HIST 1010 Exam 2 Study Guide
HIST 1010 Exam 2 Study Guide History 1010
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World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 2 Terms to Know HELLENIC GREECE—CITY SATES • Mycenae: the center of the Greek empire. • Acropolis: a polis that was built on an elevated point. • Cavalry: soldiers that fight on horseback, that weren’t as cheap as the phalanx. • Infantry: soldiers that fight on foot. • Phalanx: a block of foot soldiers that were the cheapest form of war. This opened up the military for the middle class. • Hoplite: an individual soldier in Greece. • Tyrant: a cruel and oppressive ruler—Pisistratus was an example of this. • Oligarchy: a type of Greek government in which citizens who owned a certain amount of property ruled. • Helot: the people that the Greeks enslaved. • Draco: published the first law code of the Athenian polis. • Solon: an aristocrat and poet that was given power to reform the states. HELLENIC GREECE—CULTURE • Marathon: a town in Greece that was the site of the battle of Marathon, in which the Athenian army defeated the Persians. • Darius: a king that was also known as Darius the Great, who ruled the Persian Empire at its peak. • Delian League: a league that was established before the Peloponnesian war started, in which Athens had taken over control of. • Pericles: the most prominent and influential Greek orator/general of Athens during the Golden Age. • Peloponnesian War: a war between Athens and Sparta in which Sparta came out as the victor. • “Know Thyself”: a concept thought of as “important” by Socrates, which means self- reflection. • “Knowledge is Virtue”: a concept that Socrates followed, meaning knowledge and goodness would lead to virtue and that evil is a reflection of ignorance. • Allegory of the Cave: a form of explanation that Plato came up with to prove his point on empirical knowledge being measurable. • Syllogism: strong deductive reasoning. • “Oresteia”: a trilogy written by Aeschylus in which two siblings seek revenge for the murder of their father by their mother and her lover. • “Oedipus”: a play written by Sophocles in which a king unknowingly marries his mother and kills his father. • Hubris: something the Greeks found very tacky, in which one is full of pride—Oedipus is a good example of this. • Plato: one of the 3 major philosophers that was Socrates’ student and was the reason for Socrates’ success. He developed the theory of the Allegory of the Cave. • Socrates: one of the 3 major philosophers that started the big interest and development of philosophy. • Aristotle: one of the 3 major philosophers that was Plato’s student and also a polar opposite of him. He relied on the method of thinking known as syllogism. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 2 • Sophocles: the writer of “Oresteia”. • Aeschylus: the writer of “Oedipus Rex”. HELLENISTIC CIVILIZATION • Alexander the Great: the son of Phillip II, who came into power after his father’s death. He created a mega empire and died due to an illness. • Phillip II: was the reason for the Macedon rise. He used military threats to unify his people. • Stoicism: a philosophical tradition founded by Zeno, which approaches life in a very unemotional way—“accept and endure”. • Epicureanism: a philosophical tradition founded by Epicurus, which focuses on finding pleasure in life. • Skepticism: a philosophical tradition founded by Pyrrho, which approaches life with question, and goes by the fact that our 5 senses can sometimes fool us. • Zeno: the founder of stoicism. • Epicurus: the founded of Epicureanism. • Democritus: a philosopher and scientist that thought the world was made up of tiny invisible particles that one couldn’t see—atoms. • Pyrrho: the founder of skepticism. • Euclid: a mathematician that was known for geometry and writing the book named “Elements of Geometry”. • Eratosthenes: a man that was known for calculating the circumference of the earth. • Aristarchus: a man that was known for developing the heliocentric theory of the earth. • Archimedes: a man that calculated the value of pi. THE ROMAN REPUBLIC AND EMPIRE • Assembly: the group of people that elected the king, and the elected king would serve for life. • Senate: the group of people that were related to the assembly, known as the “elders” that had slightly more power than the assembly. They could override an assembly’s decision. • Consuls: considered the “executive branch” of the republic, and were essentially like governors and were elected for 10 year terms. • Tribunes: people that were essentially “watch dogs” on the consuls, to help make sure the plebeians weren’t being treated unfairly. • Twelve Tables: the event in which the plebeians succeeded in getting their laws written down. • Plebeians: lower class people in regards to the patricians that payed taxes, served in the army, and did most of the work. • Patricians: higher class people in regards to the patricians that held more power. • Hannibal: an army leader that arrived during the 2 Punic War, that marched with his army to the foot of the Italian peninsula. • Latifundia: mega plantation like farms, which is what small farms eventually switched to. • Carthage: the city present during the Punic Wars, and wanted to take Rome over, but didn’t succeed. • “Bread and Circuses”: a superficial means of appeasement—2 things that people really wanted, food and entertainment. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 2 • Tiberius Gracchus: thought that a limit of 620 acres should be put for the latifunda, and the leftover should be divided amongst the small farmers. • Gaius Gracchus: decided that there should be a limit on the price of grains. • Caesar: a conquering hero that morphed to emperor, but was eventually assassinated by the senate. • Octavian/Augustus: Caesar’s successor and grandnephew. His election was what caused a “golden age” for the Romans. • Marius: the first conquering hero to get elected. • Sulla: the second conquering hero to get elected who did everything in his power to promote the senate. • Pompey: a political ally of Caesar’s who fled of foot to Egypt, but got assassinated. • Marc Antony: Caesar’s second successor, that didn’t get elected as emperor. THE RISE OF CHIRTSIANITY • John the Baptist: the man Jesus encountered that baptized people to cleanse their sins. • Paul: the one that emphasized that Jesus was the Son of God, and that father and son (God and Jesus) were essentially the same. • Neo-Platonism: the rise of Platonism, which claimed that the smarter you were, the better off you would be. • Cult of Mithra: an offshoot of Zoroastrianism, which became the biggest rival to Christianity. • Council of Nicaea: said that god and Jesus were one in the same and prevented the fracturing of Christianity. • Martyrs: people that died supporting what they believed in. • Matthew: one of Jesus’ apostles. • “Power to Loose and Bind”: the power given to Peter which meant that he had the power to interpret/make doctrine and what he said would go on in the heavens. • Leo I: the emperor at the time of political decline that stopped Attila and the Huns from damaging Rome. • Attila and the Huns: a tribal confederation led by Attila. THE DECLINE/FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE • Gibbon: wrote a 6-volume book that detailed the end of Rome. • Foederati: army members that were hired to fight, since no one wanted to join the army. • Marcus Aurelius: an emperor in the 2 century that made a bad choice and chose his son as his successor. • Commodus: a terrible emperor that was Aurelius’ son, who chose someone worse than himself as the successor of his power. • Septimus Severus: Commodus’ successor that only cared about the soldiers, and no one else. • Prefectures: new administrative districts that were divided by Diocletian. • Constantinople: named by the emperor Constantine, that became Rome’s new capital. • Milvian Bridge: the battle in which Constantine said he got a message from god to convert to Christianity and also convert others. • Tacitus: a man that wrote about the Germanic people and sounded a bit biased in his writings. He believed that the Germanic peoples were violent and barbaric. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 2 • Comitatus: the agreement between a Germanic lord and his subservient. This is an example of feudalism. • Vassalage: a vassal that has entered into a mutual obligation to a lord or Monarch. • Feudalism: the social system in medieval Europe, in which the nobles held the crown in exchange for military service, vassals were tenants of the nobles, and serfs were required to live on their lord’s land. • Theodoric the Ostrogoth: the ruler of Italy. • Compurgation: a method of trial by taking oath and swearing to the super naturals. • Ordeal: a method of trial by asking the super naturals to prove one’s innocence. THE RISE OF ISLAM • Bedouin: a nomadic Arab group of the dessert. • Muhammad: the last prophet of Islam, who received the Quran by god via the angel Gabriel. • Quran: the holy book of Islam, which is a guide for Muslims on how a good Muslim lives his/her life. • Mecca: the city in which Muhammad started his ministry, but was kicked out of. • Medina: the city to which Muhammad fled to after being kicked out of Mecca. Here he converted a big chunk of the city to Islam. • Umma: a community of people that share a religious faith and commitment. • 5 Pillars: five practices all good Muslims must do in his/her lifetime—faith (embracing one god), praying 5 times a day, fasting during the month of Ramadan (this was the month in which the Quran was revealed to Muhammad), go to Hajj (in a Muslims life, one would go and worship in Mecca, if financially possible, focused on the Kaaba), give charity • Abu Bakr: the caliph that took over after Muhammad died. • Sunnis: members of the larger of the two divisions of Islam, and sided with Mu’awiyah. • Shiites: the supporters of Ali and are members of the smaller division of Islam. • Umayyad Dynasty: the first caliph dynasty that dominated the Islamic world and made their capital at Damasks. • Abbasid Dynasty: replaced the Umayyad Dynasty that moved their capital to Baghdad and entered the Islamic period to the golden age. • Ali: the son in law and cousin to Muhammad that was supposed to secede after Abu Bakr, but got murdered. • Mu’awiyah: the man that the Umayyad and Sunnis supported. • Jihad: the Islamic concept of struggle. ISLAMIC SOCIETY AND CULTURE • “Peoples of the Book”: what the Muslims referred to the Christians as. • Harem: a room in which a man kept all of his wives. • Purdah: a veil that a married woman would wear in public in order to hide her looks from other men. • Polygamy: the practice of having more than one wife at once. • Ibn Sina: a physician and philosopher. • Mahmud of Ghazni: the most prominent ruler of the Ghazni Empire. • Muhammed of Ghur: one of the greatest rulers of the Ghurid Dynasty. • Sufis: a person that practices Sufism. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 2 Book Notes CHAPTER 5: The Greek Experience Greece in the Bronze Age v The Minoans and the Mycenaeans • Bronze age farmers would trade their surpluses with their neighbors. • The Cretans wrote in a form called linear A, but it cant be translated. • The Crete built large structures with many interconnected rooms. - They were known as Mynos. • Minoan politics had a king and a group of nobles that were its head. • Minoan religious life worshipped gods and goddesses, but goddesses much more. • The Minoan society suffered many earthquakes and volcano eruptions. • In Crete, the political unit was the kingdom. - The symbol of the king’s power was his palace. • The Mycenaeans attacked Crete. v The Dark Age • The Dark Age was a series of migrations, disease, disaster, etc. in Greece. • The collapse of the Bronze Age left to a dispersion of the Greek people. • Archaeological sources from the Dark Age were less rich than the periods that came after. • There were 2 poems—The Odyssey and The Liad. The Development of the Polis in the Archaic Age • The development of a polis was the most important political change. - Polis: a city-state that was the basic political and institutional unit of ancient Greece. v Organization of the Polis • Physical/religious/political forms of a polis depended on the place. • Polis included a city with its surrounding countryside. - The countryside was essential to the economy. - People of a polis lived in a compact group of houses. • An acropolis was an elevated area, in which there were temples, altars, and public monuments. • All poleis didn’t have standing armies, and used their citizens for protection. - Rich citizens served as cavalry, and were not as important as the hoplites. o Hoplites: heavily armed citizens who served as infantrymen and fought to defend the polis. • The Greek government was a tyranny. - It used wealth to overcome power. • Democracy was rule by the citizens. - Democracy: a type of Greek government in which all citizens administered the workings of government. - Women were citizens for religious/reproductive purposes. • Some Greeks preferred their rules to be an oligarchy. - Oligarchy: a type of Greek government in which citizens who owned a certain amount of property ruled. v Overseas Expansion • Increases in the population created more demand in good supply. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 2 - This led to them wanting to expand. • The expansion created a larger market for agriculture and manufactured goods. v The Growth of Sparta • Sparta became the leading military power in Greece. - They conquered Messenia and turned the people there into helots. • Lycurgus was a law given that was supposed to develop a new law plan for Sparta. - The citizens were to devote their life to Sparta. - At age 7, training for the army would begin. o In the army, soldiers, were supposed to stand and die, not retreat. • Spartans expected women to be good wives and mothers. - Women also ran estates and owned land. v The Evolution of Athens • Athens faced pressing social and economic problems. • They created a state that was a democracy. • Draco published the first law code of the Athenian polis. - The code was harsh. • An aristocrat and poet named Solon recognized the problems and was given power to reform the states. - He freed all the enslaved people, took away debts on the land, etc. • There were 2 people responsible for making laws—the boule and the ecclesia. Turmoil and Culture in the Classical Period v The Deadly Conflicts • The Greeks in Ionia tried to rebel against the Persians but were unsuccessful, so the Athenians decided to help. - Xerxes, the Persian king, led the Greek invasion. • The Athenians formed allies and together formed the Delian League. • Thanks to the Athenian leader Pericles, the Athenians grew powerful. • Athens and Sparta had a conflict, which led to the Peloponnesian war. - Athens attacked Sicily. • Thucydides was an Athenian general in the Peloponnesian war. v Athenian Art in the Age of Pericles • Pericles turned Athens into a showplace for Greece. • Workers made temples and other building that served as patriotic memorials. - The Parthenon celebrates the greatness of Athens and the goddess Athena. • Dionysus was the god of wine. • Conflict was a consistent element in Athenian dramas, mainly about warfare. • Aeschylus was a dramatist that explored questions like individual and society, good and evil. • “Oedipus the King” is a story about a man that kills his father and marries his mother. • Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides were writers of tragedies. • Aristophanes was the best-known comedian. v Family and Sexual Relations • The Greeks followed what is known today as the “Mediterranean Diet”. • Men and women without work skills worked as paid laborers. • Women were in charged of the household and family possessions. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 2 - They would bear and raise the children. • Hetaerae were women that sold sexual services. • Same sex relationships were accepted in all of Ancient Greece. v Public and Personal Religion • The Greeks were polytheists. - Migration, invasion, and colonization made the Greek’s religion beliefs evolve. - The primary Greek gods were to live and Mount Olympus. o Zeus was the king of the gods, and was married to his sister, Hera. § His children were Ares (god of war), Apollo, Athena, Hercules, and Perseus. • Some Greeks participated in Mystery Religions in which one had to go through an initiation process. - Mystery Religions: a belief system that was characterized by secret doctrines, rituals of initiations, and even the promise of rebirth/afterlife. v The Flowering of Philosophy • Some Greeks would question their beliefs when they encountered other people. - They were known as Pre Socratics. o Pre Socratics began an intellectual revolution. § Hippocrates was the physician/teacher of medicine that wanted to find natural solutions for disease. • The sophists were a group of thinkers who questioned the beliefs of laws and the polis. • Socrates applied philosophy to politics and people. - He questioned Athenian traditions. - He thought that Athenian leaders were motivated by greed and opportunism. • Plato, was Socrates’ student, and was also the reason why we know so much about Socrates today. - Plato’s thoughts were known as Platonic Ideals. o Platonic Ideals: in Plato’s thought, the eternal unchanging ideal forms that are the essence of true reality. • Aristotle was Plato’s student, who thought that everything had a purpose. - Plato’s idealism shaped western philosophy; Aristotle came to have a wider influence. Hellenistic Society • The death of the king Macedonia ushered the Hellenistic Period. - Hellenistic: means “like the Greek”. v From Polis to Monarchy • After the Peloponnesian war, Sparta strived for an entire empire over all the Greeks. • Phillip II was the ruler of Macedonia. - He was assassinated, and his son Alexander then took over. o Alexander of Egypt was proclaimed the pharaoh/leader of Egypt. § He decided to conquer the rest of Asia even after the fall of the Persian Empire. § He died in Babylon. • Ptolemy seized Egypt and ruled it until the death of Cleopatra VII. • To encourage obedience, Hellenistic kings created ruler cults that linked the king’s authority with the gods. v Hellenistic Science and Medicine World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 2 • Aristarchus of Samos argued against Aristotle’s theory of the Earth being in the center of the universe. • Euclid was a mathematician that wrote the book, “The Elements of Geometry”. • Archimedes was known as the greatest thinker of the Hellenistic Period. - He invented a compound pulley. • Eratosthenes concluded that the Earth was a spherical shape. • Hellenistic science was used for purposes of war and peace. • Medical studies weren’t effective in curing infections, diseases, but people still used them to combat illness. v Building a Hellenized Society • Hellenization: the spread of Greek culture, ideas, and traditions to other areas. • A Hellenistic city resembled a modern city. • The Greeks and Macedonians filled all-important diplomatic, political, and military positions. • The spread of Greek culture was wider than it was deep. v The Growth of Trade and Commerce • Alexander’s conquests created new markets that caused trade to flourish. • Merchants would send their goods by water, but trade over land. - The coining of money further facilitated trade. • The trade in silk gave the name of the Great Silk Road. • Slaves were staples of Hellenistic trade. • Most trade, like grain and wood was done over seas. • Hellenistic war ships were long and narrow—built for speed. - Piracy was a problem. • The Ptolemys condemned women and children to work in mines. Hellenistic Religion, Philosophy, and Science • A lot of people turned to mystery religions, and some turned to practical philosophy. v Religion in the Hellenistic World • Temples were built that had priests to spread Greek religious beliefs. • Greeks and non-Greeks worshipped/honored deities. • Mystery religions incorporated both Greek and non-Greek religions and claimed it would save people from the worst things that fate could do. - Isis was a mystery religion in Egypt. o Isis had brought her husband back from the dead. v Philosophy and Its Guidance for Life • Many schools of philosophy emerged. - Epicureanism was a practical philosophy of serenity in a tumultuous world. o Epicureanism: a system of philosophy in which followers viewed a life of contentment, free from fear and suffering, as the greatest good. o Epicurus used observation and logic to study the world, and his followers ignored politics. • Zeno was a philosopher from Cyprus, and he developed a philosophy known as Stoicism. - Stoicism: a philosophy in which the followers were held to be only happy when living in accordance with nature and accepting whatever happened. - Stoics created the concept of natural law. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 2 CHAPTER 6: The World of Rome The Romans in Italy v The Etruscans • The Etruscan culture developed in north central Italy. - The Romans conquered them. • The Etruscans established permanent settlements that evolved into cities resembling Greek city-states. - They traded natural products, like iron. v The Founding of Rome • One myth of the founding of Rome was that the brothers Remus and Romulus founded it. - Romulus ended up killing Remus and named the city after himself. - He also established a senate. o Senate: the assembly that was the main institution of power. - Historians say that the senate elected 7 kings after Romulus. • The Romans adopted the Etruscan alphabet and they also designed elements. • Executive power was in the hands of consuls. - Consuls: the primary executives of the roman republic that commanded the army in battle, administered state businesses, and supervised financial affairs. - At this point Rome became a republic. v The Roman Conquest of Italy • The Celts invaded the Italian peninsula and sacked Rome. - The Romans then rebuilt the city. • The main goal of the roman kingdom was to secure the peace of the gods. - Religious rituals expressed common values. • After the Romans cemented their territory, they built roads. v The Roman State • Social divisions determined the shape of politics. - Political power was in the hands of patricians. o Patricians: the Roman hereditary aristocracy that held most of the political power. • The Plebeians were the common people of Rome. - Plebeians: the common people of Rome. • The Roman’s development on law was their lasting achievement. - “The Law of the Peoples” was applied when the Romans came to contact with more foreigners. o It was widened to the natural law. v Social Conflict in Rome. • The struggle of orders was caused between the Plebeians and the Patricians due to inequality conflicts. - The Plebeians wanted the law codified and published. - The end of the struggle of orders made Rome stronger and more unified than before. Roman Expansion and Its Repercussions v Overseas Conquests and the Punic Wars • The Romans presence in Italy brought them to Sicily. There, they confronted the cartage power. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 2 - The conflict between the Romans and Carthegians led to 1/3 of the Punic Wars. o Punic Wars: a series of 3 wars between Rome and Carthage, in which Rome won. o Carthegian’s general’s name was Hannibal and his ally was Phillip V. o The second Punic War contained the seeds of other wars. o The third Punic War ended up burning Carthage to the ground. • The Romans declared the Mediterranean to be their sea. v New Influences and Old Values in Roman Culture. • Educated Romans spoke both Latin and Greek. • The Romans built large public buildings that had pools. • Male heads of the household were known as paterfamilias. - Paterfamilias: the oldest dominant male member of a family that held great power over his family’s lives. - They had great power over their children. • Romans thought slavery was a misfortune. - Loyal slaves always had the possibility of freedom. v The Late Republic and the Rise of Augustus • Any landless men in Rome were forbidden to serve in the military. - Tiberius Gracchus divided the land among the poor so that they could serve in the military. • Gaius Marius recruited landless men to put down a rebel king in Africa with land in return for their help. • Julius Caesar was a great politician. - He led his troops to victory in Spain and Gaul. • Civil War occurred when Caesar and Pompeii got in competition for power. • Caesar became very popular in Rome, but some senators opposed him. - He was later assassinated. - Octavious was Caesar’s grandnephew and was later name Augustus v The Success of Augustus • Augustus had to rebuild an effective government, pay an army, care for the province of welfare, and address danger factors. - He also held control of the army and also recognized the importance of religion. • He got the honorary title of “the first citizen of the state”. • Augustus would award land to veterans that finished their 20-year sentence. • He also promoted marriage and child bearing. - Men/women that were unmarried without kids, were restricted property. • Virgil was Rome’s great poet. • One of the most important parts of Augusts’ reign was the Roman expansion into North and Western Europe. - Romans didn’t force their culture on the native people. Rome and the Provinces v Political and Military Changes in the Empire • Pax Romana: “roman peace” period during the first and second centuries. • Augustus established the Julio-Claudian Dynasty. - Tiberius and Claudius were some of the rulers. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 2 - Caligula and Nero were very weak. • Nero’s rule led to military rebellion. - The Vespians were soon able to restore order. - The Flavin restored discipline in the army. • Hadnan, an emperor, established an imperial administrative department, separated civil service from military service. v Life in Imperial Rome • People lived in shoddily constructed houses. • Many residents of Rome were slaves. • Fire and crime were problematic and sanitation was poor. - When urban planning/new constructions were happening, conditions were greatly improved. • Rome grew extremely large and feeding the residents became difficult. - Citizens were provided free oil, grain, and wine. • Gladiators were trained in gladiatorial schools. v Prosperity in the Roman Provinces • Veterans were given small pieces of land in the provinces and became farmers. • The romans were the first to build cities in northern Europe. • Due to the expansion of trade, Rome also became very economic. - Britain and Belgium became prime grain producers. - Italy and Gaul produced a lot of wine. - Egypt produced a lot of water, which fed the Roman people. v Eastward Expansion and Contacts between Rome and China • The Parthians established a kingdom in what is now known as Afghanistan and Iran. • Even with war disrupting parts of Asia, trade didn’t stop, and silk was a major commodity. • The Pax Romana was an era of maritime trade. • The Han emperor Wu encouraged sea trade and trade by land. • For romans, china was more of a mythical than real place. The Coming of Christianity v Factors Behind the Rise of Christianity • Roman civil wars left their mark on Judeah. • Jews thought a struggle was near and thought that a messiah would save them. - Messiah: in Jewish belief, a savior who would bring a period of peace and happiness for the Jews. • Pagans: those that believed in a religion other than Judaism or Christianity. v The Life and Teachings of Jesus • Jesus of Nazareth was born to religious Jewish parents. - He left no writings, but his followers soon wrote down his sayings. v Jesus’ Teachings • He preached on eternal happiness, and devotion to god. • His teachings were based on Hebrew scripture. • Some Jews thought that Jesus was a messiah, and other people thought that he was religiously dangerous. v The Spread of Christianity World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 2 • Paul of Tarsus was the catalyst in the spread of Jesus’ teachings. - He was a well-educated Jew. • Paul traveled all over the Roman Empire to promote Jesus’ ideas and wrote letters of advice, which were then copied and used as moral teachings. • Earliest Christian converters were people from all social classes. - Many women were active in spreading it. • People were attracted to Christianity because it was like a mystery religion. - It also promised immortality. - It stressed the idea of striving for a goal. v The Growing Acceptance and Evolution of Christianity • At first, many Romans ignored Jesus and his followers. - Some thought Christianity was one of the worst mystery cults. • Christians were tortured and executed. • Bishops were important and asserted that they had the right to determine the correct Christian teachings. - Bishops: a Christian Church official with jurisdiction over a certain area and the power to determine the correct interpretation of Christian teachings. • Christianity also attracted very educated people. • Thought Jesus was both divine and human—god could be both a father and a son. Turmoil and Reform v Political Measures • Diocletian became the emperor. - Thought his empire was too large for one man to handle, so he got an assistant— Augustus. - He named Byzantium, New Rome. v Economic Issues • Economic problems consisted of inflation and decreased tax revenues. - As a result, Diocletian fixed the maximum prices and wages throughout the empire. - Taxes were payable in goods and services. • Invaders often killed farmers and their families. v The Acceptance of Christianity • Diocletian increased the persecution of Christians. - Constantine stopped all of this and ordered for toleration of all religions. - Slowly, Christianity became the leading religion. • Constantine allowed churches to develop their own law, which was later known as “The Canon Law”. CHAPTER 8: Continuity and Change in Europe and Western Asia The Byzantine Empire v Sources of Byzantine Strength • The Byzantine Empire survived German, Persian, and Arab attacks. - The Xiongnu (Huns) and the Bulgurs had reached the gates of Constantinople. • The Byzantine Emperor, Justinian, conquered much of Italy and North Africa—they made them into a part of the East Roman empires. v The Sassanid Empire and Conflicts with Byzantium • The Sassanid Empire of Persia was Byzantium’s biggest enemy. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 2 - Sassanid depended on agriculture for economic prosperity. o Persian metal works and textiles were exchanged for Chinese silk. - Sassanid made Zoroastrianism its biggest religion. o Due to this, Jesus and Christians faced discrimination. • Expansionist foreign policy brought conflict with Rome and Byzantium. - Under the emperor, Heraclius, the Byzantine defeated the Persians. v Justinian Code of Law • Under the emperor, Justinian, codification took place. - The Justinian Code of Law came about. o The Justinian Code of Law: a collection of laws that were issued by the emperor Justinian. o The Codex was the first part, The Digest was the second part, and The Institutes was the third part. v The Byzantine Intellectual life • The Byzantines prized education. • The most remarkable byzantine historians was Procopius. - He wrote the secret history. • They made advances in military applications. - Invented Greek fire. • They devoted a lot of attention to medicine. - The Justinian plague swept through the whole empire. o This weakened military sources. v The Life in Constantinople • Constantinople was the greatest city in the Christian world. - Merchants could become extremely wealthy; the landed aristocracy had held a dominant social position. • Aristocrats/monasteries invested their wealth in real estate. • In the upper classes, women were kept secret from the outside world. • Marriage was a way of social advancement. The Growth of The Christian Church v The Evolution of the Church Leadership and Orthodoxy • Early Christian communities chose their own leaders. • During the reign of Diocletian, the Roman Empire was divided into dioceses. - Dioceses: a geographic administrative district of the church. - A bishop headed each one. • Christians disagreements with one another led to schisms. • Those who didn’t accept Nicene Christianity were banished. - Their interpretation of Christ was a called a Hershey. o Hershey: a religious practice/belief that was unaccepted by church officials. • The Nicene Creed talks about the trinity, which became the central doctrine in Christianity. v The Western and Eastern Churches • The leader of the western church was the bishop of Rome. - Successors of the bishops were known as popes. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 2 o Popes: heads of the Roman Catholic Church who became political and religious authorities. • The Eastern Church’s head was known as a patriarch. • The Byzantine Christian church was called the Orthodox Church. - Orthodox Church: also known as the Eastern Christian Church, in which the emperors had power. v Christian Monasticism • Christianity spread as a city religion. - They thought living a life of asceticism was better. • Large groups of monks created a lifestyle called monasticism. • Church leaders didn’t approve of eremitical life. • Communal living in a monastery was argued to provide an environment for training the aspirant in the virtues of charity, poverty, and free from self-deception. • The rule of saint benedict was a guide written by Benedict of Nursia. • Benedictine monasticism succeeded because it was materially successful. • Men who lived a communal monastic life were called regular clergy. • Monasticism in the orthodox world was different from the one that evolved in western Europe Christian Ideas and Practices v Christianity rdd Clasthcal Culture • In the 3 and 4 century texts were gathered to form the New Testament. - Some of Jesus’ sermons said to “not be attached to worldly things”. - Saint Jerome was a theologian/linguist and father of the church and translated the New Testament into Latin. • Women were the earliest to convert to Christianity. - “Women of ideal virginity” were women that embraced the ideal virginity in monastic communities. • Christians thought that Jesus would come again. • Most Christians thought celibacy was the better life. v St. Augustine on Sin, Grace, and Redemption • St. Augustine of Hippo was the most influential father in the west. - He was a defender of Orthodox Christianity. - He had an autobiography—“The Confessions” which described his moral struggles. - Augustine held sacraments. o Sacraments: certain rituals that were believed to be an act as conduit of god’s grace. v The Iconoclastic Controversy • The Eastern Orthodox Church had a dispute about icons, which later went on to be called the iconoclastic controversy. - Iconoclastic controversy: conflict over the veneration of religious images in the Byzantine Empire. - Emperor Leo ordered the destruction of icons. Migrating Peoples v Social and Economic Structures • Barbarian groups resided in small villages. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 2 - Men groups settled where barley, wheat, oats, peas, and beans were grow able. • Free men and families were the largest class. How much cattle one had, indicated their wealth. - Barbaric society was patriarchal. v Tribes, Warriors, and Laws • Christians led tribes. - Each chief was chosen for the most powerful family. - The chief often got the title of king. • Warriors would sware loyalty to the chief. • Early barbarian tribes had no written laws. - Some law codes tried to reduce violence. - Crime resulting in personal injury was known as wergeld. o Wergeld: payment for death or injury that set in many barbarian law codes. • Barbarians were polytheistic. v Migrations and Political Change • Barbarians would migrate to search for more regular food supply, better farmland, and warmer climate. • The spreading of Celts was an example of both conflict and assimilation. - Caesar had defeated many Celtic tribes. • Celts and Romans would often inter marry. • The Huns (Attila their leader) attacked the Black Sea area and Eastern Roman empire. - Afterwards, the Barbarians established states ruled by kings. • Odoacer was the Barbarian chieftain that called himself the king of Italy. v Christian Missionaries and Conversions • Religion was a social affair throughout Barbarian Europe. - Religion of chieftain was the religion of the people—missionaries would concentrate their efforts on them. • Some kings accepted Christianity because they thought the Christian god was more powerful. • Bishop Ulfilas translated the bible into the gothic language. • Saint Patrick converted Ireland to Christianity tribe by tribe. • Converting to Christianity of the English began due to Pope Gregory. v The Process of Conversion • Missionaries would preach to get their teachings across. - In the ritual of penance was an instrumental in teaching people Christian ideas. - Penance: a ritual in which Christians asked the priest for forgiveness of their sins, and the priest responded by giving them deeds to do, to overcome the sins. • Confessing ones sins was a public ritual, but soon it became private. • Saints: people who dies in a way that was noteworthy or spiritually heroic. - Christians thought them to be powerful and holy and would often pray to them. Frankish Rulers and Their Territories v The Merovingians and Carolingians • Franks believed Merovich to be a semi legendary figure. • A man named Clovis, converted to Christianity but was known to do so as a pragmatic choice. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 2 • The “Dark Ages” were brutal, and there were a series of civil wars. • Merovingian politics provided women with opportunities. • Finances of the kingdom were merged with the royal families. • The Carolingians replaced the Merovingians. - Carolingians: a dynasty of rulers that took over the Frankish kingdom from the Merovingians. • The Battle of the Poitiers helped the Carolingians to get more support from the church. v The Warrior Ruler Charlemagne • Charlemagne was the most powerful Carolingian ruler. - He divided his entire kingdom into counties. - He appointed officials called “Missi Dominic” that were the “agents” of the lord king. - He also set a cultural revival called the “Carolingian Renaissance”. - It was a rebirth of interest. • Charlemagne left his empire to his son and his son agreed to the Treaty of Verdun. - Treaty of Verdun: a treaty that divided Charlemagne’s territories among his three surviving grandsons. CHAPTER 9: The Islamic World The Origins of Islam v Arabian Social and Economic Structure • The social unit for the Bedouins and the Arabs was the tribe. - Arab tribes were continually evolving on agriculture. • Nomads in Arabia were dependent on Agriculture for things they couldn’t produce. v Muhammad’s Rise as Leader • The earliest accounts of Muhammad were oral. - He was a merchant. - He married a widow name Khadija. • The authorative of Islam is the Quran. - Quran: the sacred book of Islam. • The hadith were a collection of sayings about Muhammad. - Hadith: collections of the sayings and anecdotes about Muhammad. • Sumna was the example of Muhammad’s life. - Sumna: the deeds and sayings of Muhammad, which show the way a Muslim should live his/her life. v The Tenets of Islam • Islam is a strict monotheistic faith based on Muhammad’s teachings and the oneness of god (Allah). • Islam means, “surrender to god”. • The Quran prescribes a strict code of moral behavior. - A believer must also practice the 5 pillars. o 5 Pillars: the basic tenets of Islamic faith. • Muslims believe in heaven and hell (the day of judgment). Islamic States and Their Expansion v Islam’s Spread Beyond Arabia • The umma was an ideal form of community Muhammad gave the Arabs. - Umma: a community of people that share a religious faith and commitment. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 2 • After Muhammad’s death, Islam spread beyond Arabia. • 2 powerful empires divided the Middle East—Greek Byzantine (centered at Constantinople) and the Persian Sassanid (centered at Ctesiphon). - Sassanids believed in Zoroastrianism. • Umar and Uthman were Muhammad’s successors and attacked the Byzantine and Sassanid empires. v Reasons for the Spread of Islam • Historians say that god aided the spread of Islam. • Muslim concept of Jihad “struggle” was the key element. • All soldiers were registered in the diwan. - Diwan: a unit of government. - They received a monthly ration of food for them and their families. v The Caliphate and the Split Between Shia and Sunni • Abu Baker was Muhammad’s father in law, he combined the idea of leader, successor, and deputy. - He sent out military expeditions, collected taxes, and dealt with tribes. • Ali was one of the successors along with Umar and Uthman, but was murdered. - Some followers thought Ali was the designated successor, and those who thought so were the Shia. o Shia: an Arabic term that means “supporter of Ali” that made one of the two divisions of Islam. • Imam: the leader in the community prayer. • Those that accepted Mu’awiyah as caliph and adhered to the practices and beliefs of Muhammad were the Sunnis. - Sunnis: members of the larger of the two divisions of Islam. - They think the interpretation comes from the ulama. o Ulama: a group of religious scholars that Sunnis trust to interpret the Quran and the Sunna. v The Abbasid Caliphate • The Abbasid leader, Abu ‘al Abbas led a rebellion against the Umayyad. - He won general recognition as caliph. • The Abbasids worked to identify then rule with Islam. - They borrow from the Persian culture. - The caliphs claimed to rule by divine right. • The third caliph was Harun al Rashid. • Baghdad became the greatest city in Islam and one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the world. - Hunyan Ibn Ishaq made it the center of medicine. v Administration of the Islamic Territories • Muslims adopted patterns of administration used by the Byzantines in Egypt/Syria and the Sassanid in Persia. - Arab emirs were appointed for the responsibility of public order. o Emirs: Arab governors who were given overall responsibility for public order, maintenance of armed forces, and tax collection. • A rich body of law was developed called the Sharia. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 2 - Sharia: Muslim law, which covers social, criminal, political, commercial, and religious matters. • The central administrative organ was the diwan. - It collected taxes/paid soldier salaries. Fragmentation and Military Changes v Breakaway Territories and Shia Gains • Spain was one of the first territories to break away from the Baghdad, centered in caliphate. • A Shia dynasty claimed their descent from Muhammad’s daughter. v The Ascendary of the Turks • The Turks began to enter the Islamic world in large numbers. • In the 1020s/1030s Seljuk Turks ran Persia into Iraq and Syria. • The Turks brought military strength to the Islamic world. - Played a big role in recovering Jerusalem. • Mongols arrived in the Middle East and proclaimed Chinggis Khan as their leader. • The kingdom of Khanarizm’s ruler was the sun of the Turk slave. • A Mongol army captured the city of Isfahan. • Chinggis’ grandson—Hulegu, led an attack on the Abbasids. - Hulegu ruled the central Muslim lands for 80 years. Muslim Society: The Life of the People v Social Hierarchy • At the top of the hierarchy are caliphs and ruling Muslims. • The second classes of the hierarchy were the converts—these people became merchants, doctors, artists, etc. • The third classes of the hierarchy were the Dhimmis. - Dhimmis: a term that meant “protected peoples”, that included Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians. v Slavery • Muslim expansion captured slaves in war. - The commander Musa Ibn Nusayr took in 300,000 of them. o Women slaves were cooks, cleaners, nursemaids, etc. • There was also a use of eunuch guards. - They were employed as secretaries, tutors, and commercial agents. • Male slaves fought as soldiers. • Any free person could buy a slave, but only a ruler could own military slaves. • In the Islamic world, race had no connection to slavery and it wasn’t a basis for plantation in the agricultural world. • Zanj were black slaves from East Africa that caused massive revolts. • Most slaves were taken from non Muslim people. v Women in Classical Islamic Society • Before Islam, the Arab tribal law gave women no legal power. • Aisha, Muhammad’s daughter would often rally. • Men were dominant in their marriages. • The practice of seclusion was restricted for women. • Wearing a veil (for women) indicated respectability and modesty. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 2 - The word “haram” meant forbidden. v Marriage, Family, and Sexuality • Marriage is important in Muslim culture and a sexually frustrated person was thought to be dangerous to the community. - The bride must be a virgin. - The wife’s responsibilities depend on wealth and occupation of the husband. - Children were the wife’s special domains. - Muslim law permitted divorce. Trade and Commerce • Islam looked favorably on the profit making businesses. • The Quran lists no prohibition in trading with non-Muslims. • The water was the main trade route for Muslims. • Cairo was major for intercontinental trade. • Egypt had become the center of Muslim trade. - Cotton and rice were greatly traded. Cultural Developments v The Cultural Centers of Baghdad and Cordoba • The caliph Harun al Rashid would invite writers, dancers, musicians, poets, and artists to live in Baghdad. • Cordoba competed with Baghdad for cultural leadership of the Islamic world. • Cordoba was a great educational center. v Education and Intellectual Life • Muslim culture valued learning. - Islam taught madrasa. o Madrasa: a school to study Muslim law and religion. - Learning depended on memorization. • Students would have to master a sacred language. - Arabic was spread among all people. • Al’ Razi was the first physician to make a distinction between measles and chicken pox. • Al’ Kindi was the first Muslim thinker to combine Greek philosophy and religious percepts of the Quran. v The Mystical Tradition of Sufism • Islam developed a mystical tradition called Sufism. - They taught a personal union with god. • Rabia, the woman mystic, epitomized a combination between renunciation and devotion. • The Sufis group got leaders called dervishes. - The most famous medieval Sufi was Al’ Arabi. o His work was known as the Meccan Revelation. Muslim Christian Encounters • Christianity did the most to define Muslim identity. - European Christians and Middle Eastern Muslims shared a common Judeo-Christian heritage. - They would often meet in business trade as well. - The Mozarabs didn’t think of the 2 religions to be all that different. o Mozarabs: Christians who adopted some Arabic customs but didn’t convert. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 2 CHAPTER 14: Europe in the Middle Ages Political Developments v Invasions and Migrants • Vikings were good seamen. • The Magyars, along with the Vikings raided villages. • Moravia and Hungary became strong kingdoms. v Feudalism and Manoralism • Aristocratic families increased their authority in local territories due to defense. • Civil wars weakened the power of the kings; they were unable to halt any invaders. • The swearing of loyalty by a knight would be known as a vassal. - Vassal: a knight that has sworn loyalty to a certain lord. - A vassal’s land was known as a fief. o Fief: a portion of land that is used by a vassal (given permission by a lord) in exchange for the vassal’s loyalty. • An abstract state that is a political and social system is known as feudalism. - Feudalism: a medieval European political system that defines the military obligations and relations between a lord and his vassals and involves the granting of fiefs. • Peasants worked the warrior’s estates under the system known as Manoralism. - Manoralism: an economic system that governed rural life in medieval Europe, in which the landed estates of a lord were worked by the peasants under the lord’s jurisdiction in exchange for his protection. - Often they would lose their freedom and become serfs. o Serfs: a peasant who lost their freedom, and became permanently bound to the landed estate of a lord. v The Restoration of Order • Foreign invasions started to gradually decline. • England became divided into shires and a sheriff ruled each. • Enlarging and unifying France began under Phillip II. • The German king, Otto, would defeat many kings in order to build up his power. • Fredrick Barbarossa tried to make the Roman Empire a united state. v Law and Justice • Louis IX, was famous for his concerns of justice. - He lost the French province of Normandy to Phillip Augustus and spent the rest of his reign trying to get it back. • The Magna Carta “the great charter” became the cornerstone of the English justice and law. The Christian Church v Papal Reforms • The practice of simony would involve church offices selling outright. • The roman church encouraged clerical celibacy, but many priests were still married or living with women. • Pope Gregory VII championed a reform and expansion of papal power. - He ordered all priests to give up with wives and children. v Monastic Life • Medieval monasteries provided noble boys with an education. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 2 • The most powerful position a woman could hold in medieval society was the head of a Covent. • The combination of lay control and wealth created problems. - Monks and nuns only concentrated on worldly issue and spiritual observance. • Many people were starting to think the church didn’t meet their spiritual needs so they turned to their Hershey. - Hershey: an opinion, belief, or action counter to doctrines that church leaders defined as correct. v Popular Religion • For Christians, the village church was the center of community life. - Christian calendars were filled with saints’ days. o People thought saints had supernatural powers, and the Virgin Mary became the most popular one. v The Expansion of Christianity • Christianity expanded into Scandinavia. The Baltic Islands, Eastern Europe, and Spain. - They spread due to the creation of dioceses. • The church moved into Central Europe. • Another area of expansion was the Iberian Peninsula. • The movement to expel Muslims was known as the Reconquista. - Reconquista: a term used to describe the long Christian crusade to wrest Spain back from Muslims. - The Christians passed legislation that discriminated against Jews and Muslims. The Crusades v Backgrounds and Motives • The expansion of Christianity to the Middle East was known as the crusades. - Crusades: holy wars sponsored by the papacy for the recovery of the Holy Land from the Muslims. • Popes grained for war by promising spiritual benefits. • Religious zeal led to people going on pilgrimages to holy places. v The Course of the Crusades • The first crusade was successful because of the enthusiasm from the participants. - When the crusaders saw that Jerusalem was taken, they thought they accomplished their mission, but stayed because of the Muslims. • The 4 crusader states were Jerusalem, Edessa, Tripoli, and Antioch. v Consequences of the Crusades • The crusades were a disaster for Jewish-Christian relations. - Legal restriction of Jews increased and they weren’t allowed to trade with Christians. - It also impacted Muslim-Christian relations. The Life of the People v The Life and Work of the Peasants • There were many levels of peasants that ranged from slavesàfree. - Most were serfs, and serfdom was a hereditary condition. • Most European peasants lived in family groups—they had a married couple + children + relatives. • Arabic land of manor was divided between lord and peasantry. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 2 • Peasant work was divided by gender. - Men and boys would farm the land, plow, and care for animals. - Both male and female would harvest and plant. • Peasants mainly ate bread and vegetables because animals were very valuable. v The Life and Work of the Nobles • Nobles paid a few taxes and had power over the people that lived on their land. The noble’s privileges were inheritable. • Noble’s prime obligation was warfare. - Chivalry emerged. o Chivalry: a code of conduct that was supposed to govern the behavior of a knight. o Bravery, generosity, honor, graciousness, and mercy were apart of it. • Noble women played a big role in estate function. v Towns, cities, and the Growth of Commercial Interests • Walls closed European towns. - Most towns were first established as trading centers. - When population increased, towns rebuilt their walls. • Merchants were the most powerful group in towns. • Towns became the center of production and would have their own craft guilds. - Craft guilds: associations of artisans organized to regulate quality, quantity, and price of goods produced. • Artisans would make and sell products in their own homes. v The Expansion of Trade and the Commercial Revolution • Italian cities led the west in trade and dominated trade with Asia and North America. • Merchants from Florence and Milan were also important traders. • The towns Bruges, Ghent, and Ypres, were leaders in long distant trade. • The Han Seatic League was a mercantile association of towns that controlled trade. • The commercial revolution was a direct parallel to economic revolution. - Commercial revolution: the transformation of the economic structure of Europe. - It created a lot of new wealth. v Universities and Scholasticism • Monasteries were located in rural environments. • In the city of Bologna, many schools were established. - The growth of the University of Bologna coincided with the rival of Roman law. • In Sal Reno, medicine became of interest. • Theology was considered the Queen of sciences. • University professors were known as scholastics. - Scholastics: medieval professors that developed a method of thinking, reasoning, and writing in which questions were raised. - Peter Abelard was fascinated by logic and believed that it could be used in problem solving. - The Sumna are a collection of knowledge on all topics created by scholastics. • Lecture was the method of teaching used. v Cathedrals and a new Architectural Style • A cathedral is the bishop’s church, and the administrative headquarters of the diocese. World History 1010—Study Guide Exam 2 - These cathedrals were built in a gothic style. o Gothic: the term describing the architectural and artistic styles that prevailed in Europe. v Vernacular Literature and Drama • Latin was used for university education, scholarly writing, and works of literature. • During the high Middle Ages, some authors started writing in languages from their region known as vernacular literature. - Vernacular literature: literature that is written in an everyday language of a region. • France poets called themselves Troubadours. • Drama was derived from the church liturgy. Crises of the Later Middle Ages v The Great Famine and Black Death • Europe experienced weather changes known as the “Little Ice Age”. - Effects were disastrous. • The disease called The Black Death appeared and scientists described it as the “bubonic plague”. - The Black Death: the plague that spread in Europe, which killed 1/3 of the population. - Most people thought that it was caused by poison or corrupt air. - Economy was also affected. v The hundred Years War • The war had many causes. - The English king, Edward III, argued that the grandson of an earlier French king should have gotten the throne in France. • The war was fought in France and they won, mostly because of Joan of Arc. • The war had an impact on both of the countries. - During the war, England and France promoted nationalism, which led to technology experimentation. v Challenges to the Church • In the 14 century, the Christian church offered little solace. • There was a dispute over the “real pope” which weakened the church. v Peasant and Urban Revolts • The taxations of the Hundred Years War fell heavily on the poor. - Some got angry that it would go on in to the countryside and kill others. • Eventually the parliament imposed a poll tax on all the citizens to fund the war. • The king, Richard II, agreed to charters in order to ensure the freedom of the peasants.
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