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Exam Four Study Guide

by: kqmorgan

Exam Four Study Guide BIOL 1040

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Cumulative notes from the course in preparation for the final exam.
Intro to Biology
Tamera Wales
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by kqmorgan on Thursday June 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1040 at Bowling Green State University taught by Tamera Wales in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biology in Biology at Bowling Green State University.


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Date Created: 06/30/16
BIO 1040 Study Guide Exam Four Chapter 11  Homologous Chromosomes- A pair of chromosomes that both contain the same genes. In a diploid cell, one chromosomes in the pair is inherited from the mother, the other from the father.  Diploid- Having two copies of every chromosome. (One from mom, One from dad)  Phenotype- The visible or measurable makeup of an individual. (Hair or eye color)  Genotypes: The allele combinations, or letter combinations for a trait, one from the mother and one from the father (AA; Aa; aa). Each letter is an allele.  Dominant Allele- An allele that can mask the presence of a recessive allele.  Recessive Allele- An allele that reveals itself in the phenotype only if a masking dominant allele is not present. If this is another trait, such as hair color children with…  AA: Has brown hair  Aa: Has brown hair but could have children with blond hair  Aa: Has blonde hair If this is Cystic Fibrosis as discussed in class (in which only aa shows the trait) children with…  AA: Does not have the condition and cannot give it to their children.  Aa: The “Carrier”; Does not have the condition but can give it to their children.  aa: Has the condition, and could have children with the condition if their partner is a carrier or has the condition as well. In this scenario:  Genotypes: o AA- 25% Chance o Aa- 50% Chance o aa- 25% Chance  Phenotypes: o Brown Hair- 75% Chance o Blonde Hair- 25% Chance  Meiosis- A specialized type of nuclear division that generates genetically unique haploid gametes. Separates the chromosomes.  Gametes- Specialized reproductive cells that carry one copy of each chromosome (that is, they are haploid). Sperm and male gametes; eggs are female gametes.  Haploid- Having only one copy of every chromosome. (Either mom OR dad)  Zygote- A cell that is capable of developing into an adult organism. The zygote is formed when an egg is fertilized by a sperm.  Recombination- An event in meiosis during which maternal and paternal chromosomes pair and physically exchange DNA segments. (Prophase)  Independent Assortment- The principle that alleles of different genes are distributed independently of one another during meiosis. (The random arrangement of chromosome pairs before separation)  Sexual reproduction creates genetic diversity because it allows for adaptations and variations to occur in future generations. (Consider asexual plants that are fine in normal circumstances, but are wiped out when disease hits because they have not mated with others to acquire diversity and therefore have little resilience to different circumstances) Chapter 12  Autosomes- Paired chromosomes present in both males and females; all chromosomes except in the X and Y chromosomes. The first 22 pairs of chromosomes.  Sex Chromosomes- Paired chromosomes that differ between males and females, XX in females, XY in male. The 23 pair of chromosomes. rd  Sex is determined by the 23 chromosome. More specifically, by the chromosome provided by the father in this pair (XX= Female; XY= Male).  SRY Gene- Sex-Determining Region on the Y Chromosome. The gene on the Y chromosome creates the protein responsible for developing the testes.  Males often acquire X-Linked traits because only possible sex chromosomes are XY. This means that the only X provided to them came from their mother- if that single X carries the gene, there are no X traits provided by the father to possibly cancel out that gene in a punnet square. Because the child is a male, the father could only provide a Y in this department, and will not be able to cancel out the mother’s contribution.  Pedigree- A visual representation of the occurrence of phenotypes across generations.  Y-Chromosome Analysis- Comparing sequences on the Y chromosome to examine paternity and paternal ancestry. Looks at STRs.  Incomplete Dominance- A form of inheritance in which heterozygotes have a phenotype that is intermediate between homozygous dominant and homozygous recessive. (Curly Hair + Straight Hair = Wavy Hair)  Codominance- A form of inheritance in which both alleles contribute equally to the phenotype. (A Blood Type + B Blood Type= AB Blood Type) o Blood Types- A, B, AB, and O. O can be given to anyone safely. o A Blood Type Can Accept: A or O o B Blood Type Can Accept: B or O o AB Blood Type Can Accept: A, B, AB, or O o Blood Type Can Accept: O  Rh Factor- Positive blood types (A+, B+, etc.) can accept both positive or negative blood types. Negative blood types (A-, B-, etc.) can accept only other negative blood types.  Polygenic Trait- A trait whose phenotype is determined by the interaction among alleles of more than one gene.  Continuous Variation- Variation in a population showing an unbroken range of phenotypes rather than discrete categories. (Your height could be anywhere from 4” to 7”, but it will be somewhere in the range. You are not simply placed in categories of “tall” or “short”. Your eyes on the other hand can only be blue, green, or brown.)  Multifactorial Trait- A trait determined by both genetic and environmental factors.  Multifactorial Inheritance- An interaction between genes and the environment that contributes to a phenotype or trait.  Nondisjunction- When the pairs don’t pull apart completely (Get extra or miss some); Incorrect separation of the chromosomes during cell division. Occurs in meiosis, blamed for aneuploidy.  Aneuploidy- Having a number of chromosomes that is not 46 (45 or 47), a result of nondisjunction. o 45 Chromosomes (X-): Turner’s Syndrome o 47 Chromosomes (XXX): Trisomy X o 47 Chromosomes (XXY): Klinefelter Syndrome  Karyotype- The chromosomal makeup of cells. Karyotype analysis can be used to detect trisomy 21 prenatally. Basically a picture of all of a person’s chromosomes. Chapter 13  CelsTissue Organ Systems (Reproductive System, Urinary System, Etc.) Embryonic Adult Stem Stem Cells Cells From a Blastocyst The same cells, but older Week-Old Embryo= Blastocyst More differentiated Pluripotent Can become any cell or tissue in Multipotent the adult Scientists can now make these turn back into embryonic stem More Ideal cells  Stem Cells- Immature cells that can divide and differentiate into specialized cells.  Totipotent- Describes a cell with the ability to differentiate into any cell type in the body.  Pluripotent- Describes a cell with the ability to differentiate into nearly any cell type in the body.  Multipotent- Describes a cell with the ability to differentiate into a limited number of cell types in the body.  Totipotent + 1 Week  Pluripotent + Adulthood  Multipotent  Specialized cell  Induced pluripotent stem cells- Take a completely differentiated cell, add four genes, and it reprograms them to be like an embryonic stem cell again (reduces the amount of embryos needed for research)  Stem cells can be used to build new tissues, which can be used to create new organs.  Specialized Cells- Cells that have already decided what they will be used to make.  Cellular Differentiation- The process by which a cell specializes to carry out a specific role.  Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer- Cloning; Replacing the nucleus of an egg with a nucleus from a specialized cell, creating an embryo that is genetically identical to the donor cell.


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