Exam 2 study guide
Exam 2 study guide History 1301
Tarrant County College
Popular in U.S History to 1867
Popular in History
This 31 page Study Guide was uploaded by Constance Aguocha on Saturday June 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to History 1301 at Tarrant County College taught by Dr. William Yancey in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see U.S History to 1867 in History at Tarrant County College.
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Date Created: 06/25/16
Test 2 Review The Critical Period The 1780’s: The Make or Break Decade for the New Nation ● Possibility of the country breaking apart ● The nation was very independent and very different regionally ○ Was more like a bunch of independent regions lumped together than a cohesive nation New Constitution, State and National ● The Articles of Confederation created ● First republic based on democratic principles in the modern era ● 13 loosely bound states The Articles of Confederation, 17811788 ● First governing constitution ● Very weak ○ Didn’t give the national government a lot of power ○ Every state was considered sovereign ■ Every state is its own highest power ○ Every state has equal representation ○ Only one branch of government: Congress ■ No president ■ No national court system ○ All 13 states had to vote unanimously for things to become law ○ Congress can’t tax the states or individual citizens ○ Congress would have to ask the states for money ○ Congress can’t regulate commerce ■ Ex: New York had attempted to put tariffs on NJ goods and congress was not able to intervene Northwest Ordinance, 1787 ● Northwest Territory ○ North of the Ohio River and East of the Mississippi River ● Defines a system by which unorganized territories could become states ● A territory could become an organized territory after reaching a certain number of people ○ One step below a state and no longer just unclaimed land ● After a second level of population, the territory could apply to become a state ● Slavery was prohibited on the Northwest Territory ● Significance ○ Congress has the power to prohibit slavery ierritories ○ The one big accomplishment of The Articles of Confederation Movement to Change The Articles of Confederation ● Mount Vernon Conference, 1785 ○ Held at George Washington’s house ○ Caused in response to Virginia and Maryland arguing over who owns and can conduct trade on the Potomac River ○ Huge success ○ Decide to meet again next year for the Articles of Confederation ● Annapolis Convention, 1786 ○ Only 5 states show up ○ Not a success ○ Call another convention for next year ○ Basically the only thing that happens in this convention is that they decide to hold another convention ● Shays Rebellion ○ After the war, Massachusetts is hit by depression, and isn’t able to pay back all of it’s militiamen ○ Militiamen are paid back in land grants ○ People are allowed to be loaned more land from the bank, but they must put down collateral ■ Collateral def: security pledged for the payment of a loan ○ Many gave their land grants as collateral ○ Many have their land repossessed as they are unable to repay the bank ○ Daniel Shays, a former military officer, leads a rebellion to destroy the courthouses ■ Records and deeds are kept in the courthouses ○ Hancock can’t put down the rebellion with the militiamen because the militiamen are in the rebellion ○ NY won’t help because it’s not their state's problem ■ Goes back to the lack of unity in the nation ○ Rebellion lasts for months until Hancock raises enough money to hire militiamen and put it down ○ Scares other states into believing that this could happen to them ○ Huge catalyst for the Philadelphia Convention The Philadelphia Convention ● 12 states show up ○ Huge turn out mostly in reaction to Shays rebellion ● States decide to scrap the Articles of Confederation instead of trying to amend it ● Held at Independence Hall ● George Washington is the Presiding Officer over the convention ○ Gives the conference legitimacy ○ Everyone trusts Washington ● One vote per state on each issue ○ Not one vote per delegate ● Characteristics of the framers ○ Half of those involved are lawyers ○ Some are merchants ○ Some are slave holders ○ All are wealthy ○ More than half are college educated ● Major players of the convention ○ James Madison ■ Father of the Constitution ■ Spent several months prior to the convention studying law and philosophy ■ Took immaculate notes of the convention ○ George Washington ○ Benjamin Franklin ■ Oldest delegate ■ Considered the United States greatest diplomat ■ The wise old man of the bunch ○ Roger Sherman (EMEMBER HIM, WILL DEFINITELY BE ON THE EXAM) ■ Saves the constitution by arranging the biggest compromise in the convention ■ The Great Compromise ● Notable Absences ○ Thomas Jefferson ■ Was in France at the time ○ John Adams ■ Was in Britain at the time ○ Samuel Adams ■ Doesn’t trust it ○ Patrick Henry ■ Also doesn’t trust it ● “I smell a rat” Plans for the framework of the new government ● The debates are kept secret from the public until the results are out ● The Virginia Plan ○ James Madison ○ 3 branches of government ■ Legislative, executive, and judicial ■ Legislative Branch ● Lower house and upper house ○ Lower house is elected by the states ■ Representation based on population ○ Upper house is elected by the lower house ○ This plan leads to domination by larger states ■ Executive Branch ● President chosen by congress ■ Judicial Branch ● Supreme Court ● Chosen by congress ○ Congress has the power to tax ○ Congress has the power to regulate trade ○ Congress can put down internal disturbances ○ Checks and Balances ■ President can veto an act of congress ■ Congress can override a veto with a 2/3rds vote in both houses ● The New Jersey plan ○ Keeps most of Madison’s ideas ○ Changes congress to a unicameral congress ■ Each state gets one vote ○ Leads to some nasty debates ○ Small states threaten to walk out ■ New Jersey Plan failed ■ Felt that they weren’t being listened too Compromises ● The Great Compromise (aka Connecticut Compromise) ○ Made by Roger Sherman ○ Lower house is elected by the people in each state ○ Upper house is chosen by the state legislature ○ Laws go through each house ○ Lower House=House of Representatives ○ Upper House=Senate ○ Creates a tradition of compromise ● Some debates later: ○ President chosen by the electoral college ○ Supreme Court chosen by the President with the consent of the Senate ● The 3/5ths Compromise ○ For purposes of representation and taxation, 3/5ths of the slave population in a state will be counted ○ Before this, Georgia and South Carolina almost walked out ○ Keeps the south on board without giving the excessive representation ● The Slave Trade Compromise ○ For 20 years the federal government will do nothing about the slave trade ○ When the 20 years is up, the federal government will resume control over the slave trade ■ January 1, 1808 Jefferson leads the charge to ban the slave trade Ratification of the New Constitution ● Finished september of 1787 ● Needs a 2/3rds vote from the states to be ratified ● AntiFederalists ○ Believe that the Constitution will create a central government that is too strong ○ There’s no guarantee of individual rights ■ There’s no bill of rights ○ Notable AntiFederalists ■ George Mason ■ James Monroe ■ Patrick Henry ○ James Madison promises to add the bill of rights as amendments if antifederalists will vote in favor of the Constitution ■ Particularly directed towards Virginian antifederalists ● Federalists ○ Those who support the Constitution ● Ratification ○ Delaware is the first state to ratify ○ 9 of 13 states are needed to ratify ■ Virginia is the 9th state ■ NY still hadn’t ratified ● NY is needed regardless of the 9 of 13 vote because of it’s size and prominence ● The constitution can still be ratified without NY, but not having NY as a part of them wouldn’t be very effective ● The Federalists Papers, 1787 ○ Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay publish 88 essays known as the Federalists Papers to convince NY to ratify the Constitution ○ Very persuasive ○ Best explanation of the Constitution ○ New York ratifies the Constitution in 1788 ○ It comes down to North Carolina and Rhode Island who still haven’t ratified ■ NC reconvenes and decides to ratify because they don’t want to be like Rhode Island ■ Rhode Island eventually ratifies ● The Bill of Rights ○ James Madison proposes 12 amendments and 10 actually make it into the Constitution ○ In 1992, one of the amendments that didn’t make it was added into the Constitution ■ 27th amendment ■ If congress votes itself a pay raise, it doesn’t come into effect until the next election Securing The Republic Questions Facing the United States in 1789 ● Would the new national government be strong enough to balance power and liberty? ● Would the new national government be able to command respect from foreign nations? ● Would the new government promote democracy or elitism? ● Would the new nation be able to withstand the formation of political parties? Launching the New Government ● George Washington ○ First president ○ Only president to ever be unanimously voted into office ○ Viewed as indispensable ○ Inherits a pretty bad situation ■ Small army ■ National Debt ● John Adams ○ Vice President ○ Federalist ● Majority of congress are Federalists ● Original capital is in New York ● First Congress ○ Tariff of 1789 ■ Placed a tariff on the importation of foreign goods ■ If you used an american ship as a foreign company, you payed lower tariffs ■ Designed to raise money for the new government ○ Judiciary Act of 1789 ■ Sets up the court system ■ 3 levels of court: ● District Court (lowest level) ● Circuit Court of Appeal (mid level) ● Supreme Court (highest level) ■ Congress can set the number of Supreme Court Justices ● Number of Justices was originally set at 6 ■ Judges are appointed for life ■ John Jay is the first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court ○ Bill of Rights, 17891791 ■ September 1789, 12 amendments were approved by the first congress and sent to the states to be ratified ■ December 15, 1791, 10 of these 12 amendments receive the 2/3rds vote that they need to be ratified and become the Bill of Rights ● Executive OrganizationThe Cabinet ○ Three Departments ■ War ■ State ● Foreign affairs ■ Treasury ● Money ■ The leader of each department is the Secretary of the department ● Thomas Jefferson: Secretary of State ● Alexander Hamilton: Secretary of Treasury ● Henry Knox: Secretary of War ○ Members of the Cabinet are picked by the President Hamiltonian Federalism, 17891792 ● Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury ○ PurposeNational Power ■ Believes in a very strong national government ■ Wants a kinglike political structure, but knows that the American people won’t go for that ● Report on the Public Credit, 1790 ○ Written by Hamilton ○ Funding and Assumption ○ Funding: ■ Hamilton announced that war bonds would be paid off at face value, effective immediately ● War bonds were sold during the war and were supposed to be paid back ● Rich people started buying war bonds off of poor people for half price ○ Poor people are willing to sell them off for half price so that they can get immediate money ■ Causes rich people to have a vested interest in making sure the new government succeeds so that they can get their money ■ Puts wealthy people on his side ○ Assumption ■ Hamilton forgives the states that hadn’t paid off their debts ■ The Federal government “assumes” their debts ■ Puts the states on the government’s side ■ States that had already paid were upset ● Thomas Jefferson and James Madison ○ Hamilton invites them over for dinner to gain their support ○ Agree to support assumption if the Capital is moved to the south ○ Capital is moved to Maryland ○ One of the last times that Jefferson and Hamilton work together ● Report on the National Bank, 1790 ○ Hamilton asks congress to charter the bank of the United States ○ Jointly owned by private stockholders and the central government ○ Argued that the bank would promote financial stability ■ Loans to merchants ■ Handling government funds ■ Issuing bills of credit ○ Jefferson and Madison completely disagree with it ○ Strict vs Loose(Broad) Construction of the Constitution ■ Strict Construction: If the constitution doesn’t explicitly grant the government a certain power, then it’s not allowed ■ Loose Construction: If the constitution did not forbid it, then it is permitted ■ Jefferson favors a strict constructionist view of the constitution ■ Hamilton favors loose construction ○ Implied Powers ■ Hamilton believes that the constitution leaves room for certain implied powers in the constitution ● Powers not specifically mentioned ■ Hamilton cites implied powers and Article 1: Section 8 of the constitution to further prove his argument on the legality of establishing a central bank ● Article 1: Section 8 cites the Necessary and Proper Clause ○ This clause allows the government make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers" ○ Basically claims that the government is within its right to do anything that it needs to do to help the nation ○ George Washington eventually approves the Bank ○ Strict vs Loose Construction is the first huge philosophical divide and leads to the first political parties: ■ Federalist Party ● Those who support Hamilton ● Not the same as the Federalists that supported the constitution in the constitutional convention ● Includes Hamilton, John Adams, and John Jay ● Believe that the national government should be stronger than the state government ● Want an industrialized nation ■ Democratic Republicans, aka Jeffersonian Republicans ● Includes, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and Aaron Burr Jeffersonian Republicanism, 17891792 ● The Democratic(Jeffersonian) Republican party is cofounded by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson ● Thomas Jefferson ○ Believed that the US should be a nation of small farmers ■ Agrarianism ■ Believed that independent, selfsufficient people are less easily influenced ○ Distrusts centralized powers ○ Believes that people can succeed when given access to education ○ Strict Constructionist ● Election of 1792 ○ George Washington is unanimously voted into his second term ● Whiskey Rebellion, 1794 ○ Hamilton places an excise tax on whiskey ○ Farmers in Pennsylvania get upset because a lot of them are subsistence farmers who their excess corn into whiskey for extra profit ○ Rebellion occurs and tax collectors are getting beat up ○ Washington and 13,000 soldiers begin to ride out to western Pennsylvania to put down the rebellion ■ Washington stops halfway and appoints Henry “Harry” Lee as General after being advised that the president shouldn’t be battling ○ Rebellion is put down immediately when the army arrives ○ Significance ■ Shows that the constitution is working ■ 1st time that a US president calls out troops to deal with an internal affair ● Election of 1796 ○ Washington chooses not to run for a third term ○ First election with political parties ○ Federalist candidates: ■ John Adams ■ Thomas Pinckney ○ Democratic Republican candidates: ■ Thomas Jefferson ■ Aaron Burr ○ John Adams gets 51% of the vote and becomes President ○ Thomas Jefferson gets 49% of the vote and becomes the Vice President Foreign Policy and Party Politics ● Problems of the French Revolution ○ As France begins to spread their views of liberty, they start attacking neighboring countries ○ Becomes France vs Britain ○ Jefferson and Hamilton differences ■ Jefferson: ProFrance ■ Hamilton: ProBritain ○ Washington doesn’t feel obligated to side with France even though they aided us in our war because the person that the US signed a treaty with had been beheaded ○ Neutrality Proclamation, 1793 ■ The US is not on either side of the war ■ The US sells weapons to both sides ■ Edmond Genet(Citizen Genet) is sent from France as a diplomat ● Went to South Carolina instead of the capital because there are French expatriots there ● Begins raising money for the French and hiring US ships to attack the British ● Washington demands him to NY ● Genet does the same thing at every port city that he arrives to along the way ● Washington threatens to send him back to France ○ If Genet returned to France, then he would be beheaded because his party is now out of power ● Washington allows him to stay if he undoes the damage that he had done ● Genet is allowed to stay and eventually settles in NY ○ British Violation of US neutrality ■ Britain doesn’t like that the US also sells weapons to France ■ Britain begins impressing US ships ● Jay’s Treaty, 17941796 ○ John Jay is sent over as a US diplomat to Britain ○ US mostly agrees to stop trading with France in exchange for Britain to stop impressing US ships ○ Creates a divide between the parties ■ Upsets DemocraticRepublicans ■ Upsets most US citizens ● People burn effigies of him ● Pinckney’s Treaty, 1795 ○ Farmers use the Mississippi River to transport crops ■ Go to New Orleans because it’s a huge port city and there’s access to European buyers ■ Want to store crops in European warehouses ● Right of Deposit ■ Spanish won’t allow it ○ Washington send Pinckney to negotiate ■ Success ■ U.S. gets the right of deposit ○ Spanish are easier to negotiate with than Britain because they are weaker ○ Most delegates that Washington sends are Federalists ■ Federalists like treaties ■ Dem.Reps. don’t like treaties ● Break in Diplomatic Relations with France ○ France considered Jay’s Treaty to be hostile ● XYZ Affair, 1797 ○ Talleyrand ■ Foreign Minister ■ John Adams sends three delegates to France to meet with him ■ Sends someone from his office out to demand a bribe from the US delegates in order to meet with him ○ The delegates are insulted and return to the US ○ When the papers run the story, they don’t want their names to be revealed ■ They become referred to as X,Y, and Z ○ Americans put pressure on John Adams to go to war with France ○ Adams builds up a navy in response ■ Shoots down all French ships on site ● Undeclared Naval War with France, 1798. ● “Quasi War” ○ Delegates are sent to France again ■ Work out a treaty and the “naval war” ends ○ Federalists are angry at Adams for not going to war ■ Costs adams politically Partisan Politics Under Adams ● Alien and Sedition Acts, 1798 ○ Politically motivated to keep federalists in power ○ Alien Act ■ A lot of immigrants were coming into the US and most tend to go to the Democratic Party ■ Increases the amount of years necessary to become a citizen ● Up from 5 years to 20 years ■ Also allows the government to kick people out for being suspicious ○ Sedition Act ■ Makes it illegal to criticize the president or congress ■ Violates the 1st amendment ■ People were thrown in jail ■ Set to expire the night that Adam’s term ended ○ Thomas Jefferson and James Madison ■ Don’t agree with these Acts ■ Don’t take this to court ● Don’t believe that they’ll win ● Don’t think that the court has the power to interpret the constitution ○ Too much power to unelected officials ■ Appoint two legislatures to approve a set of resolutions ● Legislatures are from Virginia and Kentucky ● Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions ○ Written by Jefferson and Madison ○ Based on Jefferson’s and Madison’s views ■ The Compact Theory of the constitution ● The federal government was created by the states ● The states can protest unconstitutional laws ● Jefferson and Madison do NOT speak of secession ● Basically gives the states power to interpret the constitution and to protest ○ Neither Virginia nor Kentucky nullify the Alien and Sedition Acts The New Nation Grows Up, 18011815 The Election of 1800 ● The Candidates ○ Same as the election of 1796 ■ Federalists: John Adams and Thomas Pinckney ■ Democratic Republicans: Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr ● Election Shenanigans ○ Democratic Republicans want to avoid having Adams as a Vice President ■ Told all their electors to cast one vote for Jefferson and one for Burr ● The plan was for Jefferson to win the presidency and for Burr to become VP ■ A tie occurs between Jefferson and Burr ■ Burr goes against the plan and begins to campaign against Jefferson for the presidency ○ In the event of a tie, the decision goes to the House of Representatives ■ The House of Reps is Federalist ● Alexander Hamilton tells them to take their time ● They take months to decide and basically just trash both candidates on the House floor ● Hamilton puts his vote behind Jefferson because he’s an honorable man and the other representative follow suit ● Significance ○ 1st peaceful transfer of power in the US ○ 1st election decided by the House ○ Shows that our election system of making the second place candidate the VP isn’t working ○ 12th Amendment ■ Separates the ballot between the President and the VP ■ No more making second place the VP Jefferson’s First Term, 18011805 ● Struggle with the Federal Judiciary ○ Judiciary Act of 1801 ■ Created by the Federalists one month before the inauguration ● Created a bunch of new federal courts ○ Adams was appointing new judges up until midnight of the end of his term ● “Midnight Judges” ■ Court packing scheme ○ John Marshall ■ Appointed by Adams as Chief Justice ■ Most important chief justice in US history ■ Secretary of State before being appointed ● The Secretary of State is responsible for delivering appointment papers to the new judges ■ Loses William Marbury’s appointment ● Madison finds Marbury’s appointment after Jefferson comes into office ● Jefferson decides not to appoint Marbury and appoints his own judge ● Marbury decides to sue ○ Marbury vs Madison, 1803 ■ Centers around three questions ● Did Marbury deserve his commision ● Did Marbury have the right to sue to gain his commission ● Did the Supreme Court have the power to order Madison to give Marbury the commission ● Answers: Yes, Yes, and No ■ Marshall declares the third law(which was part of the Judiciary Act) unconstitutional ■ Sets precedence of the Supreme Court being able to declare a law unconstitutional ● Judicial Review ● Louisiana Purchase, 1803 ○ Belongs to France ○ Jefferson sends Monroe to France to purchase New Orleans ■ Instructed to offer $5 million, $10 million if necessary ○ Napoleon offers the whole piece of land for $15 million ■ Monroe agrees despite not being authorised ○ Internal confliction for Jefferson because he’s a strict constructionist and the president isn’t explicitly given the power to purchase land in the constitution ○ Jefferson makes a treaty with France that includes the acquisition of the Louisiana purchase in order to make the transaction constitutional ■ Presidents are permitted to make treaties ○ Significance ■ Doubles the size of the US ■ Shows how the political beliefs and actions of people change when they take office ● Lewis and Clark Expedition, 18041806 ○ Jefferson appointed Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore what’s between the US and the Pacific Ocean ○ Helped by Sacagawea and eventually her long lost brother ○ Helped by Clark’s awesome enslaved person, York Election of 1804 ● Charles C. PinckneyFederalist candidate ● Thomas Jefferson Democratic Republican candidate ○ Jefferson wins by 92% ● First election where the 12th amendment is in effect ● HamiltonBurr Duel ○ Jefferson kicks out Aaron Burr as his VP when he begins his second term ■ This is because Burr campaigned against him in the previous election after they tied ■ Burr blames Hamilton because he put support behind Jefferson in the previous election ○ Burr and Hamilton have been writing mean editorials about each other even before this ○ Burr and Hamilton duel ■ Burr kills Hamilton while he’s still the sitting VP ■ Burr’s career is basically over at this point ● Jefferson is inaugurated March of 1805 Alternatives to War, 18051809 ● Problems with Britain and France ○ Part of the reason Jefferson’s went so well the first term was because there wasn’t really any problems with foreign affairs ○ Neutral Commercial Rights ■ British Rule of 1756 Britain would not trade with any neutral nation that was also trading with the enemy ○ “Broken Voyage” ● America’s response to the British Rule of 1756 ● American vessels would carry sugar from the French West Indies to American ports, unload it, pass it through customs, and reexport them as American produce ● Impressment ○ As the British began to need more people to fight against France, they started seizing American ships and forcing them into the British Navy ○ The Chesapeake Bay Affair, 1807 ■ The British naval ship, the HMS Leopard, stopped an American ship, the USS Chesapeake, and asked to board and check for deserters ■ The US refused ■ British open fire and impress four soldiers ■ US demands four things ● British has to apologize ● British must supply reparations ● British must return the four men ● British must promise never to do it again ■ British response ● Apologizes ● Say that they may supply reparations ● They do not return the 4 men ● Continued to impress soldiers ● Embargo Act of 1807 ○ Applies to Britain and France ○ US gets hurt by the embargo instead of the other way around ○ New England merchants are hurt the most ○ Jefferson repeals this before he leaves office Election of 1808 ● James MadisonFederalist candidate ○ Jefferson’s Secretary of State ● Charles C. PinckneyDem.Rep. candidate ● George ClintonIndependent Republican candidate ○ Sitting VP ● Madison wins ○ Trend of the secretary of state winning the presidency ○ Continues Jefferson’s economic policies ○ Breaks off diplomatic ties with Britain in 1811 ● The Warhawks ○ Henry Clay of Kentucky ○ John C. Calhoun of South Carolina ○ Come into congress determined to go to war in 1811 and are also concerned with Indian attacks War of 1812 ● Causes of the War of 1812 ○ British give support to Native American tribes fighting Americans on the frontier ○ British continue to impress US soldiers ● Military Failures ○ British troops were able to burn down the US capital ● Federalist opposition to the war ○ Election of 1812 ■ Federalists don't run a candidate ■ Dewitt ClintonPeace Republican ○ Hartford Convention, 1814 ■ New England states meet and discuss how to get out of the war ■ Discuss seceding ■ Draft resolutions ● Airs grievances ● War is over as they are getting to the capital ○ Treaty of Ghent, 1814 ■ Basically just ends the war ■ Doesn't promise to deal with the other issues ■ Signed in Belgium ■ 2 weeks later, the US win a major battle in New Orleans ● The Battle of New Orleans, 1815 ○ Andrew Jackson ■ In Florida at the time ■ Takes some rednecks and Natives to go fight ■ Makes a deal with pirate, Jean Lafitte, because he has ships, people, and canons ● In return, Lafitte won't be arrested for being a pirate ○ Major American victory ○ Every aspect of the British attack fails ○ Huge morale boost for the US ○ Keep New Orleans with the US ○ Makes Andrew Jackson an American hero ○ Kills the Federalist Party ■ Discredited ■ Rufus King is the last federalist who will run for president and he will get destroyed Throwback to the Four Main Questions ● Yes, the new national government is able to balance power with liberty ● Yes, the US is able to demand respect from other nations ● Yes, the new government promotes democracy over elitism ● Yes, the new economy is able to survive having political parties The Era of Good Feelings Nationalism ● Nationalistic spirit develops ○ Economic Nationalism ○ Political Nationalism ○ Judicial Nationalism ○ Diplomatic Nationalism Economic Nationalism ● Growth of the US ○ Population boom ○ New states added westward ● Market Revolution ○ Move towards a market economy ○ Commercial agriculture develops ○ British agriculture is devastated and they reply on imports ● Transportation Revolution ○ Works hand in hand with the market economy ○ Canals ■ Connect bodies of water together ■ Horses draw rafts down the canals from the land ■ Expensive and timely to build ■ Erie Canal ● 36.3 miles long ● $7 million ○ Mostly paid by the state of NY ● Connects the Great Lakes to NY ● Reduces shipping costs ● Increased efficiency leads to a canal building boom ■ People have to walk back up the canal because they can't raft upriver ○ Steamboats ■ First steamboat was built in 1808, sails the Hudson River ■ Become popular ■ Prevents people from having to walk back from New Orleans after using canals ■ 18157 operating steamboats ○ Railroads ○ Transportation innovation leads to a rise in major cities because of the commerce and trade coming through ○ Beginning of the end of Jefferson’s dream ■ Lack of belief in a nation reliant on agrarianism ● New Democratic Republicans ○ Led by Henry Clay ■ Want a protective tariff to help the industry grow ● Purpose is to keep out goods that compete with US products ● High tariff on British goods ■ Want government leadership in banking ■ Internal improvements funded by the national government ○ Tariff of 1816 ■ 1st deliberately protective tariff ■ Placed high duties on British textile and ironing ports ■ South isn't happy because they are major exporters ■ John C. Calhoun is for this but will later oppose it ○ 2nd Bank of the US ■ Opened after the war of 1812 ● Madison recognised that we needed a bank ■ Chartered for 20 years ■ More power ● Can issue up to $35 million in paper money ● Can set interest rates ■ Pays the US government a 1.5 million dollar bonus a year ● Purpose of this is so it won't be necessary to collect taxes ● Puts other Dem. Reps. on board ○ Internal improvements ■ Bonus Bill of 1817 ● Purpose of the bill is to take the $1.5 million bonus and use it on internal developments ● Passed by both houses ● Vetoed by James Madison ○ Nonconstitutional ○ Wasn't mentioned in the constitution ○ Significance ■ 2 out of the three goals are met ■ Internal improvements goal isn't achieved ● Henry Clay’s “American System” ○ The three goals ■ Protective tariffs ■ Government leadership in banking ■ Internal development ○ Believes that it'll benefit the whole country ○ Believes that better internal developments will stimulate trade and the economy ○ Mostly benefits the Northeast ■ They gave the largest population and benefit the most from internal improvements Political Nationalism ● For a while, the Democratic Republicans are the only party ● Election of 1820 ○ James Monroe runs unopposed ○ Gets all but one electoral vote ■ One voted against him because he believed that Washington should be the only unanimously elected president Judicial Nationalism ● McCulloch vs Maryland, 1819 ○ Maryland tried to tax the national bank so high that it would go out of business ■ Massachusetts is full of strict constructionists and don't agree with the Bank ○ McCulloch runs the bank and refuses to pay taxes ○ Maryland uses the Compact Theory of the Constitution to justify taxation ○ John Marshall says that the Compact Theory is incorrect ■ The states didn't create the government, the people did ■ The states can't declare things unconstitutional ○ Marshall uses loose construction to defend the bank Diplomatic Nationalism ● Florida ○ A lot of hostile Seminoles cross the Florida border and attack farms and plantations ○ Run back over the border when the US goes to fight them ○ Not very populated, and Spain doesn't have a good stronghold over it, so they can't stop the attacks ○ Makes southerners mad because many slaves leave and join the Seminoles during attacks ○ Andrew Jackson is put in charge of dealing with the problem ■ Sends a letter telling the secretary of war that he'll cross over into Florida to deal with the problem ■ Goes into Florida after waiting 2 weeks for a response ■ Lays waste to Seminoles and British merchants who supplied them weapons ■ Creates internal conflict ● John Quincy Adams ○ Secretary of State ○ Deals with the internal conflict ■ Deals with Britain by reminding them of the soldiers that they impressed from the US ● AdamsOnis Treaty (aka Florida Transcontinental Treaty) 1821 ○ J.Q. Adams deals with Florida by convincing them to sell Florida to the US for $5 million ■ It's in Spain's best interest since they don't have much of a hold over Florida ○ Settles the boundary for the west of Louisiana ○ Basically settles the modern Texas border ● Monroe Doctrine, 1823 ○ Spain's New World colonies start to break away ○ US worries that other European countries will try to clinics the newly independent countries ○ The British also don't want other countries to colonize these countries ■ The Brits are done colonizing by this point ○ Britain approaches the US to make a joint declaration to keep European countries out of the US ■ Britain is an asset because it has a powerful navy ○ J.Q. Adams approaches Monroe about the US making a declaration with themselves ■ Allows the US not to be in an arrangement with a stronger country ● Risk of being take advantage of ■ Knows that Britain will still back it up ○ Monroe agrees with Adams and establishes the Monroe Doctrine Economic Collapse and Sectional Conflict ● Panic of 1819 ○ First modern depression in US history ○ Caused by people spending beyond their means because of the good economy ○ People buy a lot on credit ○ US loans a lot of money to land speculators ○ People use their land as collateral ○ Panic hits ■ The US Bank is about to go bankrupt because it overloaded money and people aren't able to pay them back ■ Bank gets bailed out ○ Bank bail out pisses off southern and western farmers because the bank is mainly owned by rich northeasterners ○ The bail creates a divide between the NE and the southerners ● Missouri Conflict and Compromise, 1820 ○ Conflict ■ Missouri applies for statehood in 1819 ■ Their constitution names them as a slave state ■ Tallmadge Amendment, 1819 ● Added by Talmadge ● States that slavery will not be allowed in Missouri after it becomes a state and all will be freed after turning 26 ● Was made with assumption that it wouldn't pass and would just highlight the issue of slavery ● But basically what happened was that a vote for Missouri statehood also equalled a vote for the amendment ● Narrowly passed the house ● Doesn't pass the senate ● South argued that the congress didn't have the power to add limitations on statehood and that they never have before ● Tallmadge argued that it was obvious that slavery was never meant to spread ○ Compromise ■ Led by Henry Clay ■ Missouri comes in as a slave state and Maine comes in as a free state ■ In the Louisiana territory, slavery is banned north of 36*30’ line ● Slavery wasn't banned in the northern states, just the territories ■ Jefferson is unhappy with this ● Basically predicts secession ● Protective tariff and southern opposition ○ Tariffs raised again in 1820 Election of 1824 ● 1st election where most whites are able to vote ● 5 candidates ● William Crawford ○ Early front runner ○ Gets a strike in the middle of the campaign season ● John Quincy Adams ○ Secretary of State ○ A lot in common with Henry Clay ● Henry Clay ○ Political stance is the American System ● Andrew Jackson ○ Doesn't run on any issues ○ Runs in being a war hero ○ Represents the common man ● John C. Calhoun ○ Bows out because the other candidates have bigger name recognition than him ○ Decides to run for VP ● Corruption and Bargaining ○ None of the candidates get a majority vote ○ Jackson gets 38% of the electoral vote ○ Adams get at the second largest amount of votes ○ Crawford gets the third largest amount of votes ○ The top three are chosen since no one has the majority ○ Henry Clay has a lot of clout in choosing the president since he's the Secretary of State ○ Clay throws his support behind Adams and the rest of the house follows him ○ John Quincy Adams becomes president and chooses Clay as the Secretary of State ○ Jackson believes the Adam and Clay planned this ○ Jackson labels Clay as corrupt ■ This follows Clay basically for the rest of his career The Jacksonian Era Rise of the Democrats ● Martin Van Buren ○ Democrat ○ Believes Jackson to be the future ● John C. Calhoun ○ John Q Adams VP ● Jackson and Democrats block everything that Adams tries to do ● Democrats control the house National Republicans ● John Quincy Adams ● Henry Clay Election of 1828 ● Adams runs again with Riehard Rush ○ John C Calhoun had switched parties ● Jackson ran with John C Calhoun as VP ● Considered a modern election ○ Candidates vague on issues ■ First done by Jackson ○ Jackson campaigns ■ First presidential candidate to campaign ● Mudslinging ○ Jackson’s negative war behaviours come to light ○ Adams is accused of being a pimp ○ Rachel, Jackson’s wife, is made fun of ● Jackson wins with a landslide ○ 68% of the electoral vote ● Over 10,000 attend his inauguration ○ John Q Adams does not attend ○ White House party is thrown afterwards for his supporters ■ People get drunk and out of hand ■ White House staff lure them outside with whiskey and then lock the doors Jackson as President, 18291837 ● Spoils System ○ Appointing supporters into government positions ● Indian Removal Policy, 1829 ○ Five civilized tribes ■ Sacs and Foxes ■ Cherokees ■ Choctaws ■ Chickasaws ■ Seminoles ○ Cherokees ■ College educated ■ Had their own written language and constitution ■ Many were mixed blood ■ Some owned slaves ■ Cherokee land is treated as their own nation ■ Problem ● Gold is found in their land and Georgia starts selling their land and settling there ● Cherokees take them court with a lawyer named Worcester ○ Worcester v. Georgia, 1832 ■ John Marshall rules in favor of the Cherokees ● Georgia has no right to sell their land or extend into their territory ■ Jackson chooses not to enforce Marshall’s decision ■ Georgia continues to sell their land and move there ■ Cherokees continue to fight until they are forced to move in 1838 ○ Indian Removal Act ■ Indians are to be relocated to Oklahoma ■ 3 of the civilized nations move ● Sacs and Foxes ● Chickasaws ● Choctaws ■ Trail of Tears ● Cherokees forced to move on 1838 ● 4,000 of 18,000 die along the way ■ Seminoles hide out in the Florida swamps until they are forced to move in 1846 ● Tariff Controversy with South Carolina ○ Tariff of 1828 ■ Passed by a Jackson controlled congress before his election ■ South Carolina really doesn't like it ● “Tariff of Abominations” ● Speak of secession ■ Jackson is running for president in 1828 with Calhoun as his VP ● South Carolina is Calhoun’s home state and it looks bad to have it speaking of secession ○ South Carolina Exposition and Protest ■ Written anonymously by John C Calhoun ● People speculated that he wrote it even though it was anonymous ■ Based on the Compact Theory of the Constitution ● The protective tariff is unconstitutional because the government is using its power to promote one section of the country over another ● If congress is over stepping its bounds, a state can hold a convention to figure out how to react ○ The convention can nullify a federal law in that state ● Theory of Nullification ○ State nullifies law ○ Congress has two options ■ Repeal the law or ■ Get a constitutional amendment with a 3/4ths vote ○ If option two is taken, then the state has two options ■ Submit to the will of congress ■ Secede ■ Jackson sees Nullification as treason ■ South Carolina is appeased for now ○ End of JacksonCalhoun Alliance ■ Jackson finds out that Calhoun writhe the South Carolina Exposition and Protest ■ Jackson low key calls him out during a dinner toast and Calhoun low key reveals himself to be the author ■ Issues with Calhoun’s wife and the ladies of the White House being mean to Peggy Eaton, the wife of Secretary of State John Eaton ● Peggy is considered a slut because she cheated on her husband, causing him to kill himself. She married 4 months after his death and was chastised for not going into mourning for a long time ● Jackson likes Peggy and orders all the women to be nice to her and associate with her ■ Martin Van Buren befriends the Eatons to get on Jackson's good side ● Jackson and Van Buren become good friends ■ Van Buren proposes a plan for himself and Eaton to quit the cabinet so Jackson would reshuffle the cabinet and take out Calhoun's allies ● Jackson agrees ■ After reshuffling the cabinet and taking out Calhoun's allies, Calhoun later quits being VP ○ Tariff of 1832 ■ Signed by Jackson in July of 1832 ■ South Carolina holds a convention and nullify the tariff in November of 1832 ● Planned to wait one year after nullifying it for it to take effect to allow the congress to have time to react ● Threatened to secede if the government tried to enforce it ■ Calhoun is sent as a representative from South Carolina to fight for nullification ■ Jackson threatens to send down an army to enforce it ● He also threatens to hang Calhoun, but you know how he is ○ Force Bill, 1833 ■ Gives Jackson permission to use the military against South Carolina ○ Compromise Tariff of 1833 ■ Made by Henry Clay ■ Gradually lowers the tariff over a period of 10 years ○ South Carolina congress meet again and repeal their nullification
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