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soci 101, exam 2 study guide

by: Theint Myint

soci 101, exam 2 study guide soci 101

Theint Myint
Cal State Fullerton
GPA 3.8

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ch 4,5, and 7
introduction to sociology
jessica coronel
Study Guide
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Theint Myint on Sunday July 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to soci 101 at California State University - Fullerton taught by jessica coronel in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 134 views.


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Date Created: 07/03/16
CH  4  socialization       Role  of  socialization   • Socialization:  process  of  learning  and  internalizing  the  values,  beliefs,   attitudes,  behaviors  and  norms  of  our  social  group     The  process  of  socialization     • Begins  in  infancy  and  lasts  throughout  lifetime     • Lifelong  process   • Language=  facilitates  socialization     • (sometimes  argue  it  starts  before  infancy)       agents  of  socialization     • the  social  groups,  institutions  and  indivs  that  provide  structured  situations   where  socialization  occurs   • ex:  family,  schools,  peers,  mass  media,  workplace,  religion  and  state       family     • single  most  significant  agent  of  socialization  in  all  societies   • teaches  us  the  basic  values  and  norms  that  shape  our  identity       schools     • provide  education     • socialize  us  through    hidden  curriculumà  teaches  many  behaviors  thatll  be   important  later  on  in  life(mirror  whats  expected  in  society)   • hidden  curriculum=  set  of  behavioral  trails  (punctuality,  neatness,  discipline,   hard  work,  competition,  obedience)       peers  (groups)     • provide  diff  social  skills     • often  become  more  immediately  significant  than  fam,  esp  as  move  through   adolescence       media     • had  become  an  important  agent  of  socialization     • often  overrides  the  family  and  other  institutions  instilling  values  and  norms       workplace     • where  indivs  learn  how  to  behave  appropriately  within  the  occupation     • socialization  within  workplace=  changes  when  go  from  part  time  to  full  time       religion  and  govt  (“the  state”)   • increasingly  being  recognized  by  social  scientists  as  agents  of  socialization  bc   of  their  significance  and  impact  on  the  life  course     the  life  course     • life  course  approach   o social  factorsà  influence  ppl  throughout  their  lives  (birthà  death)     o includes  gender  and  income     • celebrating  rites  of  passage   o means  of  dramatizing  and  validating  changing  in  a  person’s  status     o drivers  license,  graduating,  becoming  a  parent,  marriage/divorce       socialization   • anticipatory  socialization   o person  rehersing  for  a  role  they’ll  most  likely  assume  in  the  future     • resocialization   o discarding  the  former  sense  of  self  and  behavior  patterns  and   accepting  a  new  one       cooley=  looking  glass  self     • our  views  of  ourselves,  then  comes  not  only  from  direct  contemplation  of  our   personal  qualities  but  also  from  our  impressions  of  how  others  perceive  us     • (how  we  think  others  see  usà  how  we  see  ourselves  )     • looking  glass  self  =  the  self=  produce  of  our  social  interactions  w/  other   people       the  self  and  socialization     George  Herbert  mead=  the  self     • recognize  that  who  we  are  (the  self)  =  emerges  as  we  interact  w/  others     • self  =  distinct  identity  that  sets  us  apart  from  others     • not  static  phenomenon,  but  continues  to  develop  and  change  throughout   our  lives  (à  social  intensions  by  chance  )     mead:  stages  of    the  self     1. preparatory  (to  age  3)     • children=  imitate  ppl  around  them  (like  parent  burping  baby)     • as  get  olderà  become  more  adept  at  using  symbols     2. play  stage  (3-­‐5)     • children=  develop  skill  in  communicating  through  symbols     • role  taking  occurs   o process  of  mentally  assuming  the  perspective  of  another  in  order   to  respond  from  that  imagined  viewpoint     3. game  stage  (early  school  years/8-­‐9)     • consider  several  actual  tasks  and  relations  simutaniouly     • generalized  other=  refers  to  the  attitudes,  viewpoints  and  expectations  of   society  as  a  whole  that  a  child  takes  into  account  in  his/  her  behavior     • ex:     o marco  polo:  lower  voice  so  other  person  cant  really  tell  where  you   are   o hide  and  seek:  have  to  hide  someone  think  other  person  wont  find   you       Mead:  theory  of  the  self     • self=  begins  as  privileged,  central  position  in  a  person’s  world   • as  person  maturesà  self  =  changes  and  begins  to  reflect  greater  concert   about  the  reaction  of  others     • significant  others=  indivs  most  important  in  the  development  of  the  self           preparion=  no  self     play  =  developing  self     game  =  has  a  self  now     CH  5  Social  Interaction       Socialization   • Key  to  our  community     • Process-­‐     o a  society,  culture  or  group  teaches  individuals  to  become  functioning   members     o indivs  learn  to  and  internalize  the  values  and  norms  of  the  group       social  interaction   • social  interaction=  the  ways  in  which  ppl  respond  to  1  another     • micro  sociological  perspective=  primary  focus=  face  to  face  interactions   (what  ppl  do  when  they’re  in  another’s  presence)       symbolic  interaction   • symbolic  interactionism:  study  of  human  group  life  and  conduct     o coined  by  Herbert  blumer   • cooley=  looking  glass  self     • mead=  stages  of  self     • symbolic  interactionist  researchers  =   o  investigate  how  ppl  create  meaning  during  social  interaction,     o how  they  present  and  conduct  the  self  (“identity”)     o  how  they  define  situations  of  co  presences  w/  others       blumer-­‐  3  core  principles  to  his  theory       1. meaning   • humans  act  toward  ppl  and  things  based  upon  the  meaning  they   have  given  ppl  or  things     2.  language     • gives  humans  a  means  by  which  to  negotiate  through  symbols     3. thought     • modifies  each  indivs  interpretation  of  symbols     • thought  based  on  lang=  a  mental  conversation/  dialog  that   requires  role  taking/  imagining  diff  pov         blumer-­‐  symbolic  interaction     • stereotypes  in  everyday  life     o how  1  impressions=  have  lasting  effect  &  value   • personal  space   o get  defensive  when  someones  in  our  personal  bubble   o only  close  friends/  significant  others=  allowed     • nonverbal  communication     o sign  lang  etc     o can  be  misinterpreted     o control  personal  bubble  (by  staring  etc)       goffman-­‐  the  presentation  of  self  in  everyday  life     • geoffman=  termed  dramaturgy  into  a  social  term     • a  theatrical  metaphor  for  social  interaction     • to  create  an  impressionà  ppl  play  roles  and  their  performance=  judged  by   others  who  are  alert  to  any  slips  that  may  contradict  the  role  being  asserted     • these  interactions=  governed  by  a  planned  behavior  designed  to  enable  an   individual  to  present  a  particular  image  to  others     o à  in  everyday  interactions,  this  is  to  meet  expectations  of  the  role,   not  to  fool/  deceive  others       dramaturgy     theatre   • actors   • playing  parts     • on  a  stage     • before  an  audience       real  life     • people     • performing  roles   • in  social  setting     • before  a  group  of  others       goffman     • impression  management     o our  efforts  to  manage  the  impressions  that  others  receive  of  us     o tendency  to  put  our  “best  foot  forward”  in  social  situations     • front  stage     o where  presentations  of  self  (or  teams)  occur     • back  stage   o private  areas  for  rehearsal  of  public  presentations     • YOU  are  in  control  of  what  ppl  see  of  you  (  bc  we  tailor  what  they  see)       Statuses     • Status   o Socially  defined  positions  within  a  large  group/  society     o Can  hold  more  than  1  status  at  the  same  time  (mom,  daughter,  sister,   friend)     • Ascribed  status     o Status  born  with     • Achieved  status     o Earned  status     o (Dr/  PhD,  friend,  teammate,  student,  employee,  etc)   • master  status     o dominates  other  statuses     o determines  a  person’s  general  position  in  society     o in  US,  ascribed  statuses  of  race  and  gender=  can  function  as  master   statuses       social  roles     • social  role     o set  of  expectations  for  ppl  who  occupy  a  given  status     o ex:  a  nurse  is  expected  to  do  certain  things     • role  conflict     o incompatible  expectations  arise  from  2+  social  positions  held  by  the   same  person     o student,  parent  and  daughter=  statuses  1  person  holds     o mom=  surgery  same  time  a  paper  =  due  and  daughter  =  sick     § à  diff  statuses  conflict     • role  strain     o difficulties  that  arise  when  same  social  position  imposes  conflicting   demands  and  expectations     o status=  student.  Paper  due  for  2  classes  @  same  time     § à  same  status  conflicts     • role  exit     o process  of  disengagement  from  a  role  that’s  central  to  one;s  identity   to  establish  a  new  role     o   o 4    STAGES     1. doubt   2. search  for  alternative     3. action  stage  or  departure     4. create  new  identity       ex:  cancer   1. doubt  moleà  cancer     2. maybe  go  away  if  get  treatment     3. finally  decide  to  remove  mole     4. cancer  free!  à  new  identity     CH  6  Deviance  and  Crime       What  is  deviance?   • Any  behavior  that  violates  the  standards  of  conduct  or  expectations  of  a   group  or  society     o Involves  violation  of  group  norms,  which  may/  may  not    be  formalized   into  law   o Subject  to  social  definition  within  a  particular  society  at  a  particular   time     Deviance  and  social  stigma     • Stigma   o Goffman  and  heckert   o Labels  society  uses  to  devalue  members  of  certain  social  groups     o Ex:  ex  gang  member,  short,  etc  à  may  cause  lasting  effects     Deviance  and  technology     • Technological  innovations  can  redefine  social  interactions  and  standards  of   behavior  related  to  them     Types  of  deviance     • Good/  admired  behavior  (heroism)   • Odd  behavior    (women  w/  20  cats)     • Bad  behavior  (commit  crime)       What  considered  deviant=  can  vary  from  society  to  society     Ex:  divorce=  legal  in  US,  illegal  in  Philippines       Typically  repeating  an  offence=  can  label  you  as  deviant       Deviant  requirements     1. Must  be  committing  a  deviant  act     2. Must  be  stigmatized  by  society     Social  control     • Techniques  and  strategies  employed  for  preventing  deviant  human  behavior   in  any  society     • Parents,  peer  groups.  Companies,  govt     • (fam/  job=  restricts  way  you  behave/  dress,  etc)     • sanctions   o penalties/  rewards  for  conduct  concerning  a  social  norm     o death  penalty=  ultimate  form  of  sanction     o subject  of  controversy  centered  on  effectiveness  of  this  sanction  as   social  control       conformity  and  obedience     • milgram  experiment     o experimenter  instructed  ppl  to  administer  increasingly  painful   electric  shocks  to  a  subject     o experiment  was  rigged     o want  to  see  what  ppl  will  do  when  told  by  a  higher  power     • conformity   o going  along  w/  peers  who  have  no  special  right  to  direct  behavior     • obedience     o compliance  w/  higher  authorities  in  a  hierarchical  structure     o (police  officer,  president,  etc  à  anyone  w/  higher  power  than  you)       informal  vs  formal  social  control     • informal   o used  casually  to  enforce  norms     o smile,  laugh,  raise  eyebrow,  ridicule     o done  through  ordinary  ppl  (peers,  neighbors,  etc)     • formal     o carried  out  by  authorized  agents     o informal  social  control  can  undermine  formal  social  control,   encouraging  ppl  to  violate  social  norms       social  functions  of  deviance     1. unifies  the  group  (same  team,  etc)     2. diffuses  tension  (break  down  issue)     3. provide  jobs  (holds  jobs)     4. promotes  social  change  (  want  to  change  what  don’t  like)       agents  of  social  control       deviance  in  mass  media     • the  culture  of  feat-­‐  glassner     o why  are  we  afraid  of  violent  crime  when  it’s  statistically  minuscule?   o Media=  gives  attention  to  crime,  distorts  ppl’s  perception  of  crime     § Bc  it  highlights  only  certain  things     Medicalization  of  deviance     • Deviant  behavior=  often  classified  as  medical  disorder   • These  disorders=  vary  from  time  to  time,  place  to  place     o Ex:  IED,  hysteria,  leprosy   • Pretty  much  everyone  experiences  symptoms  of  mental  disorder         Social  explanations  of  deviance     • Functionalist     o Deviance=  defines  our  moral  boundaries     • Conflict     o Social,  political  or  material  inequalities  of  a  social  group   • Symbolic  interactionism     o Deviance=  occurs  bc  an  act  is  labeled/  stigmatized  as  such   o (deviant  bc  society  said  it  is)       what  is  crime?   • Crime   o Behavior  that  violates  criminal  law     o Punished  by  a  fine,  jail  term  or  other  (-­‐)  sanctions     o Ex:  killing  someone,  speeding,  etc       Social  functions  of  crime     • Clarifies  social  boundaries     • Promotes  change  and  reform     • Strengthens  social  cohesion  (ex:  neighborhood  watch)       Sociological  explanations  of  crime     • Functionalist     o Responding  to  social  and  economic  conditions  in  society     • Conflict     o Power,  race,  class  and  gender  inequalities  contribute  to  criminal/   delinquent  behavior     • Symbolic  interactionism   o Criminal  behavior  =  LEARNED  through  interaction  and  socialization   with  others       Biological  explinations  of  crime       Typologies   • Cesare  lobroso:  19  cent  Italian  physicist     o Atavit  (ppl  born  w/  large  amounts  of  hair  )  =  born  criminals  (bc  they   look  diff)     § Not  valid     William  sheldon  (physician)     • Mesomorphs     o Muscular,  aggressive  and  assertive     o Sheldon  said  they’re  more  likely  to  be  criminals     • Endomorphs   o Fat,  soft,  round,  extroverted     • Ectomorphs     o Thin,  wiry,  sensitive  and  introverted       Psychological  explanations  of  crime     • Focus  on  indiv  characteristics   • Ppl  w/  lower  IQ=  commit  more  crimes  than  ppl  w/  higher  IQ     • Validy  of  iq  tests=  have  come  under  scrutiny  bc  maybe  taught  same  thing  w/   diff  name  (multiplication  or  times  table—both  mean  same  thing)       Crime  as  a  social  problem     • More  property  crime  than  violent  crimes     • Official  statistics   • National  incident  based  reporting  system  (NIBRS)     o CRIME  STATS=  NOT  ACCURATE  bc  not  all  crimes  are  reported     o Leading  source  of  info  on  crime     o Produced  yearly  by  the  FBI     o Tracks  3  categories  of  reported  crime     § Violent  crime     § Property  crime     § Other  offenses     • National  crime  victimization  survey   o Probe  frequency  of  unreported  crime     o Asking  how  many  times  they  didn’t  report  a  crime       Crime:  a  sociological  approach     6  TYPES  OF  CRIME  differentiated  by  sociologists     1. Victimless     2. Professional     3. Organized     4. White-­‐collar  and  technology-­‐based     5. Hate  crimes     6. Transnational  crime       Victimless  crimes     • Willing  exchange  among  adults  of  widely  desired,  but  illegal,  goods  and   services       Professional  crime     • Committed  by  a  professional  criminal     o Person  who  pursues  crime  as  day  to  day  occupation       Organized  crime     • Group  that  regulates  relations  between  various  criminal  enterprises  involved   in  illegal  activities     • Dominates  world  of  illegal  business  just  as  large  corporations  dominate   conventional  businesses     • Serves  as  means  of  upward  mobility  for  groups  of  ppl  struggling  to  escape   poverty     White  collar  and  technology  based     • White  collar  crime     o Illegal  acts  committed  in  the  course  of  business  activities     • Computer  crime     o Use  of  high  technology  to  carry  out  embezzlement  or  electronic  fraud     • Corporate  crime     o Any  act  by  a  corporation  that  is  punishable  by  the  govt       Hate  crime     • Offender=  motivated  to  choose  a  victim  based  on  religion,  ethnic  group,   national  origin  or  sexual  orientation     • Evidence=  shows  that  hatred  prompted  offender  to  commit  the  crime     • In  2011,  official  reports  of  more  that  1700  hate  crimes  and  biased  motivated   incidents     • Most  reported  hate  crimes     o Race     o Religion   o Sexual  orientation   o Ethnicity     o Disability       Transnational  crime     • Crime  that  occurs  across  multiple  national  borders     o Bankruptcy  and  insurance  fraud     o Corruption/  briber  of  public  officials     o Hijacking,  illegal  drug  trades/money  transfers/  sales  of  firearms     o Trafficking,  theft,  terrorism     o Sea  piracy     Rape     • About  2/3  assaults=  committed  by  someone  victim  knows   o 38%  of  rapists=  friend/  acquaintance     • 44%  victims=  under  18     o 80%  =  under  30     • 54%  of  sexual  assaults=  not  reported  to  police     o 97%  of  rapists  will  never  spend  a  day  in  jail     • every  2  mins,  someone  in  US  =  sexually  assaulted     o 200,000+  victims  of  sexual  assault  yearly       crime:  a  sociological  approach     • crime  data  reported  in  US  based  on  index  crimes   • violent  crimes=  crimes  against  people/  property     o murder     o rape     o robbery     o assault   o burglary     o theft     o motor  vehicle  theft     o arson       crime  statistic   • crime  index=  disproportionately  devoted  to  property  crimes   • only  track  crimes  reported  to  law  enforcement  agencies     • victimization  surveys   o surveys  of  ordinary  ppl  ,  not  police  officers,  to  determine  whether   they  have  been  victims  of  crime       understanding  crime  statistics     • crime  trends   o public  regards  crime  as  major  social  prob,  yet  rate  of  crime  being   reported  in  2012  was  comparable  to  what  it  was  in  1963   o changes  in  public  policy,  public  health,  technology,  and  demographics   may  explain     • feminist   o portion  of  major  crimes  committed  by  women  has  increased     • international  crime  rates     o violent  crimes=  much  more  common  in  US  that  western  Europe  in   1980’s  and  1990’s     o England,  Italy,  Australia  and  new  Zealand=  higher  rates  of  car  theft   than  US     o Rapid  rise  in  homicide  rates  in  developing  countries  that  supply  drugs   to  industrialized  countries       More  violent  crimes  than  property  crime     Victimization  rates=  peaked  in  1981  (more  than  3x  as  high  as  2009)       Who  commits  crimes?   • Ppl  from  lower  socioeconomic  backgrounds=  more  likely  to  be  arrested  for   violent  and  property  crimes   • Ppl  from  upper  class=  generally  commit  white-­‐collar  or  elite  crimes     • Low  income  African  Americas=  overrepresented  in  arrest  data     • Men=  more  likely  to  be  arrested  than  women     • Teens  and  young  adults=  most  likely  to  be  arrested  for  serious  crimes   (homicide,  rape  and  robbery)       Agent  of  social  control     Criminal  justice  system     • Police   o Most  visible  link     • Courts     o Determine  guilt/  innocence     o How  are  most  criminal  cases  resolved?   • Punishment  and  prisons   o Retribution,  social  protection,  rehabilitation  and  deterrence       Can  crime  be  solved?   • Functionalist/  conservative     o Community  policy  can  help     • Conflict/  liberal     o Must  reduce  power  differentialà  solve  prob     • Interactionist   o Teach  ppl  importance  of  law  abiding  behavior    


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