3 2 out of 2 points 5. The extent to which a psychotherapy works in "real-world" settings such as clinics, private practices, and hospitals is best described as the _____ of that form of psychotherapy. Selected Answer: B) effectiveness Answers: A) efficacy B) effectiveness C) evidence incorrect  Question 4 2 out of 2 points 47. Rollo May, Victor Frankl, and Irvin Yalom are most closely associated with _____ psychotherapy. Selected Answer: B) existential Answers: A) psychodynamic B) existential C) behavioral D) gestalt  Question 5 2 out of 2 points 48. _____ was founded by Fritz Perls, and it emphasizes a holistic approach to enhancing the clientÕs experience. Selected Answer: A) Gestalt therapy Answers: A) Gestalt therapy B) Motivational interviewing C) Psychoanalysis D) Existential therapy  Question 6 2 out of 2 points 29. _____ is the defense mechanism in which the ego projects an id impulse onto other people around us. Selected Answer: C) Projection Answers: A) Displacement B) Repression C) Projection D) Reaction formation  Question 7 0 out of 2 points 40. According to the humanistic approach, conditional positive regard from others brings forth _____. Selected Answer: D) self-actualization Answers: A) reflection B) conditional positive self-regard C) genuineness D) self-actualization  Question 8 2 out of 2 points 20. Free association Selected Answer: C) all of the above Answers: A) is used by psychodynamic psychotherapists as an effort to access the unconscious. B) involves asking clients to say whatever comes to mind without censoring themselves at all. C) all of the above D) none of the above  Question 9 2 out of 2 points 4. The tripartite model, a theory related to the measurement of psychotherapy outcome, was created by _____. Selected Answer: B) Hans Strupp Answers: A) Hans Eysenck B) Hans Strupp C) Dianne Chambless D) Bruce Wampold  Question 10 2 out of 2 points 7. Despite the overwhelming evidence offered by efficacy studies, Selected Answer: D) all of the above Answers: A) there is a gap between those who conduct efficacy research on psychotherapy and those who practice it. B) the studiesÕ results are not always heeded by those who practice therapy in the real world. C) some practicing clinicians complain that researchers who conduct the studies do so in an artificial, contrived, and irrelevant manner. D) all of the above  Question 11 2 out of 2 points 8. Integrative approaches generally produce greater reductions in symptoms than manualized treatment protocols. B. False Answers: A. True B. False  Question 12 2 out of 2 points 39. An individualÕs _____ is how the person actually is at present; the _____ is what a person could be if he or she fulfilled his or her potential. Selected Answer: C) real self; ideal self Answers: A) actual self; fulfilled self B) fulfilled self; actual self C) real self; ideal self D) ideal self; real self  Question 13 2 out of 2 points 36. _____, according to humanists, is essentially the warmth, love, and acceptance of those around us. Selected Answer: C) Positive regard Answers: A) Reflection B) Genuineness C) Positive regard D) Congruence  Question 14 2 out of 2 points 28. Displacement is a defense mechanism characterized by Selected Answer: B) redirecting the unconscious wish toward a safer target. Answers: A) doing the opposite of the unconscious wish. B) redirecting the unconscious wish toward a safer target. C) attributing the unconscious wish to others rather than to the self. D) denying the entire conflict surrounding the unconscious wish such that the individual never becomes aware of it.  Question 15 2 out of 2 points 24. Ron is a psychotherapy client who senses that certain unconscious material will soon be exposed. This makes him anxious, so he abruptly changes the subject and then misses his next appointment. Ron's psychodynamic psychotherapist is likely to understand Ron's actions as _____. Selected Answer: B) resistance Answers: A) insight B) resistance C) displacement D) transference  Question 16 2 out of 2 points 10. The term common factors refers to the idea that Selected Answer: B) various forms of psychotherapy work about equally well because of fundamental, shared components. Answers: A) intelligence tests by various authors (e.g., Wechsler, Binet) are based on the same underlying factors. B) various forms of psychotherapy work about equally well because of fundamental, shared components. C) the techniques used by behavioral, humanistic, psychodynamic, and cognitive psychotherapists are essentially similar. D) projective and objective personality tests share essentially the same structure.  Question 17 2 out of 2 points 3. A(n) _____ statistically combines the results of many separate studies to create numerical representations of the effects of psychotherapy as tested across massive numbers of settings, therapists, and patients. Selected Answer: B) meta-analysis Answers: A) tripartite model B) meta-analysis C) effectiveness study D) outcome evaluation  Question 18 2 out of 2 points 16. Chiles et al. (1999) conducted a review of over 90 studies of the effect of psychotherapy on medical costs and found that, in comparison to clients receiving no psychotherapy, clients receiving psychotherapy Selected Answer: D) none of the above Answers: A) had higher medical costs. B) spent more days in the hospital. C) all of the above D) none of the above  Question 19 2 out of 2 points 27. Which of the following best defines a defense mechanism? Selected Answer: A) an attempt to manage conflict between the id and superego Answers: A) an attempt to manage conflict between the id and superego B) the client's unconscious tendency to interact with the therapist as if the therapist were very similar to an important person in the client's personal history (mother or father, for example) C) a verbal or behavioral "mistake" that, according to psychodynamic psychotherapists, communicates an underlying unconscious wish D) an attempt to say whatever comes to mind, without censorship, no matter how nonsensical, illogical, or inappropriate  Question 20 2 out of 2 points 41. Which of the following approaches to psychotherapy places the strongest emphasis on empathy provided by the therapist? Selected Answer: C) humanistic Answers: A) cognitive B) psychoanalytic C) humanistic D) behavioral  Question 21 2 out of 2 points 21. When a patient is asked to engage in _____, the therapist presents the patient with a word, and the patient is to respond with the first word that comes to mind. Selected Answer: A) word association Answers: A) word association B) fixation C) projection D) free association  Question 22 2 out of 2 points 30. Of all defense mechanisms, _____ is typically considered to be the most mature or healthy by psychodynamic psychotherapists. Selected Answer: C) sublimation Answers: A) displacement B) repression C) sublimation D) reaction formation  Question 23 2 out of 2 points 22. According to the psychodynamic approach, the actual plot of a dream as the dreamer remembers it is the _____. Selected Answer: A) manifest content Answers: A) manifest content B) latent content C) dream work D) projection  Question 24 2 out of 2 points 13. A survey of clinical psychologists (Norcross & Karpiak, 2012) found that the format of psychotherapy that was practiced by the highest percentage of clinical psychologists was _____. Selected Answer: B) individual Answers: A) marital/couples B) individual C) family D) group  Question 25 2 out of 2 points 1. The most common professional activity of clinical psychologists is _____. Selected Answer: C) psychotherapy Answers: A) personality assessment B) intelligence testing C) psychotherapy D) teaching  Question 26 2 out of 2 points 2. The primary finding of Hans Eysenck's 1952 review of psychotherapy outcome studies was that Selected Answer: A) psychotherapy was of little benefit, since most clients got better without it. Answers: A) psychotherapy was of little benefit, since most clients got better without it. B) psychotherapy was beneficial when practiced by therapists with doctoral degrees, but not beneficial when practiced by therapists with master's or bachelor's degrees. C) humanistic psychotherapy was significantly more effective than psychodynamic psychotherapy. D) cognitive psychotherapy was significantly more effective than behavioral psychotherapy.  Question 27 2 out of 2 points 50. Positive psychology Selected Answer: D) all of the above Answers: A) emerged in the 1990s under the leadership of Martin Seligman. B) emphasizes human strengths rather than pathology. C) acknowledges the inherent potential of individuals to develop and maintain positive attitudes. D) all of the above  Question 28 2 out of 2 points 32. _____, according to psychodynamic psychotherapists, is the therapist's unconscious tendency to interact with clients as if the client is very similar to an individual from the therapist's own personal history. Selected Answer: B) Countertransference Answers: A) Transference B) Countertransference C) Interpretation D) Fixation  Question 29 2 out of 2 points 37. Jill is a 13-year-old girl whose mother loves her "no matter what." According to humanistic psychotherapists, Jill's mother Selected Answer: D) none of the above Answers: A) has placed excessive conditions of worth on her daughter. B) has provided her daughter with conditional positive regard. C) Both A and B D) none of the above  Question 30 2 out of 2 points 43. According to the humanistic approach, it is important for the therapist to communicate _____ to the client, which is described as the ability to sense the client's emotions compassionately and without judgment. Selected Answer: C) empathy Answers: A) genuineness B) congruence C) empathy D) conditions of worth  Question 31 2 out of 2 points 35. Humanistic psychotherapists believe that individuals are born with a tendency toward healthy growth. The term that best describes this tendency is _____. Selected Answer: C) self-actualization Answers: A) transference B) insight C) self-actualization D) unconditional positive regard  Question 32 0 out of 2 points 38. According to the humanistic approach, _____ is the root of psychopathology. Selected Answer: A) reflection Answers: A) reflection B) incongruence C) fixation D) positive regard  Question 33 2 out of 2 points 42. According to the humanistic approach, there are three essential therapeutic conditions that characterize successful therapistÐclient relationships. These three essential therapeutic conditions include _____. Selected Answer: A) empathy Answers: A) empathy B) conditional positive regard C) interpretation D) all of the above  Question 34 2 out of 2 points 33. According to psychodynamic psychotherapists, fixation at the oral stage can result in problems related to _____ later in life, fixation at the anal stage can result in problems related to _____ later in life, and fixation at the phallic stage can result in problems related to _____ later in life. Selected Answer: C) dependency; control; self-worth Answers: A) dependency; self-worth; control B) control; dependency; self-worth C) dependency; control; self-worth D) self-worth; control; dependency  Question 35 2 out of 2 points 26. According to psychodynamic theory, the _____ is the part of the mind that generates defense mechanisms. Selected Answer: A) ego Answers: A) ego B) superego C) id D) none of the above  Question 36 2 out of 2 points 23. According to the psychodynamic approach, the process by which the latent content of a dream is converted into manifest content is called _____. Selected Answer: D) dream work Answers: A) displacement B) interpretation C) free association D) dream work  Question 37 2 out of 2 points 44.The quality of _____ describes a match between a therapistÕs real and ideal selves. Selected Answer: A) genuineness Answers: A) genuineness B) congruence C) empathy D) conditional worth  Question 38 2 out of 2 points 49. _____, developed by William Miller, is a contemporary application of the principles of humanism. Selected Answer: C) Motivational interviewing Answers: A) Existential psychotherapy B) Quality of life therapy C) Motivational interviewing D) Behavioral consultation  Question 39 2 out of 2 points 17. The primary goal of psychodynamic psychotherapy is Selected Answer: A) to make the unconscious conscious. Answers: A) to make the unconscious conscious. B) to replace illogical or irrational thoughts with more logical, rational thoughts. C) to use reinforcement or punishment to change target behaviors. D) to enhance self-actualization.  Question 40 0 out of 2 points 45. According to Carl Rogers, the therapist's _____ determine(s) the success of therapy. Selected Answer: B) ability to reflect the client's emotions Answers: A) mastery of the techniques of interpreting the client's transference B) ability to reflect the client's emotions C) skill in applying positive reinforcement D) attitude toward the client  Question 41 2 out of 2 points 19. The term _____ succinctly captures the primary goal of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Selected Answer: B) insight Answers: A) self-actualization B) insight C) shaping D) congruence  Question 42 2 out of 2 points 15. Researchers have measured the outcome of psychotherapy by Selected Answer: D) all of the above Answers: A) assessing the reduction in spending on medical services when psychotherapy is provided. B) using PET and fMRI scans to view changes in the brain subsequent to psychotherapy. C) surveying clients about their experiences in psychotherapy. D) all of the above  Question 43 2 out of 2 points 14. According to a survey of experts in the field of clinical psychology (Norcross, Hedges, & Prochaska, 2002), which of the following is likely to happen in the near future? Selected Answer: A) a rise in the use of cognitive and behavioral approaches to psychotherapy Answers: A) a rise in the use of cognitive and behavioral approaches to psychotherapy B) a decline in the use of evidence-based forms of psychotherapy C) a decline in the use of eclectic/integrative approaches to psychotherapy D) a rise in the use of classic psychoanalysis  Question 44 2 out of 2 points 25. According to psychodynamic theory, the _____ is the part of the mind that generates all pleasure-seeking, selfish, indulgent, animalistic impulses. Selected Answer: C) id Answers: A) ego B) superego C) id D) none of the above  Question 45 2 out of 2 points 46. In humanistic psychotherapy, _____ takes place when a therapist responds to a client by rephrasing or restating the client's statements in a way that highlights the client's feelings or emotions. Selected Answer: B) reflection Answers: A) emotional consequence B) reflection C) congruence D) countertransference  Question 46 2 out of 2 points 9. The "dodo bird verdict" refers to the finding that Selected Answer: D) various forms of psychotherapy are about equally beneficial Answers: A) behavioral psychotherapy is more beneficial than cognitive psychotherapy. B) psychodynamic psychotherapy is more beneficial than humanistic psychotherapy. C) behavioral psychotherapy is more beneficial than all other forms of psychotherapy. D) various forms of psychotherapy are about equally beneficial  Question 47 2 out of 2 points 18. Prior to Freud, Selected Answer: A) mental health professionals did not acknowledge mental activity occurring outside our awareness. Answers: A) mental health professionals did not acknowledge mental activity occurring outside our awareness. B) the idea of the unconscious was popular among psychiatrists. C) the influence of the unconscious was linked to depression and anxiety. D) all of the above  Question 48 2 out of 2 points 11. According to surveys of clinical psychologists since 1960, the most commonly endorsed psychotherapy orientation Selected Answer: A) was the eclectic/integrative orientation until 2010, when the cognitive orientation was most commonly endorsed. Answers: A) was the eclectic/integrative orientation until 2010, when the cognitive orientation was most commonly endorsed. B) has consistently been the behavioral orientation. C) has consistently been the psychodynamic orientation. D) was the psychodynamic orientation until the 1980s, and has been the behavioral orientation since that time.  Question 49 2 out of 2 points 31. Juan has formed a psychotherapy relationship with his clinical psychologist in which Juan unconsciously and unrealistically expects the psychologist to behave like Juan's mother. Juan's situation best illustrates _____. Selected Answer: C) transference Answers: A) reflection B) resistance C) transference D) allegiance effects  Question 50 2 out of 2 points 34. _____ is a pioneer of the humanistic approach to psychotherapy. Selected Answer: D) Carl Rogers Answers: A) Sigmund Freud B) B. F. Skinner C) Donald Meichenbaum D) Carl Rogers


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