Kine 1000 Study Guide 1
Kine 1000 Study Guide 1 Kine 1000
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Summer Notetaker on Wednesday June 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Kine 1000 at East Carolina University taught by Ms. D' Amico in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Lifetime Physical Activity and Fitness Laboratory in Kinesiology at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 06/29/16
Kine 1000 Study Guide 1 Module One; Welcome: Goal of course: provide you with the knowledge, skills, and ability to lead an active and healthy lifestyle and help you find activities you enjoy. Class is designed to provide you with an in-depth understanding of the importance of being physically active now and in the years to come. Tools will be provided to help you lead an active lifestyle. You will learn how to design your own exercise program that will help you to achieve your health and fitness goals. Above all, you should learn that being physically active can be fun and is an important component of living life fully because fitness matters. Module Two; Why do we take fitness test: The purpose of fitness testing is to provide you with a starting point for making lifestyle changes. Also to improve your health and performance. It is important to give your best effort when completing the fitness test so that you can meaningfully evaluate your fitness status. The healthy fitness zone is a standard of where you should be physically. Fitness scores in the healthy fitness zone represents a level of performance that provides some degree of protection from disease such as heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. Scores that fall below the healthy fitness zone, indicate that some lifestyle changes may improve that area of fitness. Scores that are far below the health related standards may indicate an increases health risk. Module Three; Physical fitness test: The PACER test assess aerobic fitness. An alternative to the PACER test is the mile run. Procedures for the PACER: 1. Warm up; begin with low-intensity activity 2. Have partner ready to count your laps 3. Begin test when told and run across 20-meter area. At the sound of the beep, turn and run back across the 20- meter area again. 4. Maintain until you can no longer keep up. After two beeps of failing to get to the line before the beep, your test is over. 5. Upon completion, cool down with slow jogging. Stretch and do not sit down immediately after. 6. Record the number of laps completed. Compare your number to the standards. Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) assess body fat levels. Hydration status may impact BIA results. If you are dehydrated, then your body fat level will tend to be overestimated. The curl-up test is a measure of abdominal endurance. Procedure for the curl-up test: 1. Lie in a supine position with your knees bent so that your feet are flat on the floor. Arms straight by your side. 2. Curl-up slowly, sliding fingers across the mat. Heels must remain in contact with the floor. 3. Curl back down until your head touches the floor. 4. The score is the number of curl-ups that are performed correctly without pausing. 2 The push-up test is a measure of upper body strength and endurance. Procedures for the push-up test: 1. Assume a face down position on floor. Hands should be under your shoulders, with fingers spread and legs straight and slightly apart. 2. Push up off the floor until arms are straight. Legs and back should remain straight. 3. Lower your body until the elbows are bent at a 90- degree angle. Upper arms will be parallel to floor. 4. The score is the number of push-ups that are performed correctly without pausing. The sit-and-reach test as well as the shoulder stretch test measure your muscular flexibility. Procedure for the sit-and-reach test: 1. Remove shoes and sit with one foot flat against the sit- and-reach box and that leg fully extended. Other knee should be bent and placed near the side of the knee that is extended. 2. Place one hand on top of the other and slowly extend the arms forward over the measuring scale. Hands should reach forward evenly. 3. Reach slowly forward four times and on the fourth reach hold the position for one second. 4. After measuring one side, switch the positions of the legs and measure the other side. Procedure for the shoulder stretch test: 1. Test each side separately. For your right shoulder, reach the right hand over the right shoulder and the left hand behind the back reaching up. For left, do opposite. 2. Try to touch the fingers of the right and left hand. 3. If able to touch fingers together, record a “pass” in appropriate place. If unable to touch, record “fail” 3 Module Four; Reasons for exercise: what’s in it for you: The skeletal, muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, metabolic, immune, and brain all benefit from an active lifestyle. Physical activity helps stress management and is associated with decreased anxiety and depression. Helps self-esteem. About 60% of the population does not achieve the recommended amount of physical activity and about 40% of the population is sedentary. About 50% of people who start an exercise program discontinue within six months. Most dropouts occur with first month or so. If you can get through the beginning, you are more likely to stay active. If do temporarily stop being active, more likely to restart a program because being active becomes a habit. A Decision balance sheet can help you weight the pros and cons of leading an active lifestyle. Exercise motives are the reasons people give for exercise. Exercise motives that are characteristic of exercise adherence are doing it because you enjoy it. Aspects of exercise that you might enjoy include: the social aspects, having some “me time,” doing it because you are good at it, if you enjoy a challenge. Module Five; Physical activity, fitness, and health benefits for college students: The habits you develop as a college student can carry over to the rest of your life. 4 Physical active is any body movement produced by skeletal muscles that result in a substantial increase in energy expenditure. Energy expenditure is the number of calories used during normal bodily functions and physical activity. Exercise is physical activity that is planned and structured and requires repetitive movement that is done to improve or maintain one or more aspects of physical fitness Physical fitness is a set of attributes that relate to the ability to perform physical activity. The components of physical fitness related to health include aerobic fitness, body composition, muscular strength, muscular endurance and flexibility. Physical activities that are not exercise include: walking to class, gardening, taking the stairs instead of the elevator, playing softball, and moving furniture. Exercise that are physical activities include: running or jogging Regular physical activity is good for you because it helps some people loose weight, helps people maintain a healthy body weight, reduces the risk of heart disease and stroke, increases feelings of psychological well-being and reduces feelings of stress. Be physically active because: current generation of kids in the US is the first that will have a lower life expectancy than their parents, child born in the year 2000 has 1 in 3 chance of developing diabetes, and people who develop obesity or diabetes has a lowered life expectancy of 15 to 20 years. Findings of the Paffenbarger studies show that physical activity is related to heart disease. 5 Findings of the Blair study demonstrated the importance of aerobic fitness on all-cause mortality (death from all cause, particularly heart disease and cancer). About 20-25% of the population suffers from some sort of mental health disorder. Exercise is increasingly being recognized as an effective tool for increasing mental health. Walking briskly for 30 minutes a day should get it done. Specific mental health disorders that can improve with exercise are anxiety, depression, self-esteem and well-being. Regular exercise leads to enhanced improved cognitive functioning. A single session of exercise can lower stress, muscle tension, anxiety, depression, and other negative mood states. Module Six; Aerobic Fitness: Aerobic fitness is the ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to supply oxygen to the working muscles and the ability of the muscles to utilize oxygen to continue to work or exercise. The interchangeable terms for aerobic fitness are cardiovascular endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, aerobic capacity, and maximal oxygen consumption. Aerobic means “in the presence of oxygen.” Aerobic exercise is exercise that takes place in the presence of sufficient oxygen. Examples of aerobic exercise are walking, jogging and cycling, elliptical training, swimming, rowing, group fitness classes. Anaerobic mean “in the absence of oxygen.” Anaerobic exercises are usually of high intensity so that sufficient oxygen is not available to meet the oxygen demand. 6 Examples of anaerobic exercise include sprinting, weight lifting, calisthenics, and many sports. A benefit of High intensity interval training is that it can increase aerobic fitness and the duration needed for interval training is significantly less. VO2max stands for maximal oxygen consumption. It’s the most valid index of aerobic fitness. It’s the maximal amount of oxygen one is able to use during maximal exercise. Assesses the maximum amount of oxygen you can take in. Age influences VO2max by 1% a year by decreasing your VO2max. Habitual physical activity has a greater effect on aerobic capacity than chronological age. Genetics have an influence as well. Oxygen consumption is measured through expired gas analysis. Measurement of expired gas is called indirect calorimetry. VO2max can be estimated by the PACER test or the non- exercise model (from measure taken without exercise testing) Module Seven; Body Composition: Body Mass Index (BMI) is the most common method for determining weight-related health risk. BMI is your weight divided by your height. A limitation with BMI is that it does not differentiate between fat and fat free mass. We assessed percent fat with the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The three BMI range classifications are underweight (<18.5), normal (18.5-24.9) and overweight (25-29.9). 7 As BMI levels increase, morbidity (disease) and mortality (death) risk increase. Having levels too low is also associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates. Obesity is defined as having excess adipose (fat) tissue. Percent fat is classified into categories. High, moderately high, optimal range, low and very low. Under the age of 30 the percent values are: High; men: >28% women: >32% Moderately high; men: 22-28 women: 26- 32 Optimal range; men: 11-21 women: 15- 25 Low; men: 6-10 women: 12-14 Very low; men: <6% women: <12% Module Eight; Basics of Aerobic Exercise Prescription: Your exercise prescription is mostly based on your goals (weight loss, improved fitness, health concerns) and an overarching concern is enjoyment. Aerobic exercise will increase aerobic fitness and can help you expend the additional calories to help control body weight. FITTE stands for frequency, intensity, time, type and enjoyment. Frequency refers to the number of day you exercise per week. You should exercise at least 3 days per week. 8 Intensity refers to the level of exercise or how hard you workout. Recommendations are 50 to 85% of VO2 reserve or 50 to 85% of maximum heart rate reserve. Time refers to how many minutes you exercise per session. Recommendations suggest 20 to 60 minutes of continuous or intermittent aerobic activity accumulated throughout the day. Type: many types of exercises can be aerobic in nature. Recommendations suggest any activity that uses large muscle groups, can be maintained continuously and is rhythmical and aerobic in nature. Enjoyment is the idea of choosing activities that you like to do but also a balance between the challenge the activity present and your ability. Recommendations suggest strength training of a moderate intensity as an integral part of an adult fitness program. Intensity can be monitored by heart rate, rating of perceived exertion and the RPE scale. Heart rate increases as exercise intensity increases. Determination of a training heart rate zone will provide you with a range of heart rates within which you should exercise to improve aerobic fitness and minimize risk or injury from activity that is too intense. Rating of perceived exertion is a measure of exertion used to gauge exercise intensity and for exercise texting and prescription. To use RPE, pay attention to how you feel during exercise and indicate our perceived exertion by assigning a number from the RPE scale to your feeling of exertion. Enjoyment in exercise is very important because it’s the only lasting reason that will keep you exercising. Enjoyment can be a balance between the challenge the activity present and your ability. Achieving more than you thought you could is innately enjoyable and rewarding. Lifestyle physical activity: 9 To improve aerobic fitness, you must exercise at an intensity within your target zone. 10
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