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soci 101, exam 1 study guide

by: dy Notetaker

soci 101, exam 1 study guide soci 101

Marketplace > Fullerton College > soci 101 > soci 101 exam 1 study guide
dy Notetaker
Cal State Fullerton

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introduction to sociology
jessica coronel
Study Guide
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by dy Notetaker on Sunday June 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to soci 101 at Fullerton College taught by jessica coronel in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 139 views.

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Date Created: 06/26/16
CH 1 UNDERSTANDING SOCIOLOGY why study sociology • Knowledgeà better decisions • Create preventative measures (like taking birth control etc) • It happens often • Interesting • Learn about the “normal” by learning about the “odd” Sociology • Scientific study of social behavior and human groups • Different societies= different customs • Focuses: o How relationships= influence ppl’s attitudes and behavior § Society= helps mold a person o How society develops and changes overtime • In attempt to understand social behaviors, socialists rely on unique types of creative thinking • C. Wright Mills= describe such thinkings as the sociological imagination Sociological imagination- C wright mills • Awareness of the relation between an indiv and the wider society • Ability to view society as an outsider would • Looks beyond limited understanding of human behavior • Personal issuesà social issues Sociology and the social sciences • Science= body of knowledge obtained by methods based on systematic observation • Natural science= study physical features of nature and how they interact and change o Chem, bio, geology, physics • Social science= study social features of humans and how they interact and change o Anthro, psych, political science, economics Why study the influence society has on people’s attitude and behavior • Seek to understand ways people interact and shape society • Examine social relations scientifically o Global recession o Marital patterns o Recession impact on education Early thinkers Augute Conte = father of sociology • Systematic investigation of behavior • Coined term “sociology” Harriet Martineau • Study social behavior in Britain and US • Emphasized impact of economy, law, trade, health, and population on social problems (want to bring awareness) • Translated lots of comte’s work into English/ helped get his work out Herbert Spencer • Studied evolutionary change in society (look @ change overtime) Emile Durheim • Did not limit interests to 1 aspect • Behavior must be understood within the larger social context • Developed fundamental theses to help explain all forms of society • Religion and SUICIDE • “anomic” = loss of direction felt in a society when social control of indiv behavior becomes ineffective o total institutions (jails, military etc) à no control over what you’re doing o can be when you try to transition from total institution back into societyà have a hard time fitting in bc you’re use to being told what to do Max Weber • understand behaviorà learn the subjective meaning ppl attach to actions • understand what it means to them and why they did what they did • diff things= diff meaning to diff people • verstenen= understanding, insight • ideal type: construct for evaluating specific cases (like a model/ outline) objective= quantative= #’s, proven facts/ data- grounded/ no change subjective= qualitative= opinion based, can change (emotions, values, myths, etc) Karl Marx • society divided into classes that class in pursuit of different interests (owners vs working class) • worked w/ engles • Communist manifesto o working class= should overthrow existing class system • emphasize group identification and associations that influence 1’s place in society • à act different based on who’s around Modern Developments WEB DuBois • Black socialist assisted struggle for racially equal society • Knowledge= essential in combating prejudice • Focused on religion @ community level • “Double consciousness” o division of indiv’s identity into 2+ social realities o (what it’s like to be black in white Americaà need to be different person/ have diff behaviors etc (slang at home, professional outside home) Robert Merren • combined theory + research • developed explanation of deviant behavior • MACRO sociology= large scale phenomena or entire civilizations o Student SAT scores • MICRO sociology= stresses study of small groups often through experimental means o Teacher interactions w/ students • Micro influences macro Pierre Boudreu • Capital= $, wealth, powerà sustains indivs and fams from 1 gen to the next • Cultural capital o Noneconomic good reflected in knowledge of language and arts o Being aware/ knowing that ___ painted this • Social capital o Collective benefit of social networks o Who you know, how you articulate • Ppl w/ capital= edu on all levelsà go further in life 20 cent developments Charles Horton Cooley • used sociological perspective to examine face to face groups (when ppl actually interact in their presence) Jane Adams • combined intellectually inquiry + social service work + political activist • cofounded HULL HOUSE (for working women, poverty, like refuge place) major theoretical perspectives/ theories/ paradigms 1. functionalist--------à MACRO 2. conflict -----------à MACRO 3. symbolic interactionist --à MICRO socialist perspective= all 3 functionalist perspective • everything works together • emphasize way how society structures= maintains stability • Talcott Parsons o View society as vast network of connected parts o Each helps maintain the system as a whole o (like a bike; need all parts to function properly) • manifest functions o open, stated, conscious functions o intended and recognized consequences of an aspect of society o school intended to teach you à you learn • latent functions o unconscious/ unintended functions that may reflect hidden purposes o bullying, stress, meeting spouse • dysfunctions o elements/processes of society that may disrupt a social system of reduce it’s stability/ credibility conflict perspective • assumes social behavior is best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing groups • conflict= essential for society or else you wouldn’t be where you are now • the Marxist view o conflict= part of everyday life in all societies o conflict theorists= interested in how institutions may melt maintain privileges of some groups and keeps others subservient o (those w/ more edu= go further, while those w/o edu= stuck) o need conflict so society can run smoothly • the feminist perspective o inequality in gender= central to all behavior and organization o often allied w/ conflict theory o proponents= tend to focus on MACRO level o broadened social behavior by extending analysis beyond male point of view interactionalist perspective • generalized about everyday forms of social interactions to explain society as a whole • humans= viewed as living in a world of meaningful objects • nonverbal communications: gestures, facials, postures • manipulation of symbols= seen in dress code • George Herbert mead o Founder of interactionalist perspective • Erving Geoffman o Dramaturgical approach= ppl are seen as theatrical performers o Ppl= constantly acting o Front stage= ready to perform (like a speech) o Back stage= what do to get to front stage (research, writing speech, etc) Sociological approach • Gain broadest understanding of society by drawing on all major perspectives, noting where they overlap/diverge • Each perspective= offers unique insights into the same issue • Researchers work= always guided by his/her theoretical view point Applied and clinical sociology • Applied sociology o Use soci w/ intent of yielding practical applications for human behavior and organization o Try to see outcome, hands on • Clinical sociology o Facilitating change by altering social relations or restructuring social institutions • Basic sociology o Seeks profound knowledge of fundamental aspects of social phenomena Developing a sociological imagination • Theory in practice • Research today • Thinking globally o Globalization § Worldwide integration of govt policies, cultures and social movements and financial markets through trade and exchange of ideas • Significant of social inequality o Social inequality § Conditions where members of society= differ in amount of wealth, prestige or power • Speaking across race, gender and religious boundaries • Social policy throughout the world CH  3  CULTURE     What  Is  Culture?   • Culture:     o Totality  of  learned,  socially  transmitted  customs,  knowledge,  material   objects,  and  behavior   o Ideas,  values,  customs,  and  artifacts  of     groups  of  people   Culture   • Beliefs,  values,  behavior,  and  material  objects  that,  together,  form  a   people’s  way  of  life.   • Culture  is  a  shared  way  of  life.   • Culture  becomes  the  lens  through  which  we  perceive  and  evaluate   what  is  going  on  around  us.     What  is  the  purpose  of  culture?   • Our  major  mode  of  adaptation     • Sets  limits  on  behavior  and  guides  us  along  predictable  paths   • Becomes  internalized     Society   • A  fairly  large  number  of  people  are  said  to  constitute  a  society  when  they  live   in  the  same  territory.   • Members  of  a  society  are  relatively  independent  of  people  outside  their  area,   and  participate  in  a  common  culture.   • Society  is  the  largest  form  of  human  group.   • Members  of  a  society  learn  culture  and  transmit  it  from  one  generation  to  the   next.   • Language  is  a  critical  element  of  culture  that  sets  humans  apart  from  other   species.       Culture  Universals   • Cultural  Universals-­‐  certain  common  practices  and  beliefs  that  all  societies   have  developed   • general  practices  found  in  every  culture  including  courtship,  family,   language,  medicine,  religion,  and  sex  restrictions    -­‐  Many  are  adaptations  to     meet  essential  human  needs     Cultural  Relativism   • Cultural  relativism:  People’s  behaviors  from  the  perspective  of  their  own   culture   • Different  social  contexts  give     rise  to  different  norms  and  values     Sociology  in  the  Global  Community   • Cultural  Genocide   • How  would  you  react  if  you  were  taken  from  your  parents’  home  by  a   government  agent  and  moved  to  a  different  family  with  a  different   culture?   • What  might  be  the  long-­‐term  consequences  of  American  Indian  children’s   removal  from  their  families,  besides  the  destruction  of  their  culture?   • Basically  killing  off  a  culture  (like  hitler  did)     Ethnocentrism   • Ethnocentrism:  Tendency  to  assume  that  one’s  own  culture  and  way  of  life  =   norm  or  is  superior  to  others   o Conflict  theorists:  ethnocentric  value  judgments  serve  to  devalue   groups  and  to  deny  equal  opportunities  (tear  ppl  apart)   o Functionalists:  ethnocentrism  maintains  sense  of  solidarity  (bring  ppl   together  bc  they  have  something  in  common  )     Globalization,  Diffusion,     and  Technology   • Diffusion:  Process  by  which  cultural  item  spreads  from  group  to  group   • McDonaldization:     o Process  through  which  principles  of  fast-­‐food  industry  dominate   certain  sectors  of  society   • Technology:  Information  about  how  to  use  material  resources  of  the   environment  to  satisfy  human  needs  and  desires  (Nolan  and  Lenski)   • Culture  lag:  Period  of  maladjustment  when  nonmaterial  culture  struggles  to   adapt  to  new  material  conditions       Material  Culture   • physical  or  technological  aspects  of  our  daily  lives.     • Including  food,  houses,  factories,  and  raw  materials,  jewelry,  art,   buildings,  hair  styles,  and  clothing.   • That  is,  it  is  no  more  natural  or  (unnatural)  to  wear  gowns  on  the   street  than  it  is  to  wear  jeans.   Nonmaterial  Culture   • the  ways  in  which  we  use  nonmaterial  objects,  such  as  customs,  values,   beliefs,  philosophies,  governments,  and  patterns  of  communication.     • A  groups  way  of  thinking  (beliefs,  values,  and  other  assumptions   about  the  world)  and  doing  (its  common  patterns  of  behavior  and   interaction.       Cultural  Variation   • Subculture:  Is  a  segment  of  society  that  shares  a  distinctive  pattern  of   customs,  rules,  and  traditions  that  differ  from  the  pattern  of  the  larger   society.     • Counterculture:  Subculture  that  conspicuously  and  deliberately  opposes   certain  aspects  of  the  larger  culture   • Culture  shock:  Feeling  disoriented,  uncertain,  out  of  place,  or  fearful   when  immersed  in  an  unfamiliar  culture     Language:  Written  and  Spoken   • Language:  Abstract  system     of  word  meanings  and     symbols  for  all  aspects  of  culture   o Sapir-­‐Whorf  Hypothesis   § Language  precedes  thought   § Language  is  not  a  given   § Language  is  culturally  determined   § Language  may  color     how  we  see  the  world     Nonverbal  Communication   • Nonverbal  communication:  Use  of  gestures,  facial  expressions,  and  other   visual  images  to  communicate   • Learned   • Differs  by  cultures   • Symbols:  gestures,  objects,  and  words  that  form  basis  of  human   communication     Norms   • Norms:  Established  standards  of  behavior  maintained  by  a  society   o Formal  norms:  Generally  written;  specify  strict  punishments   § Law:  government  social  control   o Informal  norms:  Generally  understood  but  not  precisely  recorded   Types  of  Norms   • Mores:  Norms  deemed  highly  necessary  to  the  welfare  of  a  society   • Folkways:  Norms  governing  everyday  behavior   o In  many  societies,  folkways  exist  to  reinforce  patterns  of  male   dominance       Sanctions   • Sanctions:  Penalties  and  rewards  for  conduct  concerning  social  norm   o Positive  sanctions:  Pay  raises,  medals,  and  words  of  gratitude   o Negative  sanctions:  Fines,  threats,  imprisonment,  and  stares  of   contempt   Values   • Cultural  values:  Collective  conceptions  of  what  is  good,  desirable,  and   proper  –    or  bad,  undesirable,  and  improper   • Influence  people’s  behavior   • Criteria  for  evaluating  actions  of  others   • Values  may  change     Norms  and  Values   • Norms  are  the  established  standards  of  behavior  maintained  by  a  society.     • These  are  the  expectations    (or  rules  of  behavior)  that  develop  out  of  a   groups  values.     Values  are  these  collective  conceptions  of  what  is  considered  good,  desirable,  and   proper-­‐or  bad,  undesirable,  and  improper-­‐  in  a  culture   Ch  2  RESEARCH  METHODS     Scientific  method     • Systematic  organized  series  of  steps  that  ensures  maximum  objectivity  and   constancy  in  researching  a  prob     5  STEPS     1. Define  prob   2. Review  literature   3. Form  testable  hypothesis     4. Select  research  design,  collect  and  analyze  data   5. Develop  conclusion       Define  prob   • Operational  definition     o Abstract  concept  explained  specific  enough  to  let  researchers  assess   the  concept     Review  lit     • Refines  prob  under  study     o See  kinks  did  see/  anticipate  before     o Decide  if  want  to  continue  w/  topic  or  not     Form  hypothesis   • Hypothesis   o Speculative  statement  about  relation  between  2+  variables     • Variable   o Measurable  trait  that’s  subject  to  change  under  diff  conditions     o Independent  variable=  causes/  influences  another  variable   o Dependent  variable=  depends  on  influence  of  independent  variable     o IV  (time  spent  studying)  à  DV  (performance  on  exam)     Collecting  and  analyzing  data   • Selecting  the  sample   • Sample   o Selection  of  larger  population  that’s  statistically  typical  of  that   population     o Representative  of  population  going  to  study     • Random  sample   o Every  member  of  population=  same  chance  of  selection     • Snowball/  convenience  sample   o Ppl  recruited  via  word  to  mouth,  posting  notices  on  internet,  etc     o Convenient     • Ensure  validity  and  reliability     o Validity=  degree  the  measure  reflects  the  phenomenon  being  studied   o Reliability=  extent  measure  gives  constant  results   Developing  conclusion     • Supporting  the  hypothesis     o Sociological  studies  don’t  always  generate  date  that  support  original   hypothesis     • Controlling  other  factors     o Control  variable  =  constant  variable.  Test  impact  of  independent   variable     Research     • QUANTative  research   o Collect  and  report  data  in  #  form     o Quick     • QUALitative  reseatch   o Relies  on  whats  observed  and  naturalistic  setting     o Focus  on  small  groups  and  communities     Research  designs     • Detailed  plan/method  for  obtaining  scientific  data     • Survey,  observation,  experiments,  existing  sources       Surveys=  provide  info  how  ppl  act/  think     • Interview=  face  to  face,  phone,  webcam     • Questionnaire=  printed/  written  q’s  to  get  info     • Can  be  expensive  and  time  consuming       Ethnography     • Collect  info  via  direct  participation  and/or  closely  watching  a  group     • Being  involved     • Detailed  info  about  specific  groups     • Try  to  describe  and  entire  social  setting  via  extended  systematic  observation     • Observation:  socialists  joins  groups  to  get  accurate  sense  of  how  it  operates     Experiments   • Artificially  created  situations-­‐  can  manipulate  variables     • Experimental  group=  exposed  to  IV     • Control  group=  not  exposed  to  IV     • Hawthorne  effect       o Unintended  influence  of  observers  of  experiments  on  subjects     o Observers  presentà  Ppl  act  differently     Using  existing  sources     • Cost  efficient,  limited  to  data     • Secondary  analysis   o Research  techniques-­‐  use  previously  collected  and  publically   accessible  info  and  data     • Content  analysis   o Systematic  coding  and  objective  recording  of  data,  guided  by  some   rational       Ethnics  of  research     • Maintain  objectivity  and  integrity  of  research   • Respect  subjects  right  to  privacy  and  dignity     • Protect  subjects  from  personal  harm     • Preserve  confidentiality     • Get  informed  consent     • Acknowledge  collaboration  and  assistance     • Disclose  sources  of  financial  support     • Confidentially     • Conflict  of  interest     • Value  neutrality     o Investigators=  ethical  obligation  to  accept  research  findings  even  if   the  data  is  opposite  of  their  personal  views  to  theoretically  based   explanations  or  to  widely  accepted  beliefs     o (cant  let  values  get  in  the  way  of  the  job  even  if  the  job  and  your   personal  beliefs  conflict)       reading  graphs     o tables  and  figures=  display  data  and  makes  it  easier  to  develop  conclusions     o cross  tabulation=  show  relation  between  2+  variables     o graphs=  easier  for  public  to  understand       writing  research  report     o finding  info     o textbook,  library  catalog,  computerized  periodical  index,  newspaper,   govt  documents,  instructor,  ask  ppl,  orgs  and  agencies     o writing  report   o focus  on  topic   o make  outline     o work  ahead  of  deadline   o read  paper  aloud     o include  citations  and  references        


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