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Final Exam Study Guide MC 101

by: Kayla Peel

Final Exam Study Guide MC 101 MC 101

Kayla Peel
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mc 101 final exam study guide
Intro to Mass communications
Dr. Chris Roberts
Study Guide
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayla Peel on Tuesday June 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MC 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Chris Roberts in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Intro to Mass communications in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 06/28/16
MC 101 FINAL EXAM NOTES Final Exam: Wednesday June 29, 2016 at 8a.m.  Communication: the process of creating shared meaning. o Types:  Intrapersonal: inside yourself  Interpersonal: one­on­one communication  Group: one or two people communicating with a large group of people;  only one leader.  Mass Communication: use a mass medium to send a message to a large  audience that we may or may not see.  Differences: o Generally one­way communication; little feedback o You need a “channel” or “device” or “media” to  communicate.  Channel Types:  Paper   Electronic  Chemical (Film)  Goals: o Inform o Entertain o Persuade  Media = “Mediated” o To go between  Media does NOT equal Medium o Media is plural  Mass Media help provide society’s “dominant” culture  Transmission Model o Transfer of meaning  Cognitive Processing  Noise: the definition of anything that gets in the way of creating shared meaning o Environmental: You actually can’t hear/see it  Something is wrong with the channel o Psychological: someone’s too angry, sad, etc. o Physical someone’s drunk! (or other impairment) o Semantic: Sender’s message has words the receiver cannot understand o Cultural: we have our own culture and we know what we are talking about and  some other people may not understand it.  We say ‘Roll Tide’  Cultural Imperialism: when one nations culture overwhelms/overtakes another nations  culture.  Short head, Long tail o Short head: the few products that millions of people consume o Long tail: lots and lots of products that sell a few  Media is not a Monopoly o Monopoly: one organization that does everything  They are an Oligopoly o Oligopoly: a few companies control a large percentage of a market  Problems:  “news” may become secondary to business  Content becomes secondary to sales  High Brow (ideas                  Things                           Low Brow  Two Ideas from McLuhan o The medium is the message o Global village  Does media change or reinforce society? o It does both  Four Theories of the Press Type Owner “Truth” 1. Authoritarian Privately owned It is what the owner says  it is. 2. Communist State owned We are going to reach  this perfect state. 3. Libertarian Privately owned Is out there, we have to  find it. 4. Social Responsibility Privately owned Is out there, but be  ethical as we pursue it. 5. Developmental Privately owned What authority says.  Censorship = Government o True for any type of government  Criticisms of the Theories: 1. It’s not a “real” theory. 2. Where’s the audience? 3. Other types of societies?  Edmund Burke (1729­1797) o The Fourth Estate 1. Clergy 2. Nobility 3. The commoners with power 4. The press – “more important by far than they all.”  Government vs. Mass Media: Adversarial relationship  Who sets the agenda? o Mass Media  Friday news dump: releasing bad news or documents on a Friday afternoon in an attempt  to avoid media scrutiny.  Framing: the unavoidable process of selective control over how people perceive the  meaning attributed to a media “text.” o You decide what to put into (and keep out of) your message.  Priming: how mass media affect the standard by which people evaluate political figures  and events. o What’s the first thing you think of when you think of something? Media helped  put that thought in your noggin.  Government Control o Little control of print and internet o More control for over­the­air broadcasting  J.B. Stoner, 1924­2005 o Racist who ran for government position.  FCC’s ‘Equal Time’ rule: If one candidate appears on non­news programming, then other candidates have the right to equal time on the air. o Doesn’t apply to news. o None of these rules apply to cable  Ned Ludd, namesake of the “Luddites”  “The Medium if the Message” – McLuhan o “The medium is the metaphor” o What he means: Particular medium can only sustain a particular level of ideas o Images make no assertions. Print make assertions.  We are all thinkers o “Everything bad is good for you”  Steve Johnson  The “Sleeper” effect  First Amendment: “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free  exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the  people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.”  Speech Protection Political Speech       Artistic Speech        Commercial Speech         Indecent Speech More Protection Less Protection  Alien & Sedition Acts o Get stuff from book  Who’s the Press? o No real definition; whoever is conducting any journalistic activity  The Balancing Effect: how we balance free speech against other things that matter to us  in society. o Political Speech   “The Congress shall have power to prohibit the physical desecration of  the flag of the United States.” – proposed amendment  Tons of protection; ton of freedom o Public Airwaves  Internet protection o Security  Prior Restraint: when the government says you’re not allowed to say/print  something. o Public Endangerment  There are times when your speech can cause physical harm to those  around you. o Time, Place, and Manner  The Key Areas of Media Law 1. Personal Rights  Defamation: Get definition from book  Libel and Private Figures 1. Published 2. Identified 3. Inaccurate 4. Hurt Reputation  Libel and Public Figures 1. Published 2. Identified 3. Inaccurate 4. Hurt Reputation 5. Reckless disregard for truth and/or actual malice  NY Times vs. Sullivan  “Fair Comment”: You have the right to state your opinion; its ok to  criticize  Privacy 1. False light 2. Publication of private facts 3. Intrusion 4. Misappropriation 5. Intentional infliction of emotional distress  Pornography vs Obscenity  Porn is usually legal whereas obscenity if not legal 2. Intellectual Property Rights  Fixed form of an idea 3. News­Gathering Rights  Sunshine law= open meetings  Meetings of the government should be made public  Freedom of information act  Public access to government documents, etc.  Shield laws  Rights of reporters to not reveal confidential sources.  Media Theory: A History o Starting with WWI propaganda  American and German world war one posters both suggesting that God  was on their side.  Models of Mass Communication Hot Media vs Cold Media Require you to stay focused Not as demanding for focus  Media Effects: o Direct Effects (Very Powerful)  Aristotle  Pictures in our heads*  The first model  “Vaccine” theory (or hypodermic needle, or bullet) theory: We  shoot you with a message and you instantly think about it.  No one today thinks this is accurate. o Limited Effects (Don’t really affect us at all)  Opinion Leaders, or The two­step flow: we influence other people and  they influence us right back. They get this influence information from the  mass media. o Mixed Effects (Sometimes affect us and sometimes don’t)  Media affect different people in different ways at different times.  Media are gatekeepers.   Decide what is going to be shown and what is not.  Gatekeeping Today (not what they used to be) o Dirty pictures o Killings o Etc.  Media set agendas.  We help decide or do decide what to talk about.   We don’t tell them what to think, but what to think about.  Media confer status.  We decide what is important and what is not important  “dominant” culture  Uses & Gratifications  Surveillance  Divert Ourselves  Socialization  Spiral of Silence: we want to be in the majority, so we’re quiet when  we’re in the minority.  “Personal Relationship”: a fan’s “relationship” with a media figure.  Parasocial Interaction*  Cumulative Effects Theory: over time the effects build up. Repeated.  Social Learning Theory: we learn how to act in society by watching mass  media figures.  Third­person Effect: the idea that media affect others more than it does  you.  Consistency Theory: we choose media that are consistent with our beliefs,  and that reinforce our beliefs.  Dissonance: when things are not consistent   Cognitive Dissonance: competing idea in your heads can make  your brain hurt. We like harmony in our thought lives.  Individual Differences Theory: because people are different, we can use  those differences to create shared meaning.  Cultivation Theory: we are cultivated to think that the world is meaner that it really is.  Television: 1 in 10, weekly  Real Life: 1 in 100, yearly  The “W’s and H” list o What’s your problem? o Why not follow the rules? o Who wins, who loses? o What’s it worth? o Who’s whispering in your ear? o How’s your decision going to look?  Law is not the same as Ethics o Legal/Ethical  Speed Limits o Illegal/Unethical  Child abuse o Legal/Unethical o Illegal/Ethical  Rosa Parks  Codes of Ethics  Some Ethical Approaches o Virtue  Golden Mean – Aristotle  Avoid extremes and seek moderation o Categorical imperative  Absolutist  Immanuel Kant o Do only what you want to be a “universal law.” Treat  people as ends and not as a means. o Utility  Utilitarianism  John Stuart Mill o Do the “most good” or the “least harm” – but don’t treat  people as a means to an end. o Veil of ignorance  John Rawls  The veil of ignorance as a matter of justice.  What is News? o Impact  The more people affected, the bigger the impact. o Timeliness  Stuff that happens right now is news, not things that happened a while  ago. o Currency  News about the news  Related to time in some ways and related to impact in some ways o Prominence  The more prominent people are likely to make news. o Proximity  The closer you are to something, the bigger the news.  Local news is more important o Conflict  Not getting along is good news. o Bizarreness  EX: Naked man bites a dog o The More news values in a story, the more newsworthy.  It is often difficult for a journalist to determine the truth of a story. o Information changes over time. o “News is the first rough draft of history.”  A History of News o Colonial Period: 1690­1780  A Zenger of a decision  Published accurate but offensive to the government in New York  Tried for libel   British Government Impose the Stamp Act o If you are going to publish a newspaper, you have to pay a  tax. o Partisan Period: 1780­1830  Press was free.  There was not objective journalism here  Were very politically focused, bought by the wealthy o Penny Period: 1830­1890  The Sun  Owned by Benjamin Day  Sold for a penny o People could afford it so they bought it.  Advertised to make money  Inverted pyramid style of writing  Most important to least important.  Moses Yale Beach  The Associated Press o Yellow Journalism: 1890­?  The yellow kid; one of the first cartoon strips  Objectivity o Put information out there that is as truthful as it can be and let the audience make  the decisions themselves. o Originally: Economics. o Today: Ethics, economics, etc. o Bias?  Yes, they like:  Change  Ethnocentrism  Hey, Mabel (interesting stories)  Open government  Readership for newspaper is down o Our age group is not reading them o Revenue fell 60% since 2005  News hole: The available space for news/editorial content around all those ads.  What makes newspapers special: Diverse content o Strong ties, weak ties o The “Wall”  Publisher  Makes major decisions  Oversees editorial and business divisions  Editorial  Writes and edits  Produces news, features, and graphics  Business  Sells advertising  Prints and distributes newspapers  Who’s Who in the newsroom? o Publisher: Head honcho, sets policy, financial decisions o Editor in Chief: Cover, content, overall direction o Managing Editors: Production, graphics, proofing o Senior Editors: Plans features, sections, Web, editorial page o Line Editors: Work directly with reporters, edit, write, plan o Staff writers/photographers: the worker bees o Copy desk: Final edits on stories, headlines o Art Director: Cover, photo/graphics direction o Artists/Designers: Graphics, page design, layouts o Clerks: answer phones, make lists, etc.  Ownership o Privately Owned o Publicly Traded  A Brief History:  o Newsreels  Residual news o New media scare old media  when radio came out, newspapers became scared o Edward R. Murrow  Broadcasting in 1940 near Trafalgar Square, London o TV News: 1950s  Camel News Caravan  o TV News: 1960s  Finally, able to provide live news  1962 – Telstar 1 is first commercial satellite. TV started to use it soon. o TV News: 1970s  Video tape o TV News: 1980s  First cable news channel (CNN)  First efforts to try and go online (viewtron) o TV News: 1990s  Fox News Channel ­ 1997  News Industry Players o Anchor o Correspondents – out there gathering the news o Videographers – job to shoot video and nothing else o Field producers – original reporting, behind the camera o Consultants – people hired to say what they want to see o Technical specialists  Media bias? o Conservative: some say media have a liberal bias because they are anti­business,  pro­big government, anti­family, anti­religion and anti­Republican. o Liberal: Some say media have a conservative bias because they are big business  and big business is inherently conservative. o Centrist o YES  Controversies o Pseudoevents: fake, made­up  Created just to draw cameras  History of the book o Papyrus: a reed grown along water ways used to make books and paper  Does not last long.  Vegetable o Parchment: pages made out of animal skin  Lasts a long time o Paper: Circa 105 CE (thanks, China) o Moveable type: (think scrabble letters) o Johannes Gutenberg  Invented oil based ink to be pressed onto paper  Gutenberg press  Technological determinism: you think or act differently because of the technology in  your life. o Technology determines how we act and think as humans.  Literacy o Bibliophiles: Love to read o Casual Readers: read the popular releases o Required Readers: have to read for work, school, etc. o Illiterates: Don’t know how to read o Alliterates: can read but choose not to  More books published o The book sale rises 61% o Very easy to produce books. o U.S. ‘traditional’ books published in:  2002: 215,000  2012: 347,178  Most books lose Money  Books are long­tail products o Big publishers (Oligopoly)  Random House  Simon and Schuster  Harper Colling  Hachette Book Group  Macmillan o Small presses  Do a few books a year o Other Presses  University presses – publishing stuff that has some academic merit  Vanity Presses (now dying)   I want to publish a book but no one has the money to do it for me.  When you sell a book you split the profit.  Types of Books o Trade: general interest fiction and nonfiction sold to the public  Books for a great big audience o Educational: used for school  College sales: $4.5 billion  K­12 sales: $4.4 billion o Reference: Encyclopedia  o Professional: Law books, computer programming books  Aimed at a narrow audience for specific areas. o Religious: The bible  Bring in about half billion dollars a year o gBooks: google play books.  Industry Players o Writer: author of the books o Acquisition Editor: reads manuscripts and acquire the books to decide to accept it  or not. o Developmental Editor: work with the author to try and make the book better. o Copy Editor: reads the book one last time to catch mistakes.  Royalties o Advance in money while writing, and then you get paid after you pay back the  royalties after selling books.  We care about movies; it’s a hot medium  Movie Marketing Windows 1. North America Theaters…  First run in US theaters  Total sales rose 8% during 2015  1.32 billion tickets sold in 2015, up 4% 2. Non­theater venues…  Pay­per­view (at home or in hotels) and on airplanes, for example 3. Sweet DVD sales/rentals… 4. Digital sales…  Some are available online before DVD 5. TV sales… 6. Sell it at the international box office  More money outside of US than in  Product placement  A U.S. Chief Export: CULTURE  Persistence of Vision o The retina of an eye holds the vision of an image for a brief second and then fades away, enough images together will show motion  1890s:  o George Eastman provided film in 1889 o Thomas Edison worked on the camera  1880s/1890s: o our man in Menlo park o the first two motion pictures ever created: Bill Dickson’s Greeting, and  “Monkeyshines No.1”  Kinetograph: o Greek for “to write movement”  Kinetoscope: o Greek for “to view movement” o One eye at a time, 1891  24 Frames Per Second  First Documentary: 1922 o Nanook of the North  1927: The first “talkie” o The Jazz Singer  Movies are an Oligopoly  The Hays Code: 1930­50s o What you can and cannot play  VOLUNTARY ratings o G – General Audiences  All ages admitted. This movie contains little or no content that would  offend parents for viewing by children o PG – Parental Guidance Suggested  Some material may not be suitable for children. Parents are urged to give  parental guidance as the motion picture contains some material that  parents might not find suitable for their young children. o PG­13 – Parents Strongly Cautioned o R – Restricted  People under 17 years may only be admitted with parental guidance o NC­17 – No One 17 and Under Admitted  This film is exclusively adult in content and people under 18 are not  admitted. o No X RATED  1920s: “Image dissector” slices pictures to send across electromagnetic spectrum o Philo T. Farnsworth was 24 when he received a patent in 1927 for his “image  dissector.” He ended up with $1 million.  Late 1940s: Radio offers the model (and programming) for TV.  After WWII: The Kinescope o Made films of live TV, so live shows could be broadcasted. (Before the days of  video magnetic tape.  Who controls TV’s power? o Pat Weaver (1908­2002)  Networks produced programming, not advertisers  Multiple sponsors for a show = more $  Created NBC’s Today and Tonight shows  Movie’s first response to TV o Naah (except Disney)  Today, TV programs come to us vie: o Networks  ABC, CBS, NBC, Fox, PBS  Networks and Affiliates  NBC o Provide programming for affiliates o Own a few stations (owned and operated, or “O&Ss”) o May pay affiliates for carrying programming o Make money via ads.  Affiliates o Carry network shows o Receive space for ads inside network shows o May pay networks for carrying shows or cable  retransmission o Keep ad money for local shows o Keep/share ad money from syndication shows o Owner: Hearst corporation o Cable companies  But Comcast owns NBC o Local programming  News, mostly o Syndicated programming  Jeopardy!  Shows that are not network shows  One station per local market   Stations may/may not pay for it  o Online sources  Netflix, Amazon, Hulu  ‘Sweeps’ ratings schedule for local TV stations o August 2016 o October 2016 o February 2017 o May 2017 o Matter more to local markets than the the networks  Networks get info every day  Local only four months out of the year  1950s: Community Antenna TV, which became “cable”  First real network that was satellite only o HBO   1975 debut brought premium content to TV  First ‘Free’ cable network o WTBS  Its content  The “must carry” rule puts local stations on cable…  What is public relations? o Public relations is the art and social science of analyzing trends, predicting their  consequences, counseling organization leaders, and implementing planned  programs of action which serve both the organizations and the publics interests. o The management function that establishes and maintains mutually beneficial  relationship between an organization and its publics o The truth, well told  What (GOOD) PR is not o Hype o Spin o Being “good with people” o Free advertising o Throwing good parties o PUBLIC RELATIONS IS NOT ADVERTISING o PR IS NOT JOURNALISM  PR roles o Research  Define problems  Identify publics  Test concepts  Monitor the progress of campaigns  Evaluate campaign effectiveness o Counseling  Advise management in decision making  Suggest policies for internal and external communication  Train personnel to promote a positive corporate image o Communication  With internal publics: those within organizations, including employees  and stockholders.  With external publics: those outside organizations, including the  community, news, media, customers, and legislators  What’s the “publics”? o Internal  Employees  Stockholders  Members  Etc. o External  Lawmakers  Regulators  Competitors  Customers  News Media  Etc.  A brief history of PR o A Greek sophist, hired to use rhetoric to make arguments on behalf of the ones  who hired them. o The founding PR fathers  Ivy Lee  Edward Bernays  Among the most 100 important people in the last century o “Torches of Freedom”  PR’s key functions o News Management  Create and distribute messages to generate favorable publicity  Develop and maintain contact with reporters (media relations) o Community Relations  Maintain good relations with government and community groups  Use corporate aid and sponsorship o Crisis Management  Repair a client’s public image following an error or accident  Guide corporate response to an emergency o Lobbying  Monitor government activities  Maintain relationships with legislators  Disseminate information to legislators supporting lays favorable to clients  Influence legislators voting through personal contact  Old­school brands o Quaker oatmeal  Integrated Marketing Communication o Overall brand strategy involving advertising, public relations, sales promotion,  interactive media. o EX: Small Business Saturday  Why advertise… o Because it’s the cheapest way to get attention.  Different communication channels have different advertising characteristics o Newspapers  General audience  Ad typically gets thrown away o Magazines  Longer shelf life  Ads look better  Tie into editorial content  Specialized o TV  You get pictures  Memorable  Diverse market o Radio  Segmenting the audience and then serving that audience o Online  Sound and video of radio and television  You get to go where you want to go with this advertising o Out­of­home  Advertising History o 1869: The first agency  F. Wayland Ayer  How ad agencies are paid: commissions  Agency Structure o USP: Unique Selling Proposition o Account Management  Coordinates agency services for the client.  Represents the client within the agency  Puts together teams for ad campaigns  Coordinates the pitching of new accounts o Research  Plans, executes, and interprets research  Audience research: gathers data about target consumers (demographics  and psychographics)  Copy research: tests the effectiveness of ad content through pretesting and  post testing o Creative  Designs and produces advertisements  Creates ad copy  Designs the visual styles of ads  Hires and directs freelance illustrators, graphic designers, photographers,  and musicians  Produces and casts radio and television spots. o Media  Allocates advertising budgets among print, broadcast, and other media  Purchases media space and time  Oversees and maintains quality  ‘Puffery’ is legal o subjective; without precise meanings WHAT WILL BE ON THE EXAM (from Game Show)  a corporation’s coordination of PR and advertising efforts: integrated marketing  communication.  “Media” is a plural world  CPM stands for: Cost per Thousand  Third­person effect  Priming  Framing  Global Village  Selective exposure: when you only consume media that reinforce your beliefs  Edward Bernays term for public relations: engineering of consent  True: it is legal to burn an American flag  False: Images make assertions. (Images don’t make assertions, Words do)  The New York Sun shifted the mass media’s revenue base from Subscribers to  advertisers  In the 1840’s a group of newspapers saved money by creating this news cooperative:  associated press  Using a word that people do not understand could insert semantic noise in your message  Four types of communication: o Interpersonal: between two people o Intrapersonal: within yourself o Group: leader, between more than one person o Mass: got to have a channel and less feedback  External publics for PR: o News Media o Customers o Regulators/lawmakers o Competitors  Three purposes of mass media o Entertain o Inform o Persuade  Most speech protection o Political o Artistic o Commercial o Indecent  AND MORE!


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