Psych 2300: Midterm Study Guide
Psych 2300: Midterm Study Guide Psych 2300
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Midterm 1 Study Guide THEORIES - Falsifiable - Patrimonial [the simplest theory is probably the best] - Weight of the Evidence [can change overtime as new data comes in and information changes] - Supported by data THEORY DATA CYCLE See end of Study guide for blank copy to fill in for practice Data doesn’t support Theor Research Research Hypothes Data Questions Supporting data strengthens theory Psychology: rigorous approach of investigating things/ addressing psychological phenomena - Everyone is consumer of research [effected by outcome; directly or indirectly] - Empiricism: collecting data and using it to develop, support, and/or challenge a theory 3 TYPES OF RESEARCH Basic: Gathering Basic Knowledge - EX: Can a 2 month old infant discern differences between four and six objects? Translational: solving current issue with knowledge you have acquired; making it usable for life - EX: Children learn languages faster, younger – what teaching methods facilitate their learning? Applied: testing and questioning in a specific population to specify knowledge - EX: To improve employee health, a standing desk is tested in an office setting EXPERIENCE & INTUITION - Not a valid force to shape beliefs because has confounds, no comparison group Confederate: someone who is working in scientific group, and the other people in the group does not know that he/she/they are on the experimenter side of the experiment; not the subjects side. INUITION: Faulty Thinking - Swayed by a good story ------(learning styles used as an excuse) - Availability heuristic ------(confidence does NOT = accuracy) - Present/present bias ------(look at where treatment & int. outcome there) o Form of confirmation bias, which is motivational [rainy day theory] Thinking What We Want - Chery Picking Evidence ------(focus on what supports claim) - Biased Questions ------ (questions, or wording to get specific answers) - Bias Blind Spot ------(don’t know that YOUR bias is present) Journals: **Empirical is Peer reviewed** VARIABLES - Anything that takes up multiple [at least 2] levels - Independent Variable Taking on multiple levels manipulated by experimenter - Dependent Variable Taking on multiple levels affected by independent variable – measured - Constant a variable HELD to One level - Conceptual variables : variables that cannot be measured out directly; they are abstract o [CONSTRUCT]: job satisfaction, company growth, stress, coping, focus etc. - Operational variables : measurable or manipulated variable matched to conceptual variable If meds works # symptoms decreased from taking pill // stress 1(not at all)–5(very) 3 FORMS OF OPERATIONALIZATION - Self-report did you text while driving: yes or no? - Observational observing to see if you text while driving o Measured Operational cannot change but may alter how measured 2 levels: left handed or right handed [add ambidextrous for 3 level] o Manipulated Operational infinite levels [variables = categories & Levels = subcategories] Variables = Handedness, Paper type Levels = RH, LH, AMB. & papyrus, college ruled, etc.* Conceptual definitions: defining the conceptual variable by giving it observable values CLAIMS find variables; THEN look at relationship – classes, cannot move from one to other Frequency: basic stats facts about a population Association: two variables correlate [correlation ≠ causation] Causal: 2 variables correlate - independent variable change causes change in dependent variable VALIDITIES - appropriateness for a conclusion or decision Construct: operationalization of variable: Assess creativity - # of projects– does # projects reflect creativity? External: Generalizability can I apply it to greater population? Results extend beyond study? Representativeness – how representative is sample of pop of interest Internal: all confounds removed? [Variable influencing outcome- explanation for outcome] Statistical: How well were the statistics measured/calculated: Margin of error - [range for error in data Blank one in back of study guide—chart embedded later as well for more complete understanding Frequency Claim Association Claim Causal Claim # of Variables 1 2 2 Relationship Prevalence in Correlation [≠causation] Causation [IV -> DV] population Measuring Measured Both measured At least 1 manipulated Variables Construct Variable measured Variable Operationalization Variable Operationalization Validity well External Rep. sample - Rep. sample- Generalizable Rep. sample – Generalizable Validity generalizable association results Internal confounds [random Validity assignment*] Statistical Margin of Error** Strength of relationship [r] Covariance – internal Validity Statistical significance*** validity - & Temporal Precedence**** *Random Assignment: accounting for confounds by ensuring that no bias influenced who was in what group **Margin of error: how much error [range for error] is there in data; How different/similar are groups ***Statistical significance: measuring what is ACTUALLY going on? Type 1 Error = False + :: Type 2 Error = False – ****Temporal Precedence: independent before dependent variable, causing change in dependent. Validity & Reliability See the end of the study guide for a blank version to fill in for studying!) 4 Validitie s Internal Externa Statisti Constru l cal ct Construct Validity 3 2 Empirical Subjective Criterion Converge Discrimina Face Content Validity nt Validity nt Validity Validity Validity Reliabili Validity must have reliability ty Reliability ≠ Validity similar scores each Reliability is NECESSARY, NOT time SUFFICIENT For validity - Test- Retest -Interrater -Internal Bringing It All Together Use the blank table at the end and fill in all of the information, thinking of examples for each Here is the claim chart from earlier embedded into the larger one Definition Frequency Claim Association Claim Causal Claim Verbs Soft & vague Tied & finite Variables 1 2 2 Variable Relationship Prevalence in Correlation Causation [IV -> population [≠causation] DV] Measuring Variables Measured Both measured At least 1 measured Statistical Validity Margin of Strength of Covariance Error 1 relationship [r] - Temporal statistical precedence 3 2 - Internal validity significance External Validity Generalizability Statement/frequ Variable Results or Findings of… ency Association Internal Validity N/A N/A random 4 assignment Construct Validity Was variable Accurate Variable Variable measured measurement operationalization operationalization accurately? Subjectiv Face Validity Looks like what you want to measure Is measure reasonably related to e construct? Content addresses all parts of construct | Theory guided |constructs operationalization Validity captures Empirical Discriminant Measure not correlated/less Depression survey has 5’s, addiction * Validity associated with measured of other survey shouldn’t automatically have all construct r=0 5’s. Convergent Measure should correlate/more Score (x) on depression survey; should Validity associated with measure of same get similar score on 2nd depression construct r=1 survey r=1 Criterion Measure correlated with a relevant Known Groups Paradigm 5 Validity outcome Future/expected outcomes *Discriminant Validity = Divergent Validity 1Random Assignment: accounting for confounds -ensure no bias influences which person(s) received which treatment(s) 2Margin of error: how much error [range for error] is there in the data; How different/similar are the two groups 3 Statistical significance: is it measuring what is ACTUALLY going on in the environment? Type 1 Error ------------------- (say true when false) ------------- False + Type 2 Error ------------------- (say false when true) ------------- False – 4Temporal Precedence: independent variable before dependent variable, causing change in dependent variable. 5Known Groups Paradigm: groups established/known to be different in construct on interest – measure can determine this [not depressed vs. depressed] [none, mild, moderate, or severe] Reliability Measurement compared to another measurement See the end of the study guide for a blank copy of this table to use for practice What is it Measure Note Test- Use test to measure variable at time a If variable fluctuates over time; Retest Use test to measure variable at time b can’t use compare both of the reports to see if remain stable during testing time same Interra 2+ people observevariable(s) with kappa is negative: they are ter same test Kappa (κ) measuring opposite constructs, or Compare both observer’s info; ideally that definitions were not clear similar enough CODING SYSTEM likely both put same person in same group? Interna topic ‘x’ questions have similar Cronbach’s Closer to 1, the better the alpha l answers; topic ‘y’ questions have alpha (α) (1&3) = x | (2&4) = y | for (1&2) similar answers Measures: (1&4) (2&3) & (3&4) want - r | magnitude (1&3) & (2&4) want + r α = avg of 6 correlations Measuring Reliability Kappa - Cronbach’s Alpha – Pearson’s R - Slope Direction & Strength (-1 to 1) Convergent: close to 1 Discriminant: can be negative - Spread- The larger your spread the weaker your strength o The more points the better [a graph with 1 point will have a perfect correlation] - Negative correlation : (-1-0) : starts high on left and has downward slope toward right - Positive Correlation : (0-1) : starts low on left and has upward slop toward right - No Correlation : (0) : straight across line at any point Scales of Measurement - Categorical: categories o Colors, shapes, locations, names, labels etc. o Numbers if they are associated with different categories - Quantitative: meaningful numbers Nominal - meaningful numbers Ordinal - ranks- comparison between categories where one is above/bestw ndotrdr 1 , 2 , 3 Good, better, best Interval- no true zero 0 = point relative to another - 0 RELATIVE to something else Ratio- true zero 0 = absence of variable 0 Kelvin means there is NO atomic movement [psychology: non-measurable things like happiness; conceptual variables] o Levels are the number of options you have to answer a question If your options for a question are yes, maybe, and no Then that measurement has 3 levels Belmont Report & APA Ethical Principles - To mitigate unethical research RISK vs. BENEFIT See end of Study guide for blank chart to fill in for practice BELMONT APA Purpose Beneficenc Beneficence & Protection from risk e Non Maleficence Cost/benefit analysis Do no harm Protect welfare and rights of all involved Aware of self & impact on ability to help Fidelity & Subjects understand everything Responsibility Open and clear; transparent Professional and scientific responsibilities to society and specific community working with For subjects, study, reporting accurately Integrity Promote accuracy, honestly and truthfulness Don’t steal, cheat, engage in fraud, subterfuge, or misrepresentation Documentation Maximize benefits; minimize harm Justice Justice fairness to all individuals research pool = benefitted pool equal quality of processes, procedures and services provided/conducted reasonable judgement and as little bias as possible more than one person making ethical decisions Respect Respect for Autonomy [make up own mind for own body; right to what they for People’s do] Persons Rights & Dignity Informed Consent [completely aware; can leave] Protection for vulnerable populations [prisoners, patients, language barriers, elderly, children] Ethical Grey Area See end of Study Guide for blank chart to fill in for practice I I DON’T GREY K H O DO IT AREA F O I L GREY DO IT G W AREA LOW HIGH BENEFIT OF DOING STUDY Ethics & Historical Studies Be able to identify ways in which each of the 3 studies discussed can be analyzed using either the Belmont report of the APA Ethical Principles. - What was wrong with these studies? - Provide examples. See end of Study guide for blank chart to fill in for practice Tuskegee Milgram Zimbardo Beneficence No benefit to Risk worth benefit gained? Harm to subjects; even if not & subjects - subjects did not benefit directly by researcher’s Non Little benefit to Society benefits on basic level hand Maleficence society -point of no return paradigm Not stopping it Fidelity & Subjects deceived Informed consent of risks researchers responsibility to Responsible for stop it and protect the Responsibilit deaths prisoners y Integrity Subjects deceived Debriefed after Had information needed by Not honest with subjects end of day two; unfairly and Benefits small; long lasting harshly treated to drag it on trauma Justice Subjects not treated They were unaware of the Had information needed by fairly psychological trauma they were end of day two; unfairly and Patients are signing up for harshly treated to drag it on vulnerable Respect for Subjects not treated Not taking into consideration Prisoners’ rights taken away Persons fairly long term effects; or respecting Informed consent their autonomy to allow them to violated make an informed decision as to participate or not APA standard 8 IRBs o [5 principles and 10 standards] - Cost-benefit; ethical-welfare - 5 members - Scientist - Academic - Community leader - If on prison case, must have prisoner advocate - Private institutions don’t have them Informed Consent - Written agreement to proceed with experiment and understandings of responsibilities, circumstances, tasks, and undertakings. Need Informed Consent? - Confidential – YES o has information that could link back to person; but should not be shared o Encrypt data – locked files – can’t take off premises etc. - Anonymous or Natural observation – NO o no way to connect a person to their answers; no information was collected o watching people in their natural habitat o unless high risk – then need informed consent Deception - Omission: leaving something out - Commission: directly lying Debriefing - Have to debrief if using deception o Summary, contributions, benefits etc. - Told what contribution was may be debriefed after vs. before if necessary Animal Research IACUC similar to IRBs - Animal rights vs. animal welfare [animal welfare wins with researchers] o Vet o Practicing scientist o Community member - Extensive & ongoing: not just ‘approved’ or ‘denied’ [3 r’s] o Replacement: if you don’t have to use animals; use something else o Refinement: minimize stress and pain little risk/harm o Reduction: use least amount of animals as possible Misconduct - Data Fabrication: making up results - Data Falsification: changing results - Plagiarism: stealing someone else’s work Blank Practice Tables Theory Data Cycle Validities Specific to Claim Frequency Claim Association Claim Causal Claim # of Variables Relationship Measuring Variables Construct Validity External Validity Internal Validity Control with: * Statistical Validity ** *** 3 qualities needed: - **** - - VERBS - Kind of verbs & ex. - If ‘sometimes’ before? Validity & Reliability 4 Validitie s _________ Validity __ ___Subjective Empirical Reliabili Validity _________ reliability Reliability __ Validity ty Reliability is _________________________ For validity -_____________ -_____________ -_____________ Reliability What is it Measure Note Test- Retest Interra ter Interna l APA vs. Belmont BELMONT APA Purpose Beneficenc Beneficence & e Non Maleficence Fidelity & Responsibility Integrity Justice Justice Respect for Respect for Persons People’s Rights & Dignity Ethical Grey Area L H O G W H I K LOW HIGH BENEFIT 3 Unethical Studies Tuskegee Milgram Zimbardo Beneficence & Non Maleficence Fidelity & Responsibility Integrity Justice Respect for Persons Practice 1: Identifying Variables Operational = independent 1. Researchers examined the effects of red or blue lighting at a club on alcohol consumption a. Conceptual definition: any type of lighting source that has an effect on behavior; mood lighting; blue is calming, red is agitating b. Theory: blue lighting will increase alcohol consumed Conceptual Operational Measured or levels variable definition manipulated Effect of red or Color of light Manipulated [because Red or blue blue lighting being used in the we are looking for light club effect of lighting] Dependent variable: alcohol consumed, measured, might have many levels [# of drinks, qty in oz, etc.] 2. Researchers used a special punching bag to record the amount of force with which subjects hit it a. Conceptual definition: stress can be shown by a scowl, tense body language, or lack of verbal communication, or short responses; strength can be shown by the amount of weight one can lift or which b. Theory: the higher the level of stress, anger etc., the harder they will hit the bag Conceptual Operational Measured or levels variable definition manipulated Stress, strength Amount of force measured Infinite levels; Amt etc. of newtons = specific level Dependent variable: this is the dependent variable; it is measured. [either the strength or the force] 3. Researchers had subjects either sit, jog, run, or jump for 5 minutes before doing a memory task a. Conceptual Definition: physical activity or arousal; state of being after movement; state of being evoked or awakened b. Theory: increased exercise with increase memory Conceptual Operational Measured or manipulated levels variable definition physical Type of activity Manipulated [you cannot 4 levels: activity/arousal being done before measure arousal, but you can sit, run, doing a task categorize types of physical jog, jump activity] Dependent variable: task performance, measured, many levels Constant: amount of time each exercise was done Practice 2: Identify he Type of The Claim 1. Radiation may up breast-cancer risk in some women a. ASSOCIATIVE [RISK is not a for sure thing] b. Variables = radiation & breast cancer risk i. Can measure risk; higher risk and lower risk; RISK does not mean HAVE 2. Almost half of new vets seek disability a. FREQUENCY [rates of vets seeking disability] b. Population = vets seeking disability 3. Guys get performance boost from sexist stereotype a. CAUSAL b. IV: presence of stereotype DV: performance 4. Study finds regular marijuana use damages teen brains a. CAUSAL [key work – damages] b. IV: marijuana use DV: brain function 5. High distress seen in Japanese nuclear workers a. FREQUENCY [rates of stress] b. Population = Japanese nuclear workers 6. MMR shot does not lead to autism, large study says a. CAUSAL b. IV: MMR shot DV: autism 7. Men who sleep near their children found to have lower testosterone levels a. ASSOCIATION b. Making link; not saying one causes the other; don’t know for sure if one is manipulated c. IV: sleep near their children DV: testosterone 8. High diabetes rates found in UK ethnic groups a. FREQUENCY [diabetes rates] b. Population: UK ethnic groups 9. Severe headaches tied to suicide attempts a. ASSOCIATION b. IV: Headaches DV: Suicide attempts 10.High normal blood sugar may harm memory retrieval a. Key work is may harm; harm is causal verb b. Iv: blood sugar level Dv: memory retrieval 11.Food fights? Healthy eating is easier for kids when moms butt out a. CAUSAL b. IV: mom butting in or out DV: how healthy child eats 12.overweight teens don’t necessarily consume more calories a. ASSOCIATIVE b. If x holds than y holds c. Overweight teens consume more calories: positive association d. Overweight teens consume less calories: negative association e. causal: consuming more calories makes you overweight Practice 3 [Homework 1]: From Study News Report What to include… Frequen Associat Caus cy ion al Claim type & How you decided √ √ √ List Variable(s) √ √ √ Dependent Variable [DV] & Independent √ √ Variable [IV] Conceptual Variable [if applicable] √ √ √ Population √ External validity topic to question √ √ √ Construct validity topic to question √ √ √ Statistical validity topic to question √ √ √ Internal validity topic to question √ 1. One hour extra screen time drags down grades [followed students around] association a. Independent Variable: screen time b. Dependent Variable: how engaged/energetic c. External Validity: students to students is fine; overall population, need to be questions d. Construct Validity: followed around; at school [home?] screen open vs being engaged e. Statistical Validity: no r given; in your sample doesn’t mean accurate for general public 2. Most caregivers look after elderly parent; invest a lot of time frequency a. Population: employed/professional caregivers b. Frequency: Amount of time caregiving to parent c. Conceptual Variable: compassion, altruism, empathy, sense of responsibility d. External Validity: population; employed/professional caregivers. Well defined? e. Construct Validity: What exactly constitutes ‘taking care’ [watching tv vs 24/7 care] f. Statistical Validity: did they accurately estimate caregiving? Margin of error? 3. Heavier babies do better in school; birth weight and performance on SAT association a. Independent Variable: Weight b. Dependent Variable: Performance scores c. Conceptual Variable: fetal health to later academic performance d. External Validity: public/private, parent involvement, activities, socio economic factors e. Construct Validity: SAT to measure intellect? weight measure health? (weight ≠ health) f. Statistical Validity: findings prove heavier babies smarter? Are numbers impressive? i. Construct and statistical validity prioritized here~ 4. people willing to pay more for eco-friendly products [survey] frequency (pay more ≠ causal) i. population: everyone; general global public; multiple countries ii. Conceptual Variable: how to change people’s product purchasing habits? iii. Independent Variable: Willingness to pay more for eco- friendly products iv. Dependent Variable: Country [population categorized by country – can do this] b. External Validity: Are the countries that they measured/surveyed representative of all the countries/countries they did not measure. c. Construct Validity: How was the survey set up; lickert scale – was the scale a good way to measure one’s willingness? weak i. Asking someone how willing they are to pay for a product is not the same as them actually spending money on a product. d. Statistical Validity: How far away is their actual willingness to pay from the willingness to pay that was found/measured through the study? e. Was any type of validity prioritized? 5. Lottery of students – win, go to museum. After this group went, BOTH sets [those that won lottery & those that lost] had to write an essay based on art and analyzed causal a. Experimental Group: Students who went through the museum b. Control Group: students who did not go through the museum c. Population: high school students d. Conceptual Variable: intelligence e. External Validity: Different majors of students, among school districts or classrooms f. Internal Validity: [covariance, internal validity & temporal precedence) i. Didn’t measure control group --Lottery is fairly random 1. Different teachers through museum give different experiences/interest 2. Interactive wing vs. history of art wing [see same exhibits?] 3. Same amount of time at the museum g. Construct Validity: can intelligence be measured by your ability to write one essay? i. Art engagement; what if some kids don’t like art ii. Essays about art; kids who didn’t visit museum didn’t have immediate education iii. Visiting mean they actually engaged? [at museum] h. Statistical Validity: location? Socioeconomic factors? Know more about school/students i. How strong was the effect? Difference in groups? Difference reliable/accurate? Practice 4: Kind of Measurements - Number of seconds before pressing a key after hearing tone o Observational - ratio scale - infinite levels - Number of classes you are taking this term o Self report or observational - Ratio - infinite levels - Asking how much you like college on a scale of 0-5 o Self report - interval - 6 levels Your zero might not be everyones zero Does not apply evenly to everyone - Questionnaire asking for your location of hometown (urban, suburban, rural) o Self report - nominal - 3 levels Review Questions by Chapter C HAPTER 1 1. Michael is a psychology student. Why is it important for him to know how to be a producer of research? - Because he might have to write an APA style paper - Because he might need to conduct a study as part of a class - Because he may work in a professor’s research lab 2. Empiricism the approach of collecting data and using it to develop, support, and/or challenge a theory. 3. 4 features of a good theory: falsifiable, supported by data, parsimonious, weight of the evidence 4. Research done specifically to solve a practical problem applied research 5. Importance of Hypotheses in Theory Data Cycle? a. Theories determine the limitations of a phenomena; you then make hypotheses about how the phenomena should behave within those limitations you are testing. b. Data can also inform the limitations of your theory. 6 . Facilitated communication is not an effective intervention for promoting communication 7. Cupboard Theory–infants attach to person with food. Harlow disproves through monkey experiments. 8 . Contact Comfort Theory is illustrated through Harlow’s monkeys [opposite cupboard theory] 9. Translational research Is a bridge between basic and applied research 10. Parsimony: The simplest solution is the best, all things being equal. This speaks to a theory’s: 11. Journals vs. magazines: a . Both tend to have articles written by several different contributors b . Both tend to be released monthly or quarterly c . Only empirical articles have their articles peer reviewed 12. "Mozart effect" used to demonstrate Journalists don’t always provide an accurate description of research 3 fundamental needs for human growth/fulfillment: relatedness, autonomy, competence. predicts that students who have these needs met in their psychology class feel happier and more satisfied with the class; finds that students who feel more related/competent feel happier but feeling autonomous doesn’t matter. Susan thinks autonomy is only necessary when people are in situations where they are not being evaluated. 13. The statement of the 3 needs related to growth and fulfillment is an example of which a theory. 14. The prediction that students who experience all of the three needs will experience greater satisfaction with their psychology class is an example of a hypothesis. 15. Susan’s hypothesis wasn’t completely supported by her data her theory needs to be amended 16. Ben studies marriage. Believes marriage satisfaction is from trusting your partner and believing you’re a good spouse. If his data matches his theory, he can say: The data provide support for my theory 17. Experimental psychologist examines people’s ability to perceive taste is an example of basic research 18. Editor of journal wants to ensure reviewers give honest reviews of papers; what should she do to increase the likelihood of honest feedback? Make sure the identity of peer reviewers is unknown 19. What’s the reason that scientific journals use peer review? Ensure published studies are highest quality Chapter 2 Edward believes that there are a lot of differences between men and women on a variety of different dimensions. He believes this because when he thinks about books that have been written on men and women, he can recall only books that say men and women are different (e.g.,Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus) and cannot recall any that say men and women are the same. 1. His reliance on what comes to mind is an example of the popup principle? 2. Experience can be a faulty source of evidence for our beliefs a. Does not allow for comparison or control b. Probabilistic and fails to explain all cases of an event c. Usually has confounds 3. Testing drug, gave drug to all patients and all of them experienced a decrease in symptoms. Experience is limited because he does not have a:Comparison group that did not receive the drug 4. What does it mean that behavioral research is probabilistic? Inferences drawn from behavioral research are not expected to explain all cases 5. An alternative explanation for an outcome is known as a/an: confound Sasha believes that she is a nice person. To confirm this, she asks all her friends whether she is a nice person and they all agree that she is. Sasha concludes that she is a nice person and says she has evidence of it. 6. What should she do to prevent Cherrypicking? Ask enemies if she was a nice person 7. 2 biases of intuition discussed in the text are: Thinking the easy way & thinking the way we want to 8. Which is the first section of an empirical journal article? abstract 9. When reading an empirical journal article “with purpose,” read the abstract first. 10. Ellie is looking for a summary of research on the effects of childhood abuse on adult functioning. What scientific source would NOT be an ideal source? Chapter in an edited book, metaanalysis, or empirical journal article studying subliminal messages and weight loss. people who hear in the music subliminal messages that encourage weight loss lose more weight than people who do not have subliminal messages. studies 40 people: # Who Lost Weight # Who Did Not Lose Weight Exposed to Subliminal Messages (Cell A) 15 people (Cell C) 5 people Not Exposed to Subliminal Messages (Cell B) 10 people (Cell D)10 people 11. Change in cell b results in a different interpretation of results=people losing weight w/o messages 12. Vanesa claims she sleeps better when she listens to music. Her comparison group is herself listening to music and not listening to music. She’s notices she remembers to turn music on when she is able to get done studying sooner. What is the problem with her reasoning of her claim? She may be sleeping better because she is less distracted by studying/going to bed sooner 13. Patrick is confident that his short term memory is better than most people’s. He should not believe this because confidence does not represent accuracy 14. Detailed description of empirical research study most likely in an empirical journal article Chapter 3 1. A variable in the study/headline is: sex of the role model 2. A constant in the study/headline is: sex of participant 3. The number of math problems solved out of 10 is an example of a measured variable 4. A cloud of points with no slope has what kind of relationship? Zero association relationship 5. To evaluate how well a study supports a frequency claim, focus on evaluating construct and external validity 6. A dependent variable is one that is measured 7. If you want to make claims applying to all college students, you’re prioritizing the external validity 8. If a company claims their product does something it doesn’t, that’s an example of a type 1 error 9. What do causal claims and association claims have in common? Both show 2 variables co-varying 10.Margin of Error- statistical figure that gives a range to which the true value of a population is expected “Female Engineering Majors’ Effort on Math Problems Depends on Sex of Role Model.” (headline based off of study) In the study, female students asked to complete a math test by either a male or a female math major. Female students tried to solve more math problems when asked by a female compared with a male. 11.In this study, the authors were interested in students’ math effort. Would be some reasonable operational definitions of math effort? Number of math classes taken in college, score on standardized measure of math effort, number of math problems answered correctly NOT earnest attempt to solve math problems 12.Owning a dog related to higher life satisfaction is an association claim. 13.Suggests a change, enhances, and seems to decrease are all indicating causal claim 14.To make a causal claim you must conduct an experiment 15.Internal validity is important for Causal claims? 16.If a causal claim does NOT meet the criteria of covariance between the variables, the claim can no longer be made. Chapter 4 1. In the Tuskegee Trial they WERE told they had been infected, prevented from seeking treatment, and told they were receiving treatment even though they weren’t They WERE NOT given/infected with the disease Dr. Kline whether sleep deprivation is associated with poorer cognitive performance. Using an EEG, he plans to let participants sleep until they enter R.E.M. sleep and wake them for 1 minute, then returning to sleep. Once they enter R.E.M. sleep again, he will wake them again and follow the same procedure through 8 hour sleep session. The next morning subjects will take a sample SAT test. 2. Dr. Kline asks his participants to provide informed consent. Doing this is adheres to the principle of the Belmont Report known as: Principle of respect for persons 3. To address the Belmont Principle of Beneficence, Dr. Kline would need to ask: a. What can I do to decrease the potential harm experienced to my participants? 4. Dr. Kline volunteers at a local prison. Because of his connections there, he is considering using prisoners as his participants. The IRB reviewing his committee must have a prisoner advocate. 5. Dr. Kline’s decision about the type of participants to recruit should be informed by the principle of the Belmont Report known as: Principle of justice 6. Dr. Kline thinks those who will most benefit from study are high school & college students. He should use Students from a community college as participants for his study. 7. Dr. Kline is going to lie about why he is waking them up. This is deception through commission 8. Dr. Kline’s grad student invents results supporting his hypothesis instead of conducting the study. This is an example of Data fabrication 9. A local committee that reviews research that is conducted on animals is known as an IACUC 10. The American Psychological Association’s ethical guidelines have 5 principles and 10 standards. 11. Violations of the Tuskegee study by the Belmont Report: o Participants were not treated respectfully o Participants were from a disadvantaged social group o Participants were harmed 12. According to the Belmont Report, what is an example of a group of people entitled to special protection? People with down’s syndrome 13. Incentive vs. coercion: what is an example of enticing with an offer that makes it unfair? A researcher offering 3 points of extra credit to college students to participate in a study 14. When conducting animal research, the guideline of replacement states that alternatives to animal research should be considered? 15. What is true of IRBs: a. At least 5 people b. Does not have to have a psychologist c. IRB might be interested in the methods use in study, but they are there to ensure protection of research participants, not to evaluate the scientific merit of the research itself d. Institutions doing research using federal funding must have IRBs by law e. IRBs must include community member f. IRB listed under Ethical Standard 8 by the APA g. IRBs are present to safeguard participants’ welfare Chapter 5 1. The specification of operational definitions is one of the creative aspects of the research process 2. How many subcategories of quantitative variables exist? 3 nominal is just numbers Dr. Valencia – if narcissistic people have poorer social interactions than those who are not narcissistic. First task is to determine which participants are narcissistic and which are not. Decides to use the Mayo scale. Question 1, “I tend not to think about other people as much as myself.” Question 2, “I don’tt have a high opinion of myself.” Question 3, “I think other people think I’m awesome..” 3. Dr. Valencia is concerned about the validity of the measure of narcissism recommended by her colleague. She sends a copy of the measure to the faculty members in her psychology department to look at and they all tell her it looks like it will measure narcissism. She now has evidence of what? Face validity 4. Dr. Valencia decides to test the internal reliability of her measure. Which of the following results would make her happy? Alpha= .95 5. A correlationbased statistic called Cronbach’s alpha is commonly used to determine internal reliability. 6. Establishing construct validity would probably be most important for a measure of religiosity Dr. Sheffield is a clinical psychologist who specializes in treating pathological gambling. Pathological gambling is defined as being unable to resist impulses to gamble. Bothered by not having a good measure that he can give to clients to determine whether they are suffering from this condition, he creates a new measure of pathological gambling. The measure has 15 questions and it takes 20 minutes to complete. 7. Dr. Sheffield’s measure doesn’t actually measure pathological gambling, it lacks Validity 8. Dr. Sheffield tests the criterion validity of his measure, so he gives it to a group of people including suspected problem gamblers and nongamblers. What else does he need to do to get evidence for predictive validity? Give a measure of alcohol addiction to the same group of clients 9. Dr. Sheffield gives his measure to a group of people in Gamblers Anonymous and another group in Alcoholics Anonymous. He finds that people in the GA group have higher scores on his new measure than people in the AA group. This procedure is known as a Knowngroups paradigm 10. Dr. Sheffield gives his measure to his supervisor, also an expert in pathological gambling, who says it appears to test all components of pathological gambling. Given, this, Dr. Sheffield’s measure has evidence of content validity. 11. Another word for discriminant validity is Divergent validity.
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