Mid Term Study Guide
Mid Term Study Guide SOC 2010
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Taylor Bryson on Monday June 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 2010 at Clemson University taught by Ms. McDonough in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology and Anthropolology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 06/27/16
Key Terms Sociology the systematic study of society and social interaction; the systematic study of the relationship between individuals and society Sociological perspective (sociological imagination) perspective from which one sees and understands the connections between individuals and the broader social contexts in which they live Social institution a complex group of interdependent positions that, perform a social role and reproduce themselves over time; also in a narrow sense, any organization in a society that works to shape the behavior of the groups or people within it Six major social institutions government/politics, economy, family/kinship, education, religion, social welfare Institutionalization a process by which certain social relationships and actions gradually come to be taken for granted and are embedded in social organizations or systems as established norms and customs Social theory a set of principles and propositions that explains the relationships among social phenomena Micro sociology addresses interactions among individuals and small groups Macro sociology addresses comparisons among larger groups such as nation states StructuralFunctionalism theory a macro sociological theory that views society as composed of interrelated parts that work together to maintain stability SocialConflict theory a macro sociological theory that views society as characterized by social inequality and that social life is a struggle for scarce resources Symbolicinteractionism theory a micro sociological theory that views society as composed of symbols and that humans attach meaning to these symbols through interaction Structure the recurring patterns of behavior in social life Power the ability to bring about an intended outcome, even when opposed by others Culture the collection of values, beliefs, knowledge, norms, language, behaviors, and material objects shared by a people and socially transmitted from generation to generation Research methods standard rules that social scientists follow when trying to establish a causal relationship between social elements Quantitative methods seek to obtain information about the social world that is in or can be converted to numeric form Qualitative methods attempt to collect information about the social world that cannot be readily converted to numeric form Deductive approach starts with a theory, creates a hypothesis, makes observations, then analyzes data collected to confirm, reject, or modify the original theory Inductive approach starts with empirical observation and then works to create a theory Concepts mental constructs that represent some part of the world in a simplified form Operationalization the process of strictly defining variables into measurable factors; defining fuzzy concepts and allowing them to be measured empirically and quantitatively Variables measures that can change or vary and thus have different values Independent variable variable that is associated with and/or causes change in the value of the dependent variable(s) Dependent variable variable that changes in response to the independent variable. Measurement procedure for determining the value of a variable in a specific case Nominal variable a variable that characterizes an element of a population; a categorical variable Ordinal variable a variable that incorporates an ordered position, or ranking Discrete variable a variable that can assume a countable number of values, with gaps between the values Continuous variable a variable that can assume any uncountable number of values, including every possible value between any two values Hypothesis a statement about the relationship between variables that is to be investigated Correlation a relationship in which change in one variable is connected to change in another variable Causation a relationship where one variable causes a change in another variable Spurious correlation relationship between two variables is caused by a third factor Control variables factors that are held constant to test the impact of the independent variable Validity extent to which a study measures what it is intended to measure Reliability extent to which the results of the study are repeatable across multiple runs Generalizability the extent to which the findings of a study can be apply to other populations or groups of people Hawthorne effect human beings will react differently because they know they are in a study. Sample part of the population that represents the whole Generalize describe patterns of behavior of a larger population based on findings from a sample Random sample highquality sample chosen randomly, so that every element of the population has an equal chance of being chosen Survey study, generally in form of an interview or questionnaire, that provide sociologists with information about how people act or think Interview researcher obtains information through facetoface or telephone questioning Questionnaire researcher uses a printed or written form to obtain information from a respondent Quantitative research collects and reports data primarily in numerical form Qualitative research relies on what is seen in field and naturalistic settings; often focuses on small groups and communities, openended questions, etc. Closedended question imposes a limit on the possible responses Openended question allows the answer to take whatever from the respondent chooses Observation collecting information through direct participation and/or closely watching a group or community Ethnography efforts to describe entire social setting through extended systematic observation Participant observation when a sociologist joins a group for a period to get an accurate sense of how it operates Field research data collection technique in which the researcher systematically observes some aspect of social life in its natural setting Unstructured observation describing what occurs; researcher usually does not have a preconceived idea about what would occur Semistructured observation using a checklist to record what you have found; requires that you have an idea of what will be found Structured observation starting with an operational definition of what you want to measure and counting only the behavior or situation that fits the definition Experiment artificially created situation that allows researcher to manipulate variables Experimental group exposed to independent variable Control not exposed to independent variable Hawthorne effect unintended influence of observers or experiments on subjects Secondary analysis research techniques that make use of previously collected and publicly accessible information and data Informed consent principle by which subjects in any study must know about the nature of the research project, any potential benefits or risks they may face, and that they have the right to stop participating at any time, for any reason Culture the ways of thinking, the ways of acting, and the material objects that together form a people’s way of life Society a group of people who live together in a defined territory, are united by social relationships, and share a culture Culture shock the experience of being disoriented because of a lack of knowledge about an unfamiliar social situation or way of life Material culture the physical or tangible objects produced by people in a particular culture including tools, clothing, toys, works of art, shopping malls, housing, technology, etc. Nonmaterial culture the abstract or intangible objects (ideas) of a culture including values, beliefs, accumulated knowledge about how to understand and navigate the world, and standards or “norms” about appropriate behavior Ideology a system of concepts and relationships that includes an understanding of cause and effect Dominant ideology a widely held and regularly reinforced set of assumptions that generally support the current social system and serve the interests of authorities Dominant culture a culture that permeates the society and that represents the ideas and practices of those in positions of power Subcultures cultures associated with smaller groups in the society that have distinct norms, values, and lifestyles that set them apart Counterculture culture which champions values and lifestyles distinctly opposed to those of the dominant culture Knowledge the range of information, awareness, and understanding that helps us navigate our world Cultural capital forms of knowledge, skill, education, and any advantages a person has which give them a higher status in society, including high expectations Value a deeply held principle or standard that people use to make judgments about the world, especially in deciding what is desirable or worthwhile Culture war an intense disagreement within a society about core values and moral positions Beliefs the specific convictions or opinions that a culture’s people generally accept as being true Norms a culture’s rules and expectations for “appropriate” behavior Mores norms that are strictly enforced, with potentially severe penalties for violating them Folkways group habits or customs that are common in a given culture Culture lag the ways that new technological developments often outpace the norms and laws that govern our collective experiences with these new technologies Symbol anything represents something else Language an elaborate system of symbols that enables complex communication Dialect variant of a language with its own accent, vocabulary, and in some cases grammatical characteristics The SapirWhorf Hypothesis because of their different cultural content and structure, languages, affect how their speakers think and behave Ethnocentrism the judgment of other cultures by the standards of one’s own on the assumption that one’s own is superior Xenophobia the unreasonable fear and hatred of foreigners or people from other cultures Cultural relativism the practice of understanding a culture by its own standards Hegemony a condition by which a dominant group uses its power to elicit the voluntary “consent” of the masses Socialization the process by which individuals internalize the culture of a given society and learn to function as a member of that society LookingGlass Self theory that the self emerges from our ability to assume the point of view of others and imagine how those others see us “I” the part of the self that is spontaneous, impulsive, creative, and unpredictable “Me” the part of the sense of self that has been learned from interactions with others and sees itself from the perspective of other people Generalized other the values and orientations of one’s overall community rather than those of specific individuals Agents of socialization people and groups who teach us about our culture Family major agent of socialization that forms social identity based on things such as race and class, as well as cultural differences in parenting styles School major agent of socialization that forms social identity based on formal and hidden curricula and includes conformity, gender roles, social skills, cooperation, competition, and stratification Hidden curricula implicit lessons of appropriate behavior taught to students as a result of the cultural bases of the schooling environment Media socialization agent that forms social identity based on the words and actions present within the media such as movies, TV shows, video games, and music Social learning theory theory of social behavior that states that human behavior is learned largely from modeling others Peer group agent of socialization that consists of a group of people, usually of comparable age, who share similar interests and social status; forms social identity through the presence of these similarities Occupational socialization the process of learning the informal norms associated with a type of employment Religion agent of socialization that forms social identity through the doctrines associated with its beliefs, its influence is declining as modernization increases Total institutions confining social settings in which authority regulates all aspects of a person’s life Resocialization the process by which individuals replace old norms and behaviors with new ones as they move from one role or life stage to another\\ S.F. view on socialization socialization breaks down society breaks down; produces people that become productive members of society and conform to norms and rules of a culture; creates stability S.C view on socialization most powerful and effective tool used by those in power to maintain the status quo and legitimize social inequalities S.I. view on socialization socialization is how we become human; without social interaction people can develop mental disorders Status a recognizable social position that an individual occupies Status set the collection of statuses that an individual holds Master status one social position an individual holds that stands out or overrides all other social positions Ascribed statuses social positions that are assigned to us from birth or that we assume later in life regardless of our wishes or abilities Achieved statuses social positions that we voluntarily attain, to a considerable degree, as the result of our own efforts Roles the sets of expected behaviors that are associated with particular statuses Role conflict tension caused by competing demands of two or more statuses expectations attached to two or more different statuses Role strain tension caused by the competing demands of two or more status expectations attached to a single status Social construct a concept or practice which may appear to be natural and obvious to those who accept it, but in reality is an invention or artifact of a particular culture or society Dramaturgy an approach to the study of social interaction that uses the metaphor of social life as a theater Social deviance any transgression of socially established norms Positivist/Normative deviance assumes a general set of norms of behavior, conduct and conditions on which we can agree and defines deviance as a violation of a rule understood by the majority of the group Relative/Social Constructionist deviance assumes nothing is inherently deviant and our understanding of the world is in constant negotiation between social actors; defines deviance as behaviors that illicit a definition or label of deviance Critical deviance assumes the normative understanding of deviance is established by those in power to maintain and enhance their power; defines deviances in terms of critiquing the social system that exists and creates such norms in the first place Crime the violation of laws enacted by society Social cohesion the way people form social bonds, relate to each other, and get along on a daytoday basis Mechanical solidarity characteristic of premodern societies where social cohesion is based on the reliable similarity between members of a society; unity is based on shared values and norms and similar functions of all members of society Organic solidarity characteristic of modern societies where social cohesion based is on interdependence, because the members all perform different specialized functions; society functions like a complex biological organism Collective conscience the ideas, values, and norms shared by the members of a collectivity such as a group, tribe, or society Repressive law characteristic of mechanical solidarity, where offenders are likely to be severely punished for any action seen as an offense against the collective conscience Restitutive law characteristic of organic solidarity, where offenders are asked to comply with the law or repay those who have been harmed by their actions Strain theory suggests that strain can lead to deviant behavior/beliefs and occurs when there is a disjunction between culturally defined goals and structurally available opportunities Conformity acceptance of the cultural goals and the institutionalized means to achieve those goals Ritualism rejection the cultural goals but accept the institutionalized means to achieve those goals Innovation acceptance of the cultural goals but rejection of institutionalized means to achieve those goals; exhibits socially unacceptable routes to success Retreatism rejection of the cultural goals and rejection of the institutionalized means to achieve these goals; isolation and withdrawal when without access to the means of success and rejecting goals Rebellion creation of new goals and adoption of new means of attaining them Labeling theory assumes people are stigmatized by social labels of which become part of their identity; argues deviance is the result of how others interpret a behavior and sees individuals who are labeled deviant as often internalizing this judgment as a part of their selfidentity Stigma the shame attached to a behavior or status that is considered socially unacceptable or discrediting Secondary deviance deviant behavior that is a response to the negative consequences of labeling Selffulfilling prophecy insofar as an individual internalizes this label and alters their selfconcept to that of a criminal identity, the individual becomes more likely to continue to act out that label Social conflict theory of deviance main assumption is that the social structure and institutions that make up society affect how we label and treat delinquent/criminal offenders
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