soci 101, exam 1 study guide
soci 101, exam 1 study guide soci 101
Cal State Fullerton
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Theint Myint on Sunday June 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to soci 101 at California State University - Fullerton taught by jessica coronel in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 153 views.
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Date Created: 06/26/16
CH 1 UNDERSTANDING SOCIOLOGY why study sociology • Knowledgeà better decisions • Create preventative measures (like taking birth control etc) • It happens often • Interesting • Learn about the “normal” by learning about the “odd” Sociology • Scientific study of social behavior and human groups • Different societies= different customs • Focuses: o How relationships= influence ppl’s attitudes and behavior § Society= helps mold a person o How society develops and changes overtime • In attempt to understand social behaviors, socialists rely on unique types of creative thinking • C. Wright Mills= describe such thinkings as the sociological imagination Sociological imagination- C wright mills • Awareness of the relation between an indiv and the wider society • Ability to view society as an outsider would • Looks beyond limited understanding of human behavior • Personal issuesà social issues Sociology and the social sciences • Science= body of knowledge obtained by methods based on systematic observation • Natural science= study physical features of nature and how they interact and change o Chem, bio, geology, physics • Social science= study social features of humans and how they interact and change o Anthro, psych, political science, economics Why study the influence society has on people’s attitude and behavior • Seek to understand ways people interact and shape society • Examine social relations scientifically o Global recession o Marital patterns o Recession impact on education Early thinkers Augute Conte = father of sociology • Systematic investigation of behavior • Coined term “sociology” Harriet Martineau • Study social behavior in Britain and US • Emphasized impact of economy, law, trade, health, and population on social problems (want to bring awareness) • Translated lots of comte’s work into English/ helped get his work out Herbert Spencer • Studied evolutionary change in society (look @ change overtime) Emile Durheim • Did not limit interests to 1 aspect • Behavior must be understood within the larger social context • Developed fundamental theses to help explain all forms of society • Religion and SUICIDE • “anomic” = loss of direction felt in a society when social control of indiv behavior becomes ineffective o total institutions (jails, military etc) à no control over what you’re doing o can be when you try to transition from total institution back into societyà have a hard time fitting in bc you’re use to being told what to do Max Weber • understand behaviorà learn the subjective meaning ppl attach to actions • understand what it means to them and why they did what they did • diff things= diff meaning to diff people • verstenen= understanding, insight • ideal type: construct for evaluating specific cases (like a model/ outline) objective= quantative= #’s, proven facts/ data- grounded/ no change subjective= qualitative= opinion based, can change (emotions, values, myths, etc) Karl Marx • society divided into classes that class in pursuit of different interests (owners vs working class) • worked w/ engles • Communist manifesto o working class= should overthrow existing class system • emphasize group identification and associations that influence 1’s place in society • à act different based on who’s around Modern Developments WEB DuBois • Black socialist assisted struggle for racially equal society • Knowledge= essential in combating prejudice • Focused on religion @ community level • “Double consciousness” o division of indiv’s identity into 2+ social realities o (what it’s like to be black in white Americaà need to be different person/ have diff behaviors etc (slang at home, professional outside home) Robert Merren • combined theory + research • developed explanation of deviant behavior • MACRO sociology= large scale phenomena or entire civilizations o Student SAT scores • MICRO sociology= stresses study of small groups often through experimental means o Teacher interactions w/ students • Micro influences macro Pierre Boudreu • Capital= $, wealth, powerà sustains indivs and fams from 1 gen to the next • Cultural capital o Noneconomic good reflected in knowledge of language and arts o Being aware/ knowing that ___ painted this • Social capital o Collective benefit of social networks o Who you know, how you articulate • Ppl w/ capital= edu on all levelsà go further in life 20 cent developments Charles Horton Cooley • used sociological perspective to examine face to face groups (when ppl actually interact in their presence) Jane Adams • combined intellectually inquiry + social service work + political activist • cofounded HULL HOUSE (for working women, poverty, like refuge place) major theoretical perspectives/ theories/ paradigms 1. functionalist--------à MACRO 2. conflict -----------à MACRO 3. symbolic interactionist --à MICRO socialist perspective= all 3 functionalist perspective • everything works together • emphasize way how society structures= maintains stability • Talcott Parsons o View society as vast network of connected parts o Each helps maintain the system as a whole o (like a bike; need all parts to function properly) • manifest functions o open, stated, conscious functions o intended and recognized consequences of an aspect of society o school intended to teach you à you learn • latent functions o unconscious/ unintended functions that may reflect hidden purposes o bullying, stress, meeting spouse • dysfunctions o elements/processes of society that may disrupt a social system of reduce it’s stability/ credibility conflict perspective • assumes social behavior is best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing groups • conflict= essential for society or else you wouldn’t be where you are now • the Marxist view o conflict= part of everyday life in all societies o conflict theorists= interested in how institutions may melt maintain privileges of some groups and keeps others subservient o (those w/ more edu= go further, while those w/o edu= stuck) o need conflict so society can run smoothly • the feminist perspective o inequality in gender= central to all behavior and organization o often allied w/ conflict theory o proponents= tend to focus on MACRO level o broadened social behavior by extending analysis beyond male point of view interactionalist perspective • generalized about everyday forms of social interactions to explain society as a whole • humans= viewed as living in a world of meaningful objects • nonverbal communications: gestures, facials, postures • manipulation of symbols= seen in dress code • George Herbert mead o Founder of interactionalist perspective • Erving Geoffman o Dramaturgical approach= ppl are seen as theatrical performers o Ppl= constantly acting o Front stage= ready to perform (like a speech) o Back stage= what do to get to front stage (research, writing speech, etc) Sociological approach • Gain broadest understanding of society by drawing on all major perspectives, noting where they overlap/diverge • Each perspective= offers unique insights into the same issue • Researchers work= always guided by his/her theoretical view point Applied and clinical sociology • Applied sociology o Use soci w/ intent of yielding practical applications for human behavior and organization o Try to see outcome, hands on • Clinical sociology o Facilitating change by altering social relations or restructuring social institutions • Basic sociology o Seeks profound knowledge of fundamental aspects of social phenomena Developing a sociological imagination • Theory in practice • Research today • Thinking globally o Globalization § Worldwide integration of govt policies, cultures and social movements and financial markets through trade and exchange of ideas • Significant of social inequality o Social inequality § Conditions where members of society= differ in amount of wealth, prestige or power • Speaking across race, gender and religious boundaries • Social policy throughout the world Ch 2 RESEARCH METHODS Scientific method • Systematic organized series of steps that ensures maximum objectivity and constancy in researching a prob 5 STEPS 1. Define prob 2. Review literature 3. Form testable hypothesis 4. Select research design, collect and analyze data 5. Develop conclusion Define prob • Operational definition o Abstract concept explained specific enough to let researchers assess the concept Review lit • Refines prob under study o See kinks did see/ anticipate before o Decide if want to continue w/ topic or not Form hypothesis • Hypothesis o Speculative statement about relation between 2+ variables • Variable o Measurable trait that’s subject to change under diff conditions o Independent variable= causes/ influences another variable o Dependent variable= depends on influence of independent variable o IV (time spent studying) à DV (performance on exam) Collecting and analyzing data • Selecting the sample • Sample o Selection of larger population that’s statistically typical of that population o Representative of population going to study • Random sample o Every member of population= same chance of selection • Snowball/ convenience sample o Ppl recruited via word to mouth, posting notices on internet, etc o Convenient • Ensure validity and reliability o Validity= degree the measure reflects the phenomenon being studied o Reliability= extent measure gives constant results Developing conclusion • Supporting the hypothesis o Sociological studies don’t always generate date that support original hypothesis • Controlling other factors o Control variable = constant variable. Test impact of independent variable Research • QUANTative research o Collect and report data in # form o Quick • QUALitative reseatch o Relies on whats observed and naturalistic setting o Focus on small groups and communities Research designs • Detailed plan/method for obtaining scientific data • Survey, observation, experiments, existing sources Surveys= provide info how ppl act/ think • Interview= face to face, phone, webcam • Questionnaire= printed/ written q’s to get info • Can be expensive and time consuming Ethnography • Collect info via direct participation and/or closely watching a group • Being involved • Detailed info about specific groups • Try to describe and entire social setting via extended systematic observation • Observation: socialists joins groups to get accurate sense of how it operates Experiments • Artificially created situations-‐ can manipulate variables • Experimental group= exposed to IV • Control group= not exposed to IV • Hawthorne effect o Unintended influence of observers of experiments on subjects o Observers presentà Ppl act differently Using existing sources • Cost efficient, limited to data • Secondary analysis o Research techniques-‐ use previously collected and publically accessible info and data • Content analysis o Systematic coding and objective recording of data, guided by some rational Ethnics of research • Maintain objectivity and integrity of research • Respect subjects right to privacy and dignity • Protect subjects from personal harm • Preserve confidentiality • Get informed consent • Acknowledge collaboration and assistance • Disclose sources of financial support • Confidentially • Conflict of interest • Value neutrality o Investigators= ethical obligation to accept research findings even if the data is opposite of their personal views to theoretically based explanations or to widely accepted beliefs o (cant let values get in the way of the job even if the job and your personal beliefs conflict) reading graphs o tables and figures= display data and makes it easier to develop conclusions o cross tabulation= show relation between 2+ variables o graphs= easier for public to understand writing research report o finding info o textbook, library catalog, computerized periodical index, newspaper, govt documents, instructor, ask ppl, orgs and agencies o writing report o focus on topic o make outline o work ahead of deadline o read paper aloud o include citations and references CH 3 CULTURE What Is Culture? • Culture: o Totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior o Ideas, values, customs, and artifacts of groups of people Culture • Beliefs, values, behavior, and material objects that, together, form a people’s way of life. • Culture is a shared way of life. • Culture becomes the lens through which we perceive and evaluate what is going on around us. What is the purpose of culture? • Our major mode of adaptation • Sets limits on behavior and guides us along predictable paths • Becomes internalized Society • A fairly large number of people are said to constitute a society when they live in the same territory. • Members of a society are relatively independent of people outside their area, and participate in a common culture. • Society is the largest form of human group. • Members of a society learn culture and transmit it from one generation to the next. • Language is a critical element of culture that sets humans apart from other species. Culture Universals • Cultural Universals-‐ certain common practices and beliefs that all societies have developed • general practices found in every culture including courtship, family, language, medicine, religion, and sex restrictions -‐ Many are adaptations to meet essential human needs Cultural Relativism • Cultural relativism: People’s behaviors from the perspective of their own culture • Different social contexts give rise to different norms and values Sociology in the Global Community • Cultural Genocide • How would you react if you were taken from your parents’ home by a government agent and moved to a different family with a different culture? • What might be the long-‐term consequences of American Indian children’s removal from their families, besides the destruction of their culture? • Basically killing off a culture (like hitler did) Ethnocentrism • Ethnocentrism: Tendency to assume that one’s own culture and way of life = norm or is superior to others o Conflict theorists: ethnocentric value judgments serve to devalue groups and to deny equal opportunities (tear ppl apart) o Functionalists: ethnocentrism maintains sense of solidarity (bring ppl together bc they have something in common ) Globalization, Diffusion, and Technology • Diffusion: Process by which cultural item spreads from group to group • McDonaldization: o Process through which principles of fast-‐food industry dominate certain sectors of society • Technology: Information about how to use material resources of the environment to satisfy human needs and desires (Nolan and Lenski) • Culture lag: Period of maladjustment when nonmaterial culture struggles to adapt to new material conditions Material Culture • physical or technological aspects of our daily lives. • Including food, houses, factories, and raw materials, jewelry, art, buildings, hair styles, and clothing. • That is, it is no more natural or (unnatural) to wear gowns on the street than it is to wear jeans. Nonmaterial Culture • the ways in which we use nonmaterial objects, such as customs, values, beliefs, philosophies, governments, and patterns of communication. • A groups way of thinking (beliefs, values, and other assumptions about the world) and doing (its common patterns of behavior and interaction. Cultural Variation • Subculture: Is a segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of customs, rules, and traditions that differ from the pattern of the larger society. • Counterculture: Subculture that conspicuously and deliberately opposes certain aspects of the larger culture • Culture shock: Feeling disoriented, uncertain, out of place, or fearful when immersed in an unfamiliar culture Language: Written and Spoken • Language: Abstract system of word meanings and symbols for all aspects of culture o Sapir-‐Whorf Hypothesis § Language precedes thought § Language is not a given § Language is culturally determined § Language may color how we see the world Nonverbal Communication • Nonverbal communication: Use of gestures, facial expressions, and other visual images to communicate • Learned • Differs by cultures • Symbols: gestures, objects, and words that form basis of human communication Norms • Norms: Established standards of behavior maintained by a society o Formal norms: Generally written; specify strict punishments § Law: government social control o Informal norms: Generally understood but not precisely recorded Types of Norms • Mores: Norms deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society • Folkways: Norms governing everyday behavior o In many societies, folkways exist to reinforce patterns of male dominance Sanctions • Sanctions: Penalties and rewards for conduct concerning social norm o Positive sanctions: Pay raises, medals, and words of gratitude o Negative sanctions: Fines, threats, imprisonment, and stares of contempt Values • Cultural values: Collective conceptions of what is good, desirable, and proper – or bad, undesirable, and improper • Influence people’s behavior • Criteria for evaluating actions of others • Values may change Norms and Values • Norms are the established standards of behavior maintained by a society. • These are the expectations (or rules of behavior) that develop out of a groups values. Values are these collective conceptions of what is considered good, desirable, and proper-‐or bad, undesirable, and improper-‐ in a culture
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